In early medieval Europe, the use of the drum for military purposes did not begin until the crusades. (p. 19)  The European armies first encountered them used by the Islamic military forces, who used primarily their traditional kettledrums, and found that the sound would particularly affect the Crusader's horses, who had not previously encountered them. By the early 13th century the Crusaders used them also.
Ancient Fife and Drum Corps, as well as modern drum corps have been used by early modern armies for signalling and ceremonies, occasionally played by drummer boys in conflicts such as the American Civil War.
Over a period of time, Snare drums, as well as timpani, have been adopted into civilian classical and popular music.
- John Norris, Marching to the Drums: A History of Military Drums and Drummers. Stround, Gloucestershire : Spellmount, 2012. ISBN 978-0752468792
- David Nicolle, Medieval Warfare Source Book. London 1995-6.
- http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/archive/wardrums.html University of Minnesota on war drums
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