Military history of Canada during World War II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Let's Go Canada! by Henri Eveleigh 1939–1945

The military history of Canada during the Second World War[1] begins with the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. While the Canadian Armed Forces were eventually active in nearly every theatre of war, most combat was centred in Italy,[2] Northwestern Europe,[3] and the North Atlantic. Over the course of the war, more than 1.1 million Canadians served in the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, and in forces across the Commonwealth. More than 44,000 lost their lives[4] and 54,000 were wounded.[5] The financial cost was $21.8 billion between 1939 and 1950.[6] By the end of the war Canada had the world's fourth largest air force,[7] and fifth largest navy.[8] The Canadian Merchant Navy completed over 25,000 voyages across the Atlantic,[9] 130,000 Allied pilots were trained in Canada in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. On D-Day, 6 June 1944 the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division landed on "Juno" beach in Normandy, in conjunction with allied forces. The Second World War had significant cultural, political and economic effects on Canada, including the conscription crisis in 1944 which affected unity between francophones and anglophones. The war effort strengthened the Canadian economy and furthered Canada's global position.[10]

Contents

Declaration of war[edit]

Prime Minister Mackenzie King's request to King George VI for approval that war be declared against Germany in His Majesty's name, 10 September 1939.

At the outbreak of the First World War, Canada was a quasi-independent Dominion of the British Empire and automatically went to war alongside the United Kingdom, albeit with full autonomy to decide the form and extent of its involvement. However, the 1931 Statute of Westminster transformed Canada into a fully sovereign state, theoretically co-equal with Britain and the other Dominions of the British Commonwealth. Despite this, some commentators at the time suggested that Canada was still bound by Britain's declaration of war because it had been made in the name of their common monarch, but the Canadian prime minister William Lyon Mackenzie King repeatedly declared that "Parliament will decide".[11][12]:2

As late as 1936 King had told Parliament "Our country is being drawn into international situations to a degree that I myself think is alarming."[12]:2 Both the government and the public remained reluctant to participate in a European war, in part because of the memories of the Conscription Crisis of 1917 that divided French and English Canada. Both King and opposition leader Robert James Manion stated their opposition to conscripting troops for overseas service in March 1939. Nonetheless, King had not changed his view of 1923 that Canada would participate in a war by the Empire whether or not the United States did. By August 1939 his cabinet, including French Canadians, was united for war in a way that it probably would not have been during the Munich Crisis, although both cabinet members and the country based their support in part on expecting that Canada's participation would be "limited".[12]:5–8

It had been clear that Canada would elect to participate in the war before the invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. Four days after the United Kingdom declared war on 3 September 1939, Parliament was called in special session and both King and Manion stated their support for Canada following Britain, but did not declare war immediately, partly to show that Canada was joining out of her own initiative and was not obligated to go to war. Unlike 1914 when war came as a surprise, the government had prepared various measures for price controls, rationing, and censorship, and the War Measures Act of 1914 was re-invoked.[13] After two days of debate, the House of Commons approved an Address in Reply to the Speech from the Throne on 9 September 1939 giving authority to declare war to King's government. A small group of Quebec legislators attempted to amend the bill, and CCF party leader J. S. Woodsworth stated that some of his party opposed it. Woodsworth was the only Member of Parliament to vote against the bill and it thus passed by near-acclamation.[14][15] The Senate also passed the bill that day. The Cabinet drafted a proclamation of war that night, which Governor-General Lord Tweedsmuir signed on 10 September.[16] King George VI approved Canada's declaration of war with Germany on Sept. 10.[17] Canada later also declared war on Italy (11 June 1940), Japan (7 December 1941), and other Axis powers, enshrining the principle that the Statute of Westminster conferred these sovereign powers to Canada.

Outbreak of war[edit]

World War II poster from Canada

Though Canada was the oldest Dominion in the British Commonwealth, it was, for the most part, reluctant to enter the war. Canada, with a population somewhere between 11 and 12 million, eventually raised very substantial armed forces. Around 10% of the entire population of Canada joined the army, with only a small portion conscripted. After the long struggle of the Great Depression of the 1930s, the challenges of the Second World War accelerated Canada's ongoing transformation into a modern urban and industrialized nation.

Canada informally followed the British Ten Year Rule that reduced defence spending even after Britain abandoned it in 1932. Having suffered from nearly 20 years of neglect, Canada's armed forces were small, poorly equipped, and for the most part unprepared for war in 1939. King's government began increasing spending in 1936, but the increase was unpopular. The government had to describe it as primarily for defending Canada, with an overseas war "a secondary responsibility of this country, though possibly one requiring much greater ultimate effort." The Munich Crisis of 1938 caused annual spending to almost double. Nonetheless, in March 1939 the Permanent Active Militia (or Permanent Force (PF), Canada's full-time army) had only 4,169 officers and men while the Non-Permanent Active Militia (Canada's reserve force) numbered 51,418 at the end of 1938, mostly armed with weapons from 1918. In March 1939 the Royal Canadian Navy had 309 officers and 2967 naval ratings, and the Royal Canadian Air Force had 360 officers and 2797 airmen.[12]:2–5

Under Secretary of State for External Affairs Oscar D. Skelton stated the government's war policy. Among its highlights:

  • Consult with Britain and France, and "equally important, discreet consultation with Washington".
  • Prioritize Canadian defence, especially the Pacific coast.
  • Possibly aid Newfoundland and the West Indies.
  • The RCAF should be the first to serve overseas.
  • Canada can "most effective[ly]" serve its allies by providing munitions, raw materials, and food.[12]:9

King's cabinet approved this policy on 24 August 1939, and in September disapproved of the proposal by the Chiefs of Staff to create two army divisions for overseas service, in part due to cost. His "moderate" war strategy soon demonstrated its national and bilingual support in two elections. When Premier of Quebec Maurice Duplessis called an election on an anti-war platform, Adélard Godbout's Liberals won a majority on 26 October 1939. When the Legislative Assembly of Ontario passed a resolution criticizing the government for not fighting the war "in the vigorous manner the people of Canada desire to see", King dissolved the federal parliament and, in the resulting election on 26 March 1940, his Liberals won the largest majority in history.[12]:9–11

At the outbreak of war, Canada's commitment to the war in Europe was limited by government to one division, and one division in reserve for home defence. Nevertheless, the eventual size of the Canadian armed forces greatly exceeded those envisioned in the pre-war period's so-called mobilization "schemes". Over the course of the war, the army enlisted 730,000; the air force 260,000; and the navy 115,000 personnel. In addition, thousands of Canadians served in the Royal Air Force. Approximately half of Canada's army and three-quarters of its air-force personnel never left the country, compared to the overseas deployment of approximately three-quarters of the forces of Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. By war's end, however, 1.1 million men and women had served in uniform for Canada. The Navy grew from only a few ships in 1939 to over 400 ships, including three aircraft carriers and two cruisers. This maritime effort helped keep the shipping lanes open across the Atlantic throughout the war.

In part, this reflected Mackenzie King's policy of "limited liability" and the labour requirements of Canada's industrial war effort. But it also reflected the objective circumstances of the war. With France defeated and occupied, there was no Second World War equivalent of the Great War's Western Front until the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Moreover, the manpower requirements of the North Africa and Mediterranean theatres were comparatively small and readily met by British and other British Empire/Commonwealth forces.

Manufacturing, production and mining[edit]

Canada's wartime motor vehicle production constituted 20% of the combined total production of Canada, the US, and the UK.[12]:167 The nation had become one of the world's leading automobile manufacturers in the 1920s, owing to the presence of branch-plants of American automakers in Ontario. In 1938, Canada's automotive industry ranked fourth in the world in the output of passenger car and trucks, even though a large part of its productive capacity remained idle because of the Depression. During the war, this industry was put to good use, building all manner of war material, and most particularly wheeled vehicles, of which Canada became the second largest (next to the United States) producer during the war. Canada's output of nearly 800,000 trucks, for instance, exceeded the combined total truck production of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Rivals Ford and General Motors of Canada pooled their engineering design teams to produce a standardized vehicle amenable to mass production, the Canadian Military Pattern (CMP) truck, which served throughout the British Commonwealth. Approximately half of the British Army's transport requirements were supplied from Canadian manufacturers. The British Official History argues that the production of soft-skinned trucks, including the CMP truck class, was Canada's most important contribution to Allied victory.[18]

Canada also produced its own medium tank, the Ram. Though it was unsuitable for combat employment, many were used for training, and the 1st Canadian Armoured Carrier Regiment used modified Rams as armoured personnel carriers in North-West Europe.[19] In addition 1,390 Canadian-built Valentine tanks were shipped to the Soviet Union. Approximately 14,000 aircraft, including Lancaster and Mosquito bombers, were built in Canada. In addition, by the end of 1944, Canadian shipyards had launched naval ships, such as destroyers, frigates, corvettes, and some 345 merchant vessels. But perhaps no Canadian contribution to the Allied war effort was so vital as that made by the metals industries: half of Allied aluminum and ninety percent of Allied nickel was supplied by Canadian sources during the war.

Mobilization and deployment[edit]

The Wait for Me, Daddy photo of the BC Regiment (DCOR), marching in New Westminster, 1940

While the response to war was initially intended to be limited, resources were mobilized quickly. The Convoy HX-1 departed Halifax just six days after the nation declared war, escorted by HMCS St. Laurent and HMCS Saguenay.[20] The 1st Canadian Infantry Division arrived in Britain on 1 January 1940.[21] By 13 June 1940, the 1st Battalion of The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment was deployed to France in an attempt to secure the southern flank of the British Expeditionary Force in Belgium. By the time the battalion arrived, the British and allies were cut off at Dunkirk, Paris had fallen, and after penetrating 200 km inland, the battalion returned to Brest and then to Britain.

Apart from the Dieppe Raid in August 1942, the frustrated Canadian Army fought no significant engagement in the European theatre of operations until the invasion of Sicily in the summer of 1943. With the Sicily Campaign, the Canadians had the opportunity to enter combat and later were among the first to enter Rome.

Canada was the only country of the Americas to be actively involved in the war[22] prior to the Attack on Pearl Harbor.

Canadian support for the war was mobilized through a propaganda campaign, including If Day, a staged 'Nazi' invasion of Winnipeg which generated more than $3 million in war bonds.

Veterans Guard of Canada[edit]

As with the Home Guard, the Veterans Guard of Canada was initially formed in the early days of the Second World War as a defence force in case of an attack on Canadian soil. Composed largely of First World War veterans it included, at its peak, 37 Active and Reserve companies with 451 officers and 9,806 other ranks. Over 17,000 veterans served in the force over the course of the war. Active companies served full-time in Canada as well as overseas, including a General Duty Company attached to Canadian Military Headquarters in London, England, No. 33 Coy. in the Bahamas, No. 34 Coy. in British Guiana and Newfoundland, and a smaller group dispatched to India. The Veterans Guard were involved in a three-day prisoner of war uprising in 1942, known as the Battle of Bowmanville. Along with its home defence role, the Veterans Guard assumed responsibility for guarding internment camps from the Canadian Provost Corps, which helped release younger Canadians for service overseas. The Guards were disbanded in 1947. [23]

Early campaigns[edit]

Pilots of No. 1 Squadron RCAF in Prestwick, Scotland, 30 October 1940.
Canadian Bren gunner
Ben Weider lies prone with his rifle in 1942.
Soldiers of Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry firing a Vickers machine gun during a training exercise, Eastbourne, England, 3 December 1942
General Bernard Montgomery, commander of the British Eighth Army, addresses men of the 11th Canadian Tank Regiment near Lentini, Sicily, July 1943.

Although it regularly consulted with Canada, Britain was essentially in charge of both countries' war plans during the first nine months of the war. Neither nation seriously planned for Canada's own defence; Canada's training, production, and equipment emphasized combat in Europe. Its primary role was to train pilots from throughout the Empire with the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, which the British proposed on 26 September 1939, and supply food and raw materials, not send hundreds of thousands of troops overseas as it had done in World War I.[24][25]

It is possible that Britain did not want Canada to send troops overseas at all. The Canadian government agreed, because doing so might result in the need for conscription, and it did not want a recurrence of the problem with French Canadians that caused the 1917 crisis. Public opinion did cause King to send the 1st Canadian Infantry Division in late 1939, possibly against British wishes, but it is possible that had the air training proposal arrived ten days earlier no Canadian troops would have left North America that year. Canada fully cooperated with Britain otherwise, devoting 90% of the manpower of the small Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) to the air training plan;[24][25] a force that had trained 125 pilots annually when the war began now produced 1,460 airmen every four weeks under the plan.[12]:252

In 1937 the two nations had agreed that any Canadian military equipment manufactured in Canada would use British designs. While this reasonably assumed that its troops would presumably always fight with Britain so the two forces should share equipment, it also resulted in Canada being dependent on components from a source across the Atlantic. Canadian manufacturing methods and tooling used American, not British designs, so implementing the plan would have meant complete changes to Canadian factories. Once war began, however, British companies refused Canadians its designs and Britain was uninterested in Canadian military equipment production.[24] (When Canada suggested in early 1940 that its factories could replace British equipment given to the 1st Canadian Division, Britain replied that Canada might provide regimental badges.) While Britain gave Canada priority over the United States for purchases, Canada had very little military production capacity in 1939 and Britain had a shortage of Canadian dollars.[12]:31,494 As late as 12 June 1940, King's government and the Canadian Manufacturers' Association asked the British and French governments to end their "small experimental orders" and "make known at the earliest moment their pressing needs of munitions and supplies", as "Canadian plants might be utilized to a far greater extent as a source of supply".[26]

This situation began to change on 24 May 1940, during the Battle for France, when Britain told Canada that it could no longer provide equipment. 48 hours later, Britain asked Canada for equipment. On 28 May seven Canadian destroyers sailed to the English Channel, leaving only two French submarines to defend the nation's Atlantic coast. Canada also sent 50 to 60 million rounds of small arms ammunition and 75,000 Ross rifles, leaving itself with a shortage. The air training plan's first graduates were intended to become instructors for future students, but they were sent to Europe immediately because of the danger to Britain. The end of British equipment deliveries threatened the training plan, and King had to ask president Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States for aircraft and engines by stating that they would help defend North America.[24][12]:35–36

Between the collapse of France in June 1940 and the German invasion of the USSR in June 1941, Canada supplied Britain with urgently needed food, weapons, and war materials by naval convoys and airlifts, as well as pilots and planes who fought in the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. During the Battle of Britain between 88 and 112 Canadian pilots served in the RAF,[27] most had come to Britain on their own initiative. For political necessity an "all Canadian" squadron was formed under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan at the start of the war and the Squadron served in the Battle of France. They were later joined by No. 1 Squadron RCAF in June 1940 during the Battle for Britain and they were in "the thick" of fighting in August, by the end of the battle in October 1940, 23 Canadian pilots had been killed.[28] If the planned German invasion of Britain had taken place in 1941, units of the formation later known as I Canadian Corps were already deployed between the English Channel and London to meet them. As the fall of France grew imminent Britain looked to Canada to rapidly provide additional troops to strategic locations in North America, the Atlantic and Caribbean. Following the Canadian destroyer already on station from 1939, Canada provided troops from May 1940 to assist in the defence of the West Indies with several companies serving throughout the war in Bermuda, Jamaica, the Bahamas and British Guiana.[12]

After France's surrender Britain told Canada that a German invasion of North America was not impossible, and that Canadians needed to plan accordingly. From June 1940 Canada viewed defending itself as important as aiding Britain, perhaps slightly more so. Canadian troops were sent to the defence of the colony of Newfoundland, on Canada's east coast, the closest point in North America to Germany. Fearing the loss of a land link to the British Isles, Canada was requested to also occupy Iceland, which it did from June 1940 to the spring of 1941, following the initial British invasion.[12] Canada also produced military equipment using American methods and tooling. Cost was no longer an issue; on 24 June King's government presented the first $1 billion budget in Canadian history. It included $700 million in war expenses compared to $126 million in the 1939–1940 fiscal year; however, due to the war, the overall economy was the strongest in Canadian history. With opposition support the National Resources Mobilization Act began conscription. Drafted soldiers were for use only in North America unless they volunteered, avoiding the issue that caused the 1917 crisis. (When Mayor of Montreal Camilien Houde nonetheless opposed conscription in August 1940, he was arrested and sent to an internment camp.)[24][12]:32–33

The United States government also feared the consequences to North America of a German victory in Europe. Because of the Monroe Doctrine the American military had long considered any foreign attack on Canada as the same as attacking the United States. American isolationists who criticized Roosevelt administration aid to Europe could not criticize helping Canada,[24][29] which a survey of Americans in the summer of 1940 found that 81% supported defending.[30] The isolationist Chicago Tribune advocating a military alliance on 19 June surprised and pleased Canada.[29] Through King, the United States asked the United Kingdom to disperse the Royal Navy around the Empire so that the Germans could not control it. On 16 August 1940, King met with Roosevelt at the border town of Ogdensburg, New York. Through the Ogdensburg Agreement, they agreed to create the Permanent Joint Board on Defence, an organization that would plan joint defence of both countries and would continue to exist after the war. In the fall of 1940 a British defeat seemed so likely the joint board agreed to give the United States control of the Canadian military if Germany won in Europe. By the spring of 1941, as the military situation improved, Canada refused to accept American control of its forces if and when the United States entered the war.[31]

Canada was the primary location of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, the largest air force training program in history. 131,553 air force personnel, including 49,808 pilots, were trained at airbases in Canada from October 1940 to March 1945.[32] More than half of the BCAT graduates were Canadians who went on to serve with the RCAF and Royal Air Force (RAF). One out of the six RAF Bomber Command groups flying in Europe was Canadian.

Squadrons of the RCAF and individual Canadian pilots flying with the British RAF fought with distinction in Spitfire and Hurricane fighters during the Battle of Britain. By 1 January 1943, there were enough RCAF bombers and crews in Britain to form No. 6 Group, one of eight bomber groups within RAF Bomber Command.

Early in the war, Japanese troops invaded the Aleutian Islands. Canadian air force planes flew anti-submarine patrols against the Japanese while on land, Canadian troops were deployed side by side with American troops against the Japanese. Owing to circumstances, Canadians troops were only once sent into combat during the Aleutian campaign during the invasion of the island of Kiska. However, the Japanese had already withdrawn their forces at that point.

The Defence of Hong Kong[edit]

Canadian Troops Arriving in Hong Kong.

In Autumn 1941, the British government accepted an offer by the Canadian Government to send two infantry battalions and a brigade headquarters (1,975 personnel) to reinforce British, Indian and Hong Kong personnel garrisoned at Hong Kong. It was known as "C Force" and arrived in Hong Kong in mid-November 1941, but did not have all of its equipment they were initially positioned on south side of the Island to counter any amphibious landing. On December 8, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese began their attack on Hong Kong with a force 4 times bigger than the Allied garrison. Canadian soldiers were called upon to counterattack the Japanese assault and saw their first combat against them on December 11, however after bitter fighting allied forces surrendered on December 25, 1941. "C Force" lost 290 personnel during the battle and a further 267 subsequently perished in Japanese prisoner of war camps.

Newfoundland[edit]

When war was declared, Britain expected Canada to take responsibility for defending British North America.[12] In 1939, L. E. Emerson was the Commissioner of Defence for Newfoundland. Winston Churchill instructed Emerson to cooperate with Canada and comply with a "friendly invasion" as he encouraged Mackenzie King to advise the occupation of Newfoundland by the king as monarch of Canada. By March 1942, Commissioner Emerson had restructured official organizations, such as The Aircraft Detection Corps Newfoundland, and integrated them into Canadian units, like The Canadian Aircraft Identity Corps.

The British Army mustered two units in Newfoundland for overseas service: The 59th Field Artillery and the 166th Field Artillery. The 59th served in northern Europe, the 166th served in Italy and North Africa. The Royal Newfoundland Regiment was also mustered, but was never deployed overseas. No. 125 (Newfoundland) Squadron R.A.F. served in England and Wales and provided support during D-Day: the squadron was disbanded on 20 November 1945.[33]

Several Canadian regiments were garrisoned in Newfoundland during the Second World War: the most famous regiment was The Royal Rifles of Canada who were stationed at Cape Spear before being dispatched to British Hong Kong; In July 1941, The Prince Edward Island Highlanders arrived to replace them; In 1941 and 1942, The Lincoln & Welland Regiment was assigned to Gander Airport and then St. John's.

The Canadian Army built a concrete fort at Cape Spear with several large guns to deter German naval raids. Other forts were built overlooking St. John's Harbour; magazines and bunkers were cut into the South Side Hills and torpedo nets were draped across the harbour mouth. Cannons were erected at Bell Island to protect the merchant navy from submarine attacks and guns were mounted at Rigolette to protect Goose Bay.

All Canadian soldiers assigned to Newfoundland from 1939 to 1945 received a silver clasp to their Canadian Volunteer Service Medal for overseas service. Because Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia had all issued their own volunteer service medals, the Newfoundland government minted its own volunteer service medal in 1978. The Newfoundland Volunteer War Service Medal was awarded only to Newfoundlanders who served overseas in the Commonwealth Forces but had not received a volunteer service medal. The medal is bronze: on its obverse is a crown and a caribou; on its reverse is Britannia and two lions.

Naval warfare[edit]

Battle of the Atlantic[edit]

The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest ongoing battle in World War II. Once Britain declared war on Germany, Canada quickly followed, entering the war on 10 September 1939, as they had a vested interest in sustaining Britain.[34]:56

Canadian security relied on British success in this war, along with maintaining national security, politically speaking, some felt it was Canada’s duty to assist her allies. For example, the Canadian prime minister Mackenzie King had been utterly convinced that it was Canada’s "Self-evident national duty" to "back Britain".[34]:38

Once World War II had erupted in 1939, Canada had a small navy. In 1939 Canada had seven warships. Once entering the war, Canada needed a naval reformation in order to keep up with and aid the British. On the outbreak of the war Canada had roughly 3,500 men supporting the RCN. In September 1940 "the RCN grew to 10,000 men".[34]:134

The Canadian government agencies also played a major role in the patterns of warfare in the Atlantic. The Canadian Navies Division operated a network of naval control of shipping agents in the neutral United States from 1939 to 1941.[clarification needed] These agents managed the shipping movements of British shipping in the United States, and also managed the growing United States Navy systems in regards to basic trade movements. Special publications on trade matters were supplied to the United States Navy from Ottawa in 1941, and by the time of Pearl Harbor American port directors were working with Ottawa as a team. Ottawa’s job of studying trade movements and keeping track of intelligence was so effective and crucial that they were given the task of controlling shipping west of 40〫and north of the equator from December 1941 to July 1942, along with supplying the USN trade directorate with daily intelligence.[35]

Canada was also given the responsibility of covering two strategically key points in the Atlantic. The first is known as the "Mid-Atlantic Gap", located off the coast of Greenland. This gap was a very hostile point in the supply line which was very difficult to take control. With the use of Iceland as a refuelling point and Canada to the west, the gap was narrowed down to 300 nautical miles (560 km). "The Surface gap was closed by the Royal Canadian Navy [in 1943]. This Newfoundland Escort Force started with 5 Canadian corvettes and two British destroyers [manned by Canadian seamen], followed by other Canadian-manned British destroyers when available".[36]

The second task Canada was given was to control the English Channel during Operation Overlord (The Normandy Invasion). "On the 6th of June, 50 RCN escorts were redeployed from the North Atlantic and Canadian Waters for invasion duties".[34]:144 Their tasks were to cover the flanks of the invasion to ensure submarine defence of the invasion fleet, also to provide distant patrols of the southern flank of the invasion area, and lastly to prevent submarine flotillas in the channel from gaining reinforcements. This invasion relied on the RCN to cover British and American flanks to ensure a successful landing on the beaches of Normandy.[34]:144

Canada saw enormous growth during World War II, going from a limited amount of warships to becoming the third largest navy in the world after the Axis powers were defeated and the role they played in aiding the USN in intelligence. Their primary role in protecting merchant ships from North America to Britain was ultimately successful, though that victory was shared with the major Allied powers. Throughout the war Canada had made 25,343 successful escort voyages delivering 164,783,921 tons of cargo.[34]:56 By the end of the war, German documents state that the Royal Canadian Navy was responsible for the loss of 52 submarines in the Atlantic. In return 59 Canadian merchant ships, and 24 warships were sunk during the battle of the Atlantic.[37]

"Canadians solved the problem of the Atlantic convoys." — British Admiral Sir Percy Noble

Southeast Asia and the Pacific[edit]

HMCS Uganda bombards Sukuma Airfield on Miyako Jima, 4 May 1945.

Canadian naval and special forces participated in various capacities in the Pacific and South-East Asia. The cruisers HMCS Ontario and HMCS Uganda, along with the armed merchant cruiser HMCS Prince Robert were assigned to the British Pacific Fleet. HMCS Uganda was in theatre at the time. HMCS Ontario arrived to support the post-war operations in the Philippines, Hong Kong and Japan. However the Uganda was the only Royal Canadian Navy ship to take an active part against the Japanese while serving with the British Pacific Fleet. Various Canadian special forces also served in Southeast Asia including the "Sea Reconnaissance Unit", a team of navy divers tasked to spearhead assaults across the rivers in Burma.[12][38]

Conditions aboard HMCS Uganda, compared to ships in the United States Navy, strict discipline, and the inability to display a separate Canadian identity, had contributed to poor morale and resentment amongst the crew. In an attempt to nip this in the bud and mindful of the change in Canadian government policy that henceforth only volunteers would serve overseas, the ship's commander, Captain Edmond Rollo Mainguy, invited crew members (before the official date) to register their unwillingness to serve overseas. Of the 907 crew members, 605 did so on 7 May 1945.[39][40]

This decision, which had legal impact, was relayed to Canada and thence to the British government. Reacting to the angry British response, the Canadians agreed to stay on station until replaced. This happened on 27 July 1945, when HMS Argonaut joined the British Pacific Fleet and Uganda departed for Esquimalt arriving on the day of the Japanese surrender.[39]

Attacks in Canadian waters and on the mainland[edit]

Axis U-boats operated in Canadian and Newfoundland waters throughout the war, sinking many naval and merchant vessels. Two significant attacks took place in 1942 when German U-boats attacked four allied ore carriers at Bell Island, Newfoundland. The carriers SS Saganaga and SS Lord Strathcona were sunk by U-513 on 5 September 1942, while SS Rosecastle and P.L.M 27 were sunk by U-518 on 2 November with the loss of 69 lives. When the submarine fired a torpedo at the loading pier, Bell Island became the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces in the Second World War. U-boats were also found in the St. Lawrence River; during the night of 14 October 1942, the Newfoundland Railway ferry, SS Caribou was torpedoed by German U-boat U-69 and sunk in the Cabot Strait with the loss of 137 lives. Both sides fought to outsmart each other and decide the fate of the merchant vessels in the Atlantic Ocean. Several U-boat wrecks have been found in Canadian waters, a few as far in as the Labrador River. The Canadian mainland was also attacked when the Japanese submarine I-26 shelled the Estevan Point lighthouse on Vancouver Island on 20 June 1942. Japanese fire balloons were also launched at Canada, some reaching British Columbia and the other western provinces.

Dieppe[edit]

An abandoned scout vehicle after the failed Dieppe Raid

There was pressure from the Canadian government to ensure that Canadian troops were put into action.[41] The Dieppe Raid (Operation Jubilee) of 19 August 1942, landed nearly 5,000 soldiers of the inexperienced Second Canadian Division and 1,000 British commandos on the coast of occupied France, in the only major combined forces assault on France prior to the Normandy invasion. While a large number of aircraft flew in support, naval gunfire was deliberately limited to avoid damage to the town and civilian casualties. As a result, the Canadian forces assaulted a heavily defended coast line with no supportive bombardment. Of the 6,086 men who made it ashore, 3,367 (60%) were killed, wounded, or captured.[42] The Royal Air Force failed to lure the Luftwaffe into open battle, and lost 106 aircraft (at least 32 to flak or accidents), compared to 48 lost by the Luftwaffe.[43] The Royal Navy lost 33 landing craft and one destroyer. Two Canadians received the Victoria Cross for actions at Dieppe: Lieutenant Colonel "Cec" Merritt of the South Saskatchewan Regiment and Honorary Captain John Foote, military chaplain of the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry.

The lessons learned at Dieppe became the textbook of "what not to do" in amphibious operations, and laid the framework for the later (Operation Torch) landings in North Africa and the Normandy landings in France. Most notably, Dieppe highlighted:

  1. the need for preliminary artillery support, including aerial bombardment;[44]
  2. the need for a sustained element of surprise;
  3. the need for proper intelligence concerning enemy fortifications;
  4. the avoidance of a direct frontal attack on a defended port city; and,
  5. the need for proper re-embarkation craft.[45]

The British developed a range of specialist armoured vehicles which allowed their engineers to perform many of their tasks protected by armour, most famously Hobart's Funnies. The major deficiencies in RAF ground support techniques led to the creation of a fully integrated Tactical Air Force to support major ground offensives.[46] Because the treads of most Churchill tanks were caught up in the shingle beaches of Dieppe, the Allies initiated pre-operation environmental intelligence collection, and devised appropriate vehicles to meet the challenges of future landing sites.[47] The raid also challenged the Allies' belief that the seizure of a major port would be essential in the creation of a second front. Their revised view was that the amount of damage sustained by bombardment in order to capture a port, would almost certainly render it useless. As a result, the decision was taken to construct prefabricated "Mulberry" harbours, and tow them to beaches as part of a large-scale invasion.[48]

Canadian forces in advancing from the Gustav Line to the Hitler Line, 1944.

Italy[edit]

While Canadians served at sea, in the air, and in small numbers attached to Allied formations and independently, the invasion of Sicily was the first full scale combat engagement by full Canadian divisions since World War I. Canadian soldiers went ashore in 1943 in the Allied invasions of Sicily and mainland Italy, then fought through the long Italian Campaign. During the course of the Allied campaign in Italy, over 25,000 Canadian soldiers became casualties of war.

The 1st Canadian Division and the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade took part in the Allied invasion of Sicily in Operation Husky, 10 July 1943 and also Operation Baytown, part of the Allied invasion of Italy on 3 September 1943. Canadian participation in the Sicily and Italy campaigns were made possible after the government decided to break up the First Canadian Army, sitting idle in Britain. Public pressure for Canadian troops to begin fighting forced a move before the awaited invasion of northwest Europe.[49] Troops fought on through the long and difficult Italian campaign until redeployed to the Western Front in February–March 1945 during Operation Goldflake. By this time the Canadian contribution to the Italian theatre had grown to include I Canadian Corps headquarters, the 1st Division, 5th Canadian (Armoured) Division and an independent armoured brigade. Three Victoria Crosses were awarded to Canadian Army troops in Italy; Captain Paul Triquet of the Royal 22e Régiment, Private Smokey Smith of The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada, and Major John Mahoney of The Westminster Regiment (Motor). Notable battles in Italy included the Moro River Campaign, the Battle of Ortona and the battles to break the Hitler Line, later fighting on the Gothic Line.

Conscription Crisis and Quebec[edit]

Montreal Daily Star announce the end of World War II. 7 May 1945

The political astuteness of Mackenzie King, combined with much greater military sensitivity to Quebec volunteers resulted in a conscription crisis that was minor compared to that of the First World War. French-Canadian volunteers were front and centre, in their own units, throughout the war, highlighted by actions at Dieppe (Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal), Italy (Royal 22e Régiment), the Normandy beaches (Le Régiment de la Chaudière), the thrust into the Netherlands (Le Régiment de Maisonneuve), and in the bombing campaign over Germany (No. 425 Squadron RCAF).

D-Day and Normandy[edit]

Canadians on Juno Beach, June 1944.
Canadian tank crew of a Sherman tank south of Vaucelles

On 6 June 1944, the 3rd Canadian Division landed on Juno Beach in the Battle of Normandy and sustained heavy casualties in their first hour of attack. By the end of D-Day, the Canadians had penetrated deeper into France than either the British or the American troops at their landing sites, overcoming stronger resistance than the other beachheads except Omaha Beach. In the first month of the Normandy campaign, Canadian, British and Polish troops were opposed by some of the strongest and best trained German troops in the theatre, including the 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend and the Panzer-Lehr-Division.

Several costly operations were mounted by the Canadians to fight a path to the pivotal city of Caen and then south towards Falaise, part of the Allied attempt to liberate Paris. By the time the First Canadian Army linked up with U.S. forces, closing the Falaise pocket, the destruction of the German Army in Normandy was nearly complete. Three Victoria Crosses were earned by Canadians in Northwest Europe; Major David Currie of the South Alberta Regiment received the Victoria Cross for his actions at Saint-Lambert, Captain Frederick Tilston of the Essex Scottish and Sergeant Aubrey Cosens of the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada were rewarded for their service in the Rhineland fighting in 1945, the latter posthumously. 50,000 Canadians fought in D-Day.

The Low Countries[edit]

One of the most important Canadian contributions was the Battle of the Scheldt, involving II Canadian Corps, under Lieutenant-General Guy Simonds, under command of the First Canadian Army, commanded by General Henry Duncan Graham Crerar. The Corps included the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division and 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division. Although nominally a Canadian formation, II Canadian Corps contained the Polish 1st Armoured Division, with the 1st Belgian Infantry Brigade, and the Royal Netherlands Motorized Infantry Brigade. The British 51st Infantry Division was attached to the Corps.

Buffalo amphibious vehicles taking troops of the First Canadian Army across the Scheldt in the Netherlands, September 1944.

The British had liberated Antwerp, but that city's port could not be used until the Germans were driven from the heavily fortified Scheldt estuary.[50] In several weeks of heavy fighting in the fall of 1944, the Canadians succeeded in defeating the Germans in this region. The Canadians then turned east and played a central role in the liberation of the Netherlands. In 1944–45, the First Canadian Army was responsible for liberating much of the Netherlands from German occupation. Canada lost 7,600 troops in these operations.[51] This day is celebrated on May 5th commemorating the surrender of the German Commander-in-chief Johannes Blaskowitz to Lieutenant-General Charles Foulkes, commanding I Canadian Corps, consisting of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division, 5th Canadian (Armoured) Division and the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade, together with supporting units. The Corps had returned from fighting on the Italian Front in February 1945 as part of Operation Goldflake.

The arrival of Canadian troops came at a time of crisis for the Netherlands: the "hunger winter". Canadian troops gave their rations to children, and blankets to civilians. Bombers were used to drop food packets to hungry civilians in German-occupied Rotterdam, Amsterdam, and the Hague in "Operation Manna", with permission from Germany, so long as the bombers did not fly above 200 feet.[52]

The royal family of the Netherlands had moved to Ottawa until the Netherlands were liberated, and Princess Margriet was born during this Canadian exile. Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, the only child of then-Queen Wilhelmina and heir to the throne, sought refuge in Canada with her two daughters, Beatrix and Irene, during the war. During Princess Juliana's stay in Canada, preparations were made for the birth of her third child. To ensure the Dutch citizenship of this royal baby, the Canadian Parliament passed a special law declaring Princess Juliana's suite at the Ottawa Civic Hospital "extraterritorial". On 19 January 1943, Princess Margriet was born. The day after Princess Margriet's birth, the Dutch flag was flown on the Peace Tower. This was the only time a foreign flag has waved atop Canada's Parliament Buildings.

Many Thanks spelt-out on the ground in tulips after Operation Manna over the then-occupied Netherlands

In 1945, the people of the Netherlands sent 100,000 hand-picked tulip bulbs as a post-war gift for the role played by Canadian soldiers in the liberation of the Netherlands. These tulips were planted on Parliament Hill and along the Queen Elizabeth Driveway. Princess Juliana was so pleased at the prominence given to the gift that in 1946, she decided to send a personal gift of 20,000 tulip bulbs to show her gratitude for the hospitality received in Ottawa. The gift was part of a lifelong bequest. Since then, tulips have proliferated in Ottawa as a symbol of peace, freedom and international friendship. Every year, Canada's capital receives 10,000 bulbs from the Dutch royal family, celebrated in the Canadian Tulip Festival. In 1995, the Netherlands donated an additional 5,000 bulbs for Parliament Hill, 1,000 for each provincial and territorial capital and 1,000 for Ste. Anne's hospital in Saint-Anne-de-Bellevue, Que. (the only remaining federal hospital in Canada, administered by Veterans Affairs Canada)[51] It is thought that the Netherlands and the Dutch people have had an enduring affection for Canada and Canadians long after the war, lingering into the present day.[52][53]

Weapons of the Canadian Armed Forces[edit]

Information thanks to; List of military equipment of the Canadian Army during World War II

Small arms[edit]

Pistols (manual and semi-automatic)[edit]

Type Base model Maker Rounds Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
Colt Model 1911 & Model 1911A1 Colt Model 1911 Various 7 .45 ACP (11.43×23mm) 1914 2700000 1.1 kg Semi-automatic. Canada purchased some in World War I and more in World War II.
Smith & Wesson Triple Lock 2nd model Smith & Wesson Triple Lock Smith & Wesson 6 .44 Special (10.9×29mm) 1917 ? 1.08 kg Revolver, low-cost version
Pistol No. 1 MK. I & No 2 Mk 1 Browning Hi-Power John Inglis and Company 13 9×19mm Parabellum 1944 ? 1.08 kg Semi-automatic, Belgian blueprints. Standard issue sidearm of the Canadian Armed Forces as of 2017
S&W Victory Model (S&W Military&Police) Smith & Wesson Model 10 Smith & Wesson 6 .38-200 (9.2×19.7mm) 1942 570000 0.91 kg Revolver
Webley .455 Mk VI Webley Revolver Webley & Scott 6 .455 Webley (11.5×19.6mm) 1915 ? 1.1 kg Revolver, obsolete, secondary sidearm
Enfield No. 2 Mk 1 Enfield Revolver Royal Small Arms Factory, Albion Motors, others 6 .38-200 (9.2×19.7mm) 1932 ? 0.765 kg Revolver, secondary sidearm
Colt Police Positive Colt New Police Revolver Colt's Manufacturing Company 6 .38 S&W (9.2×19.7mm) 1907 ? 0.74 kg Revolver, secondary sidearm

Automatic pistols and submachine guns[edit]

Type Base model Maker Rounds Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
Thompson submachine gun 1928, 1928A1, M1 & M1A1 Thompson submachine gun Savage Arms 30, 20, or 50 .45 ACP (11.43×23mm) 1942 1500000 4.9 kg Drum Magazines were not issued as they could not fit into the magazine pouches of the 1937 pattern webbing
Sten Mk II - Mk V Sten Long Branch Arsenal & British Factories 32 9×19mm Parabellum 1941 3700000 3.2 kg Low-cost, required a longer magazine pouch on the '37 pattern webbing for it's long magazines
M50 Reising M50 Reising H & R Firearms 20 .45 ACP (11.43×23mm) 1941 100000 3.1 kg Bad reliability in field. Used very rarely

Rifles[edit]

(see canadiansoldiers.com site for detailed data)

Type Base model Maker Rounds Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
No. 1 Mk. III & No. 1 MK. III* Lee–Enfield Various 10 .303 British Mk VII(7.9×56.4mm) ? 4 kg Used since midway through the First World War. Used as the standard issue rifle until 1943, where it was replaced with the No.4 MK. I*
Number 4 Mk.I, No.4 MK. I* Lee-Enfield Various 10 .303 British Mk VII(7.9×56.4mm) 1943 ? 4 kg Main Canadian rifle of World War II
Pattern 14 Enfield Winchester, Remington 5 .303 British Mk VII(7.9×56.4mm) 1914 1235298 4.25 kg Training only
M1917 Enfield Springfield Armory, others 6 .30-06 Springfield (7.62×63mm) 1917 2193429 4.17 kg Limited use in Canadian homeland
M1 Garand M1 Garand Springfield Armory, others 8 .30-06 Springfield

(7.62x63mm)

1944 ? 4.31 kg The Americans gave the Canadian army enough Garands to equip a brigade sized force. Semi-automatic rifle

Grenades and grenade launchers[edit]

This list is grossly incomplete, listing a small fraction of approximately 30 grenade varieties used by Canadians during World War II.

Grenade Launcher Introduced Type Weight, g comments
No. 36 M MK. I Cup discharger for No. 1 rifle 1915 fragmentation 765 Most common hand grenade during World War II
No 68 AT Grenade 1940 HEAT 894 52 mm RHA penetration
No. 69 grenade No 1942 high-explosive 383 Bakelite case
No. 73 grenade No 1940 high-explosive 2000 51mm RHA penetration, used mostly for demolition
No. 74 Sticky bomb No 1940 HESH ~900 Low-cost
No. 75 AT Hawkins Mine No 1942 high-explosive 1020 Most common Canadian AT weapon & demolition charge during World War II
No. 82 Gammon No 1943 universal 1140 Soft body

Flamethrowers[edit]

Flamethrower, Portable, No 2 "Ack-Pack"

Machine guns[edit]

Infantry and dual-purpose machine guns[edit]

Type Production Fire rate, RPM Effective range Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
Bren Gun (various marks) Inglis, Toronto 510 600 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) 1939 599000 10.35 kg Replacement for Lewis gun
Lewis gun (standard model; U.S. version; Automatic Ship's Lewis Gun) 550 800 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) or .30/06 1917 ? 13 kg Occasional AA gun, limited production during World War II
Vickers machine gun (various marks and models) 475 2000 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) 1912 ? 23 kg Vickers Gas Operated was standard flexible MG on aircraft early in World War II.
M2HB Browning machine gun 550 1800 .50 BMG (12.7×99mm) 1921 3000000 23 kg Used until present (2017)
M1919A4 500 1400 .30/06 1919 5000000 14 kg In 1970s converted to 7.62 NATO. commonly mounted on vehicles

Artillery[edit]

Infantry mortars[edit]

Model Caliber Max. range From Produced Weight, kg Fire Rate, RPM Comment
2 inch Mortar (standard and airborne lightweight models) 50.8mm 460 1937 ? 4.8 8 Elevated by hand
M19 mortar 60mm 1790 1942 ? 9.3 8 Received after M19 was rejected by US military
3 inch Mortar Mk. II 81.2mm 1463 1931 ? 50.8 15 Crew of 3
M2 4.2 inch mortar 106.7mm 4023 1943 ? 151 5 Prepared for chemical bombs delivery, never used

Heavy mortars & rocket launchers[edit]

Land Mattress C-21 UCM -

Field artillery[edit]

Model Caliber Max. range From Produced Weight, kg Fire Rate, RPM Comment
QF 18-pounder 83.8mm 5966 1904 10469 1282 4 Obsolete at start of World War II
QF 25-pounder 87.6mm 12253 1940 13000 1633 7 Main Canadian World War II field gun/howitzer
BL 4.5 inch Medium Field Gun 114mm 18000 1938 ? 6190 2.5 Built in UK by Canadian companies
BL 5.5 inch Medium Gun 140mm 16550 1941 ? 5900 2 Received from UK
BL 60-pounder 127mm 15500 1905 1756 4400 2 In Canadian service until start of World War II

Anti-tank guns[edit]

Model Caliber Penetration 1 Penetration 2 Muzzle speed Max. range From Produced Weight, kg Fire Rate, RPM Comment
QF 2-pdr 40 mm 37 mm @ 457 m 27 mm @ 914 m 792 1000 1936 12000 814 22
QF 6-pdr 57 mm 88 mm @ 100 m - 884 1600 1941 ? 1140 ? Produced in both UK and Canada
QF 17-pdr 76.2 mm 130 mm @ 500 m 119 mm @ 1000 m 880 1800 1942 ? 3050 ? Eventually mounted in the turret of the Sherman VC and IC Firefly

Anti-tank weapons (Besides anti-tank guns)[edit]

Bangalore torpedo (not a grenade or anti-tank)

Anti-aircraft guns[edit]

Model Caliber Eff. alt. From Produced Weight, kg Fire Rate, RPM Comment
QF 3.7-inch AA gun Mk1 94mm 7300 1941 ? 9317 15
Bofors 40 mm gun L/60 40mm 4100 1932 2250 1981 120 Still in service (2014)
Polsten-Oerlikon gun 20mm 1000 1944 57 4000 450 Low-cost

Vehicles of the Canadian Armed Forces[edit]

Canada have produced a wide variety of combat vehicles during World War II domestically, but all primary fighting vehicles there imported because of manufacturing quality concerns.

Tankettes[edit]

Carden Loyd Mk IV tankette - not used in combat

Tanks[edit]

Model From Armor max.

(mm)

Primary armament Secondary armament Weight

( t)

Power

(kW)

Range

(km)

#

Produced[note 1]

Crew Comments
Stuart tank 1941 51 37mm Gun M3 L/24 3×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 14.7 190 119 25000 4 Imported
Churchill tank Mk 1 1941 102 QF 2-pdr 2 × 7.92 mm Besa machine gun 38.5 261 90 7368 4 Given to Canada for Dieppe Raid
Churchill Oke 1942 102 QF-2-pdr

Ronson flamethrower

2 × 7.92 mm Besa machine gun 38.5 261 90 3 4 All destroyed in Dieppe Raid
Centaur IV 1944 76 Ordnance QF 95 mm howitzer 2×7.92mm Besa machine gun 28 450 270 114 5 Support tank
Sherman I, III, V 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 1 × 12.7mm Browning M2HB and 2 × 7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193 ? 5 Lend-Lease
Sherman Firefly IC & VC 1943 89 QF 17-pdr 12.7mm Browning M2HB and 7.8mm Browning M1919A4 33 298 193 2,150 4 American chassis with British 17 pounder gun
Sherman V DD 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 1×12.7mm Browning M2HB and 2×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193 ? 5 M4 with flotation screen and propeller
Ram Badger flame tank 1941 87 QF 6-pdr Wasp II flamethrower and 2×7.62mm machine guns 29 298 232 ? 5 Later versions had flamethrower replacing main gun, Ram tanks were not used in combat
Sherman Badger flame tank 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 Wasp IIC flamethrower and 2×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193 ? 5 Replacement for Ram Badger flame tank
Grizzly I 1943 75 75 mm M3 L/40 gun 2×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 29.91 298 193 188 5 Canadian-built modified M4 Sherman, chassis used for Sexton self-propelled gun
M10 tank destroyer 1942 57 76.2 mm Gun M7 1×12.7mm Browning M2HB 29.6 276 300 6706 5 Tank destroyer
Achilles 1944 57.2 QF 17-pdr (76mm) 1×12.7mm Browning M2HB 29.6 276 300 1,100 5 Tank destroyer M10 with British gun
Archer 1943 60 QF 17-pdr (76mm) 1× .303 Bren LMG 15 145 230 655 4 Tank destroyer
Light Tank Mk VIA 1936 14 Vickers .50 machine gun (12.7mm) 1× .303 Vickers machine gun 4.93 67 210 1,682 3 Not used in combat
Ram tank I and II 1941 87 QF 6-pdr 3×7.62mm machine guns 29 298 232 2000 5 In field conversions saw combat in Europe, based on M3 hull.
Valentine Mk.VI 1941 65 QF 2-pdr (40mm) 1×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 16.5 104 130 1420 3 Canadian-built, provided to USSR
Matilda II infantry tank 1937 78 QF 2-pdr (40mm) 1×7.92 mm Besa machine gun 25 72 257 2987 4 Not used in combat
M3 Lee/Grant 1941 51 75mm M2/M3 gun (2-4)×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 27 300 193 6258 ? Not used in combat

Self-propelled guns[edit]

Tank-based[edit]

Name Chassis Gun Developed Manufactured Role
Sexton M3 Lee QF 25-pdr (87.6 mm) Mk II 1942 2150 Self-propelled gun
M7 Priest M3 Lee M101 howitzer (105mm) 1942 4443 Self-propelled gun
Crusader III, AA Mk.I Crusader Bofors 40 mm gun 1944 ? Self-propelled AA gun
Mk.II/III Crusader Oerlikon 20mm gun 1944 ? Self-propelled AA gun
Skink anti-aircraft tank M4 Sherman Polsten (20mm) 1944 3 Self-propelled AA gun

Other[edit]

M3 75mm Gun Motor Carriage - M3 Half-track equipped with the M1A1 75 mm gun

Armored cars[edit]

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Daimler Dingo  United Kingdom
Daimler Mk. I Armoured Car  United Kingdom
Humber Mk. I Scout Car  United Kingdom
Humber Mk. IV Armoured Car  United Kingdom
M3 Scout Car  United States
Morris Light Reconnaissance Car  United Kingdom
Staghound Armoured Car  United States
Fox Armoured Car  Canada Humber Armoured Car design modified for Canadian production
Otter Light Reconnaissance Car  Canada Similar to Humber Light Reconnaissance Car
Lynx Scout Car  Canada Similar to Dingo

Engineering and command[edit]

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Ram ARV Mk I and II  Canada
Valentine Bridgelayer  United Kingdom
Sherman V ARV  United States

Tractors & prime movers[edit]

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Kangaroo (armoured personnel carrier)  Canada
Loyd Carrier  United Kingdom
Wasp  United Kingdom A Universal Carrier with flame-thrower equipment
T-16 Carrier  United States Lend-Lease based upon Universal Carrier, used to tow artillery
Windsor Carrier  Canada Variation of Universal Carrier
M3A1 Half-track Various,  United States
M5 Half-track International Harvester,  United States Similar to M3 produced for Lend-Lease
M9A1 Half-track International Harvester,  United States Variant of M5
M14 Half-track International Harvester,  United States M3 Half-track with anti-aircraft turret
M5 "Recce"  United States A turretless M5 light tank used for reconnaissance

Miscellaneous vehicles[edit]

Chevrolet C8 CMP
Chevrolet C8 CMP rear quarter view
Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Willys MB, Ford GP, Ford GPW & Ford GPA  United States
Morris C8  United Kingdom
AEC Matador  United Kingdom
Diamond T 4-Ton lorry  United Kingdom
F-8 Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-15 Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-15 Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-30 Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-60S, F-60L, F-60H, F-60T Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-GT (Field Artillery Tractor) Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C-8, C-8A Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C-15, C-15A Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C15TA Armoured Truck Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C-30, C-60S, C-60L, C-60X Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C-GT (Field Artillery Tractor) Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck

Aircraft of the Canadian Armed Forces[edit]

It should be noted here that although the Canadian government purchased and built thousands of military aircraft for use by the RCAF Home War Establishment (RCAF Eastern Air Command and RCAF Western Air Command) and the Canadian-based units of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, under the provisions of the plan Canada was to provide the training aircraft and facilities and a very large number of Canadian airmen would be committed to go overseas to fight in Article XV squadrons formed in the Great Britain and known as 400 series squadrons of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Forty-four of these squadrons were formed and most under this agreement were equipped by the British largely from their stocks and that is why many of the types of aircraft flown in combat in great numbers (such as the North American Mustang, Boulton Paul Defiant, Bristol Beaufighter, hundreds of Supermarine Spitfires of various marks, British built Avro Lancasters, Vickers Wellington, Hawker Typhoon, Short Sunderland, etc.) by most of the RCAF squadrons engaged in the fighting are missing from the following list altogether (or the quantities actually used by the RCAF overseas are not included in the numbers given below).

Fighters[edit]

Name Place of

Manufacture

Primary

Role(s)

Service

Period

#

Used

Armstrong Whitworth Siskin UK Fighter 1926–1940 12
Hawker Hurricane UK/Canada Fighter 1939–1948 502
Grumman Goblin US/Canada Fighter 1940–1942 15
North American NA-44 US Fighter/utility 1940–1944 1
Supermarine Spitfire UK Fighter 1940–1950 8
Curtiss Kittyhawk US Fighter 1941–1946 134
Curtiss Warhawk US Fighter 1942–1943 9
Hawker Sea Hurricane UK Fighter 1942–1943 1
Curtiss Tomahawk US Fighter 1943–1946 4
de Havilland Mosquito UK/Canada Bomber/fighter-bomber 1943–1951 444
Gloster Meteor UK Fighter 1945–1955 4

Attack aircraft[edit]

Name Place of

Manufacture

Primary

Role(s)

Service

Period

#

Used

Blackburn Shark Mk.II & III UK Torpedo bomber 1936–1944 26
Bristol Beaufort UK Torpedo bomber/strike/minelayer 1941–1944 15
Brewster Bermuda US Dive bomber 1943–1946 3
Fairey Swordfish Mk.II & III UK Torpedo bomber 1943–1947 105
Fairey Albacore UK Torpedo bomber 1943–1949 6

Bombers[edit]

Name 1968 CF

designator

Place of

Manufacture

Primary

Role(s)

Service

Period

#

Used

Lockheed Hudson n/a US Bomber 1939–1948 247
Hawker Hart n/a UK Bomber 1937–1943 3
Douglas Digby n/a US Bomber 1939–1946 20
Fairey Battle n/a UK Bomber/trainer/target tug 1939–1946 740
Bristol Fairchild Bolingbroke n/a Canada Bomber/trainer 1939–1947 626
Handley Page Harrow n/a UK Bomber/transport 1940–1941 2
Northrop Nomad n/a US Light bomber 1940–1945 32
Avro Anson n/a UK/Canada Medium bomber/trainer 1940–1947 4413
Handley Page Hampden n/a UK Bomber 1941–1944 96
Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV n/a UK Medium bomber/gunnery trainer 1941–1945 1
Douglas Boston n/a US Bomber 1941–1945 3
Avro Lancaster n/a UK/Canada Heavy bomber 1944–1965 229
Martin Baltimore n/a US Bomber 1942–1942 1
North American Mitchell n/a US Bomber 1942–1963 164
Boeing Fortress Mk.II n/a US Long-range patrol bomber 1943–1946 6
Handley Page Halifax n/a UK Heavy bomber 1944–1947

Reconnaissance aircraft[edit]

Name 1968 CF

Designator

Place of

Manufacture

Primary

Role(s)

Service

Period

#

Used

Canadian Vickers Vedette n/a Canada Patrol flying boat 1925–1941 44
Canadian Vickers Vancouver n/a Canada Patrol flying boat 1929–1940 6
Armstrong Whitworth Atlas n/a UK Spotting/liaison 1927–1942 16
Westland Wapiti n/a UK Spotting/liaison 1930–1944 25
Hawker Audax n/a UK Spotting/liaison 1933–1943 6
Supermarine Stranraer n/a Canada Patrol seaplane 1938–1946 40
Westland Lysander n/a UK/Canada Spotting/liaison/target tug 1939–1946 329
Consolidated Catalina/Canso n/a US/Canada Maritime patrol seaplane 1941–1962 254
Lockheed Ventura n/a US Maritime patrol/target tug 1942–1947 28
Supermarine Walrus n/a UK Fleet spotter/utility amphibian 1943–1947 8
Consolidated Liberator n/a US Maritime patrol 1943–1948 14

Trainers[edit]

Name 1968 CF

designator

Place of

manufacture

Primary

role(s)

Service

period

#

used

De Havilland Moth n/a UK trainer 1928–1948 89
Curtiss-Reid Rambler n/a Canada trainer/utility 1929–1954 9
Hawker Tomtit n/a UK trainer 1930–1943 2
Avro Tutor (Avro 621) n/a UK trainer 1931–1945 7
Fleet Fawn n/a Canada elementary trainer 1931–1947 51
Avro Prefect (Avro 626) n/a UK trainer 1937–1945 12
de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth n/a Canada trainer 1938–1948 1410
Airspeed Oxford n/a UK trainer (navigation, bombing & radio) 1939–1947 819
Fleet Finch n/a Canada elementary trainer 1939–1947 431
North American Harvard n/a US/Canada advanced trainer 1939–1968 2156
North American NA-26 n/a US trainer 1940–1942 1
de Havilland Menasco Moth n/a Canada trainer 1941–1947 136
Cessna Crane n/a US trainer 1941–1949 826
Fleet Fort n/a Canada intermediate/radio trainer 1941–1945 101
Hawker Hind n/a UK instructional airframe 1942–1943 4
Stearman Kaydet (Model 75) n/a US elementary trainer 1942–1943 301
General Aircraft Hotspur Mk.II n/a UK training glider 1942–1945 22
Fairchild Cornell n/a US elementary trainer 1942–1948 1555

Transports[edit]

Name 1968 CF

designator

Place of

manufacture

Primary

role(s)

Service

period

#

used

Consolidated Courier n/a US utility 1928–1941 3
Fairchild 71, 71B & 71C n/a US/Canada transport 1929–1942 23
Bellanca CH-300 Pacemaker n/a US transport 1929–1944 13
Fairchild 51 & 51A n/a US/Canada transport 1930–1946 9
de Havilland Puss Moth n/a UK transport 1931–1944 19
Fairchild Super 71 n/a Canada transport 1936–1940 2
Northrop Delta n/a Canada transport/patrol 1936–1945 20
Grumman Goose n/a US utility amphibian 1938–1956 31
Barkley-Grow T8P-1 n/a US transport 1939–1941 1
Lockheed Electra n/a US transport 1939–1946 15
Boeing 247D n/a US transport 1940–1942 8
de Havilland Dragonfly n/a UK transport 1940–1945 6
Fairchild Argus n/a US utility 1940–1945 2
Lockheed Electra Junior n/a US transport 1940–1945 10
Lockheed Model 212 n/a US transport 1940–1946 1
North American Yale n/a US intermediate/radio trainer 1940–1946 119
Stinson Voyager (Model 105) n/a US utility 1940–1946 25
Noorduyn Norseman n/a Canada utility transport 1940–1957 100
de Havilland Fox Moth n/a Canada transport 1941–1945 1
Beechcraft Expeditor CT-128 US utility/trainer 1941–1972 394
Waco AQC-6 n/a US utility 1942–1942 1
Fleet Freighter n/a Canada transport 1942–1944 2
Curtiss Seamew n/a US utility floatplane 1943–1944 82
Lockheed Lodestar n/a US transport 1943–1948 18
Douglas Dakota CC-129 US transport 1943–1990 169
Waco Hadrian Mk.II n/a US transport glider 1944–1949 32

Radars[edit]

  • Night Watchman (NW), 200-MHz, 1-kW prototype of SW radars (from 1940)
  • SW1C - surface-warning radar for merchant ships and frigates (from 1941)
  • SW2C - frequency changed to 215 MHz (1942)
  • SW3C - miniaturization to fit on torpedo boats, plan-position indicator (1943)
  • CD radar - coastal defense only (from 1942)
  • CDX radar - improvements and export to USSR (from 1943)
  • GL IIIC - mobile air search radar (from 1941)
  • Type 268 – 10 GHz submarine snorkel search radar (from 1944)
  • MEW/AS - 2.8 GHz, 300 kW submarine detection radar (from 1943)
  • MEW/HF - air search radar (from 1943)
  • 2 other unknown radar types used operationally
  • 18 radar types developed but never used

Uniforms, load bearing and protective equipment[edit]

Uniforms[edit]

Model/Type Period or years in use Manufacturer/origins
Canadian Pattern and British Pattern ww2  United Kingdom/  Canada
Khaki Drill Early 20th century- post ww2  United Kingdom
Battle Dress 1939-early 1970s  United Kingdom
Denison smock Used by the Airborne  United Kingdom

Load bearing equipment[edit]

Model/Type Period or Years in Use Manufacturer/Origins
1937 Pattern Web Equipment  United Kingdom
1942 Battle Jerkin  United Kingdom

Head dress[edit]

Model/Type Period or Years in Use Manufacturer/Origins
Glengarry ?-present  United Kingdom
Tam o'shanter ?-present  United Kingdom
Field Service Cap  United Kingdom
Beret ?-present  United Kingdom
Helmet, MK II 1916-1960  United Kingdom
Mk III Turtle helmet 1941-?  United Kingdom

Historiography and memory[edit]

Canada deployed trained historians to Canadian Military Headquarters in the United Kingdom during the war, and paid much attention to the chronicling of the conflict, not only in the words of the official historians of the Army Historical Section, but also through art and trained painters. The official history of the Canadian Army was undertaken after the war, with an interim draft published in 1948 and three volumes in the 1950s. This was in comparison to the First World War's official history, only 1 volume of which was completed by 1939, and the full text only released after a change in authors some 40 years after the fact. Official histories of the RCAF and RCN in the Second World War were also a long time coming, and the book Arms, Men and Government by Charles Stacey (one of the main contributors to the Army history) was published in the 1980s as an "official" history of the war policies of the Canadian government. The performance of Canadian forces in some battles have remained controversial, such as Hong Kong and Dieppe, and a variety of books have been written on them from various points of view. Serious historians - mainly scholars - emerged in the years after the Second World War, foremost Terry Copp (a scholar) and Denis Whitaker (a former soldier).[54]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Total manufacturered, not number used by Canadian forces

References[edit]

  1. ^ The official name of this conflict varies from country to country. In Canada, official historians refer to the conflict as "the Second World War".
  2. ^ Canadian War Museum "The Italian Campaign". Retrieved on: 5 August 2007.
  3. ^ Canadian War Museum "Liberating Northwest Europe". Retrieved on: 5 August 2007.
  4. ^ "Service Files of the Second World War - War Dead,1939-1947 - Library and Archives Canada". Retrieved on: 16 December 2015.
  5. ^ Canadian War Museum "Counting the Cost". Retrieved on: 5 August 2007.
  6. ^ "World War II". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  7. ^ Canadian Air Force Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, "World's Fourth Largest Air Force?"
  8. ^ World War – Willmott, H.P. et al.; Dorling Kindersley Limited, London, 2004, Page 168 Retrieved on: 17 May 2010.
  9. ^ Veterans Affairs Canada "The Historic Contribution of Canada's Merchant Navy". Retrieved on: 5 August 2007.
  10. ^ Stacey, C. "World War II: Cost and Significance". The Canadian Encyclopedia online (Historica). Revised by N. Hillmer. Retrieved on: 5 August 2007.
  11. ^ J.L. Granatstein, Globe and Mail, "Going to War? Parliament will decide."
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Stacey, C. P. (1970). Arms, Men and Government: The War Policies of Canada, 1939 – 1945 (PDF). The Queen's Printer by authority of the Minister of National Defence. 
  13. ^ Bishop, Charles (2 September 1939). "Wide System of Govt. Control and Regulation in Canada Is Anticipated". Ottawa Citizen. p. 4. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  14. ^ James Shaver Woodsworth, Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2016-03-29
  15. ^ Once Upon a Time, Canadians could be proud of Parliament, Globe and Mail, May 04, 2012. Retrieved 2016-03-29
  16. ^ Mears, F. C. (10 September 1939). "War Proclamation Issued after United Parliament Overwhelmingly Backs It". The Montreal Gazette. p. 1. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  17. ^ Donald Creighton, The Forked Road: Canada 1939-1957, McClelland and Stewart, 1976, p.2.
  18. ^ Hall, H. Duncan and Wrigley, C. C. Studies of Overseas Supply, a volume in the War Production Series directed by M. M. Postan, published as part of the History of the Second World War. United Kingdom Civil Series edited by Sir Keith Hancock. Her Majesty's Stationery Office and Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1956, pp. 51–52.
  19. ^ Tonner, Mark. The Kangaroo in Canadian Service, Service Publications, 2005. See also The Ram in Canadian Service Vol 1. and Vol 2., same publisher.
  20. ^ Byers, A.R., ed. (1986). The Canadians at War 1939–45. Westmount, QC: The Readers' Digest Association. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-88850-145-5. 
  21. ^ Byers, p.26
  22. ^ Murray, D. R. (May 1974). "Canada's First Diplomatic Missions in Latin America". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. 16 (2): 1953–1972. JSTOR 174735. 
  23. ^ http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/html/gl-ga/index-eng.asp?letter=V&page=1
  24. ^ a b c d e f Dean, Edgard Packard (October 1940). "Canada's New Defense Program". Foreign Affairs. 19 (1): 222–236. doi:10.2307/20029058. JSTOR 20029058. 
  25. ^ a b Douglas, W. A. B. (Spring 1975). "Why Does Canada Have Armed Forces?". International Journal. 30 (2): 259–283. doi:10.2307/40201224. JSTOR 40201224. 
  26. ^ "Industry Here Eager to Serve". The Montreal Gazette. 12 June 1940. p. 1. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  27. ^ "History". 24 June 2014. 
  28. ^ Bungay, Stephen, The Most Dangerous Enemy: A History of the Battle of Britain Aurum Press Ltd, 2009 ISBN 978-1845134815
  29. ^ a b Dziuban, Stanley W. (1959). "Chapter 1, Chautauqua to Ogdensburg". Military Relations Between the United States and Canada, 1939-1945. Washington DC: Center of Military History, United States Army. pp. 2–3,18. LCCN 59-60001. 
  30. ^ "What the U.S.A. Thinks". Life. 1940-07-29. p. 20. Retrieved November 10, 2011. 
  31. ^ "1939–1945: A World at War". Canada and the World – a History of Canadian Foreign Policy. Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Government of Canada. Retrieved 24 November 2011. 
  32. ^ "Categories of Air Crew Graduates October 1940 March 1945 – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. 11 April 2000. Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
  33. ^ "Sqn Histories 121-125_P". Rafweb.org. Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f Sarty, Roger (1998). Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic. Canada: Editions Art Global and the Department of National Defence. 
  35. ^ Milner, Marc (1990). "The Battle of the Atlantic". Journal of Strategic Studies. 13 (1): 45–66. doi:10.1080/01402399008437400. 
  36. ^ Van Der Vat, Dan (1988). The Atlantic Campaign. New York: Harper and row. p. 187. 
  37. ^ Lane, Tony (1993). "50th Anniversary". Battle of the Atlantic Official Souvenir Booklet. 83 (1). 
  38. ^ Veterans Affairs (21 Feb 2014). "The Burma Campaign". Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  39. ^ a b Chaplin-Thomas, Charmion (10 May 2006). "HMCS Uganda Votes". Maple Leaf. Retrieved 4 February 2010. 
  40. ^ Butler, Malcolm. "The Uganda". CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum. Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  41. ^ Thompson, Julian. "The Dieppe Raid." BBC History (World Wars in Depth series), 30 March 2011
  42. ^ Hamilton 1981, pp. 546–558.
  43. ^ Franks 1998, pp. 56–62.
  44. ^ Thompson, Julian. "The Dieppe Raid." BBC (World Wars in Depth series), 6 June 2010.
  45. ^ Maguire 1963, p. 190.
  46. ^ "RAF RAF History Timeline 1942." raf.mod.uk, 2012 [last update]. Retrieved: 21 July 2012.
  47. ^ Foot, M.R.D. "The Dieppe raid."History Today, August 1992. Retrieved: 29 November 2015.
  48. ^ Atkin 1980, p. 274.
  49. ^ Bercuson, David J. Maple Leaf against the Axis: Canada's Second World War. Toronto: Stoddart, 1995. p. 152.
  50. ^ "The Liberation of the Netherlands, 1944-1945". WarMuseums.ca. Canadian Museum of History. 
  51. ^ a b "Liberation of the Netherlands". Canada at War. April 12, 2007. 
  52. ^ a b Debora Van Brenk (April 30, 2010). "Canadian vets, Dutch bond endures". Canoe News. 
  53. ^ "Why Dutchies Love the Canadians". UnClogged in Amsterdam. June 21, 2013. 
  54. ^ Tim Cook, Clio's Warriors: Canadian Historians and the Writing of the World Wars (UBC Press, 2011).

Bibliography[edit]

Official histories[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Historiography[edit]

  • Cook, Tim. Clio's Warriors: Canadian Historians and the Writing of the World Wars (UBC Press, 2011).
  • Granatstein, J. L."'What is to be Done?' The Future of Canadian Second World War History" Canadian Military Journal (2011) 11#2. online

External links[edit]