In early medieval Europe, the use of the drum for military purposes did not begin until the crusades. (p. 19)  The European armies first encountered them used by the Islamic military forces, who used primarily their traditional kettledrums, and found that the sound would particularly affect the Crusader's horses, who had not previously encountered them. By the early 13th century the Crusaders used them also.
Ancient Fife and Drum Corps, as well as modern drum corps have been used by early modern armies for signalling and ceremonies, occasionally played by drummer boys in conflicts such as the American Civil War.
Over a period of time, Snare drums, as well as timpani, have been adopted into civilian classical and popular music.
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- John Norris, Marching to the Drums: A History of Military Drums and Drummers. Stround, Gloucestershire : Spellmount, 2012. ISBN 978-0752468792
- David Nicolle, Medieval Warfare Source Book. London 1995-6.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-04-13. Retrieved 2012-10-31.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) University of Minnesota on war drums
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-10-31.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Grammaticas, Damian (10 May 2012). "China bangs the war drum over South China Sea". Retrieved 12 October 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- Ltd, Market Oracle. "Ron Paul on Washington's War Drums for Syria :: The Market Oracle ::". www.marketoracle.co.uk. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- Jones, Terry (6 December 2011). "War drums are beating for Iran. But who's playing them? - Terry Jones". the Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
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