International military intervention against ISIL
|International military intervention against ISIL|
|Part of the Syrian Civil War, War on Terror, Spillover of the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi Civil War (2014–present), Libyan Civil War (2014–present), Boko Haram insurgency, Insurgency in the North Caucasus, Moro conflict, and Sinai insurgency|
Top: Two U.S.Air Force F-15E Strike Eagle aircraft flying over northern Iraq.
Left: F-22 Raptor refueling before a strike in Syria.
Map of the current military situation in Libya
Map of the current military situation in Nigeria
Map of the current military situation in Sinai
Map of the current military situation in Yemen
Intervening in Syria and Iraq:
Intervening in Syria only:
|Commanders and leaders|
Donald Trump (from 2017)
Ahmed Gaid Salah
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (WIA) (Leader)
Radullan Sahiron (Co-Leader of Abu Sayyaf)
Abu Khayr al-Masri † (al-Qaeda deputy leader)
Abu Jaber (Leader of Tahrir al-Sham)
|Casualties and losses|
13,568 Iraqi and Syrian civilians killed by ISIL
3,300,000 Iraqi civilians displaced
In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the first half of 2014, and its universally-condemned executions, reported human rights abuses and the fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil War, many states began to intervene against it in both the Syrian Civil War and the Iraqi Civil War (2014–present). Later, there were also minor interventions by some states against ISIL-affiliated groups in Nigeria and Libya.
In mid-June 2014, Iran, according to American and British information, started flying drones over Iraq, and, according to Reuters, Iranian soldiers were in Iraq fighting ISIL. Simultaneously, the United States ordered a small number of troops to Iraq and started flying crewed aircraft over Iraq.
In July 2014, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Iran sent Sukhoi Su-25 aircraft to Iraq, and Hezbollah purportedly sent trainers and advisers to Iraq to monitor ISIL's movements. In August 2014, the US and Iran separately began a campaign of airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq. Since then, fourteen countries in a US-led coalition have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq and in Syria.
Since the airstrikes started, ISIL has been losing ground in both Iraq and Syria. There have been multiple accounts of civilian deaths from the airstrikes. In mid-2016, the US and Russia planned to begin coordinating their airstrikes, however, this coordination did not materialize that year.
As of December 2017, ISIL is estimated to control no territory in Iraq, and 5% of Syrian territory, after prolonged actions. On 9 December 2017, Iraq declared victory in the fight against ISIL and stated that the war in Iraq was over. Consequently, at the end of 2017, territorially ISIL was mainly defeated.
- 1 International coalitions against ISIL
- 2 Turkish intervention
- 3 Iranian intervention
- 4 Hezbollah intervention
- 5 US-led intervention in Iraq
- 5.1 Military aid to Kurds and Iraqis
- 5.2 Humanitarian efforts
- 5.3 U.S. military actions
- 5.4 Australian airstrikes
- 5.5 British airstrikes
- 5.6 Canadian airstrikes
- 5.7 Dutch airstrikes
- 5.8 French airstrikes
- 5.9 Jordanian airstrikes
- 5.10 Moroccan airstrikes
- 5.11 Turkish contributions
- 6 US-led intervention in Syria
- 7 Russian intervention
- 8 Intervention in Libya
- 9 U.S. intervention in Afghanistan
- 10 U.S. intervention in Cameroon
- 11 U.S. intervention in Yemen and Somalia
- 12 Casualties
- 13 Labeling
- 14 Involvement by country
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
International coalitions against ISIL
5 September 2014
On the margins of the 4/5 September 2014 NATO summit in Wales, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry on 5 September invited Ministers of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Australia, Turkey, Denmark and Italy, for a separate meeting in which he pressed them to support the fight against ISIL militarily and financially. Those nine countries agreed to do so by supporting anti-ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria with supplies and air support, according to a statement that day from Kerry and U.S. Secretary of Defense Hagel.
Establishment of Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR) in October 2014
On 17 October 2014, the Department of Defense formally established Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR) — ″in order to formalize ongoing military actions against the rising threat posed by ISIS in Iraq and Syria.″
3 December 2014
On 3 December 2014, at the NATO headquarters in Brussels, diplomats and foreign ministers from 59 countries gathered to plot a way forward against the threat of ISIL. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry told the gathering, that "defeating the ideology, the funding, the recruitment" of Daesh (ISIL) must be the primary focus of their discussion, more important than airstrikes and other military action.
The countries represented on 3 December were: the nine countries of the above-mentioned 5 September coalition in Wales (see above); the extra 18 countries of the 15 September France-led coalition in Paris (see below) except for China and Russia; and 33 additional countries: Albania, Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, New Zealand, Portugal, South Korea, Romania, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Sweden, Taiwan and Ukraine.
They styled themselves as the Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and agreed to a strategy that included:
- exposing ISIL's true nature;
- cutting off ISIL's financing and funding;
- supporting military operations.
On 15 September 2014, at the 'International Conference on Peace and Security in Iraq' hosted by the French President François Hollande in Paris, 26 countries were represented: the countries of a US-led coalition that on 5 September in Wales (see above) had agreed on a coalition against ISIL except Australia and Poland, and furthermore Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Belgium, China, Czech Republic, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia and Spain. They committed themselves to supporting the Iraqi government with military assistance in its fight against ISIL, and they reaffirmed their commitment to UNSC Resolution 2170 of 15 August (condemning all trade with ISIL and urging to prevent all financial donations and all payments of ransoms to ISIL), so reported the French government.
In retaliation for the November 2015 Paris attacks, the French Air Force significantly intensified airstrikes against ISIL targets in Syria, hitting among other targets the Syrian city of Raqqa, the de facto capital of ISIL.
At the end of September 2015, Russia, Iraq, Iran and Syria set up a 'joint information center' in Baghdad to "gather, process and analyse current information about the situation in the Middle East – primarily for fighting IS." On 30 September 2015, Russia began its air campaign on the side and in support of the Syrian government.
On 14 March 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced a partial withdrawal from Syrian territory, citing the success of the ongoing ceasefire and greater security of the Syrian government.
On 10 December 2017 Vladimir Putin ordered a similar withdrawal of Russian forces from Syria, stating that a complete withdrawal would be dependent on the ongoing situation.
Muslim states' coalition
On 14 December 2015, Saudi Deputy Crown Prince and Defense Minister Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud announced that 34 countries would join together in the fight against Muslim extremism, which he called a "disease." Based out of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the coalition includes Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Guinea, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Maldives, Mali, Malaysia, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Turkey, Togo, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
ISIL is suspected of involvement in or responsibility for terrorist attacks in Turkey in May 2013 in Reyhanlı and March 2014 on Turkish police, kidnapping 49 Turkish diplomats in June 2014, the 5 June 2015 Diyarbakır rally bombing and the 20 July 2015 Suruç bombing which killed 32 young activists. Until July 2015, the Turkish government attacked ISIL only once, in January 2014. In September 2014 Turkey joined a US-led coalition 'to fight ISIL'.
July 2015 special forces operation
On 23 July according to various Turkish news outlets, 60 elite Special Forces (ÖKK) operatives reportedly infiltrated Elbeyli-Ayyase village, 9 kilometers from the Syria-Turkey border in Syria, and took it back from ISIL militants. Turkish tanks shelled the village the same day of the ground operation. The operation reportedly lasted over an hour and killed over 100 ISIL militants, according to reports. The Turkish General Staff neither confirmed nor denied the special forces foray but did confirm shelling the village.
The same day, Turkey allowed the United States to use İncirlik and Diyarbakır air bases in southern Turkey for airstrikes on ISIL in Syria, and after an alleged ISIL attack on a Turkish border outpost in Kilis Province killing one Turkish soldier, the Turkish army shelled ISIL militants in Syria, killing one militant and destroying several ISIL vehicles.
On 24 July, an anonymous report appeared on a Turkish newspaper website stating that the United States had agreed with Turkey on a 'partial no-fly zone' in northern Syria.
In mid-June 2014, according to American and British sources, Iran sent Qasem Soleimani, commanding general of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps' Quds Force (IRGC-QF), to Iraq help the government organize against ISIL. Later that month Iran started flying drones over Iraq, and by August, according to sources like Reuters, Iranian soldiers were in Iraq fighting ISIL. One war correspondent suggested that Iran "joined the air war" against ISIL on 21 June.
In July, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Iran sent several Su-25 aircraft to Iraq, supported by Iranian/Iraqi ground crews trained in Iran. In early August, those Su-25s began combat against ISIL, according to Business Insider.
By September, according to Business Insider, Iranian Quds Force personnel were deployed to Samarra, Baghdad, Karbala, and the abandoned U.S. military post formerly known as Camp Speicher. At the end of November 2014, an Israeli website claimed to have seen Iranian F-4 Phantom II jet-fighters bombing ISIL in eastern Iraq; a claim the U.S. army verified.
In June 2014, Hezbollah reportedly set up a dedicated command center in Lebanon to monitor developments in Iraq. On 17 June, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah said that the party was "ready to sacrifice martyrs in Iraq five times more than what we sacrificed in Syria in order to protect shrines."
In July 2014, Hezbollah sent more technical trainers and advisers to Iraq, to monitor ISIL's movements, according to a Hezbollah commander. Shortly thereafter, Hezbollah commander Ibrahim al-Hajj was reported killed in action near Mosul.
An August Reuters story reported there were "dozens" of Hezbollah "battle-hardened veterans" in Iraq, while the Christian Science Monitor reported the party had deployed a 250-man unit "responsible for advising, training, and coordinating the Iraqi Shiite militias."
In February 2015, Nasrallah confirmed that he had sent troops to fight in Iraq.
In June 2015, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah claimed that ISIL and Nusra had taken a foothold in Lebanon and that fierce battles were raging between them and Hezbollah, as well as each other.
US-led intervention in Iraq
After having started flying crewed aircraft over Iraq and sending some troops in June, in August 2014 the US military began supplying Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga with weapons, dropping food for refugees fleeing from ISIL, and airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq.
On 9 August, speaking about U.S. airstrikes in Iraq, President Barack Obama said "this is going to be a long-term project." Since then, nine countries allied with the US have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq, and various countries have contributed military and humanitarian aid to Iraqi government and Iraqi Kurdish ground forces.
On 16–19 August, according to the U.S., Kurdish and Iraqi government forces, with the help of U.S. airstrikes, took back the Mosul Dam, the largest dam in Iraq. (For further wins and losses in Iraq against ISIL, see Iraq War (2014–present)). Obama announced on 10 September 2014 that the number of airstrikes in Iraq would increase and that he had dispatched 500 more US troops there.
Military aid to Kurds and Iraqis
On 5 August 2014, Zalmay Khalilzad, the former US ambassador to Iraq and the UN, wrote in the Washington Post that the United States is involved in "the direct supply of munitions to the Kurds and, with Baghdad's agreement, the shipment of some Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program weapons to the Kurds." The United States moved from indirectly supplying Kurdistan with small arms through the CIA to directly giving them weapons such as man-portable anti-tank systems.
In a coordinated effort led by the United States, many allied countries including NATO members and Middle Eastern partners have supplied or plan to supply Iraqi and/or Kurdish forces with heavy military equipment, small arms, ammunition, non-lethal military gear, and training support.
Building Partner Capacity (BPC)
The Building Partner Capacity (BPC) program is meant to help the Iraqi government to prepare forces for the counter-attack against ISIL and the regaining of its territory. According to the US Department of Defense, by May 2015 a dozen countries had committed themselves to the BPC program: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, United Kingdom and United States, and 6,500 Iraqi forces had been trained by BPC.
The United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, supported by international partners, launched a large humanitarian effort to support refugees stranded in northern Iraq. This included air-dropping tens of thousands of meals and thousands of gallons of drinking water to Yazidi refugees stranded in the Sinjar Mountains and threatened by advancing ISIL forces, between 7–14 August 2014, in what was later described as "the first mass air delivery of humanitarian cargo since the outbreak of violence in East Timor in 1999."
Thousands of Yazidis and other Iraqi civilians fled to the area following attacks on their villages and the town of Sinjar throughout late July and early August 2014.
Several human rights and observer organizations in the region reported that those who fled to the mountains were subjected to starvation, and lacked clean drinking water and medical care for several months as ISIL militants surrounded them. Hundreds of men, women, and children were abducted and killed.
In response to the immediate threat to the approximately 30,000 people trapped on the mountain, coalition aircraft commenced humanitarian aid drops. These air drops included basic supplies such as food, water, and shelter and were conducted at low flight levels by coalition transport aircraft under the threat of ISIL surface-to-air attacks.
In direct support of humanitarian aid drops, CF-18s provided top cover for a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) C-130 Hercules transport aircraft on 20 November, ensuring the transport crew was able to safely parachute supplies to waiting refugees below. Canadian fighter jets remained in close proximity to the transport aircraft to protect it from ISIL surface-to-air threats or attacks.
U.S. military actions
On 7 August, President Obama gave a live address describing the worsening conditions in Iraq and that the plight of the Yazidis particular had convinced him that U.S. military action was necessary to protect American lives, protect minority groups in Iraq, and to stop a possible ISIL advance on Erbil, the capital of the Kurdish Autonomous Region. On 8 August, the United States started to bomb ISIL targets in Iraq. By 10 August, assisted by these air attacks, Kurdish forces claimed to have recaptured the towns of Mahmour and Gweyr from Islamic State control. Additional Iraqi airstrikes conducted in Sinjar were reported to have killed 45 ISIL militants and injured an additional 60 militants. On 11 August, a spokesperson for The Pentagon said the airstrikes had slowed down ISIL's advance in northern Iraq, but were unlikely to degrade ISIL's capabilities or operations in other areas. Between 8 and 13 August, U.S. airstrikes and Kurdish ground forces enabled 35,000 to 45,000 of Yazidi refugees to escape or be evacuated from the Sinjar Mountains.
On 16 August, U.S. air power began a close air campaign aimed at supporting the advance of Kurdish fighters moving toward the Mosul Dam. Kurdish sources commented that it was the "heaviest US bombing of militant positions since the start of air strikes". Obama on 17 August defended this usage of U.S. Forces as support of the Iraqi and Kurdish fight in general against ISIL—which indeed went beyond Obama's reasoning for launching airstrikes on 7 August.
On 8 September, the Iraqi Army, with close air support from the U.S., retook the key Haditha Dam, and recaptured the town of Barwana, killing 15 ISIL fighters. ISIL responded with the public execution of David Haines. By the end of September 2014, the United States had conducted 240 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, as well as 1,300 tanker refueling missions, totaling 3,800 sorties by all types of aircraft. A tactical arrangement with Kurdish and Iraqi forces, and drone videos are being used to coordinate close air support without needing U.S. troops in ground combat.
On 19 December 2014, US General James Terry announced that the number of US airstrikes on ISIL had increased to 1,361.
On 25 December 2014, Hassan Saeed Al-Jabouri, the ISIL governor of Mosul, who was also known as Abu Taluut, was killed by a US-led Coalition airstrike in Mosul. It was also reported that the US planned to retake the city of Mosul in January 2015.
On 15 January 2015, it was reported that over 16,000 airstrikes had been carried out by the Coalition. The U.S. Air Force has carried out around 60 percent of all strikes. Among them, F-16s performed 41 percent of all sorties, followed by the F-15E at 37 percent, then the A-10 at 11 percent, the B-1 bomber at eight percent, and the F-22 at 3 percent. The remaining 40 percent has been carried out by the US Navy and allied nations.
On 21 January 2015, the US began coordinating airstrikes with a Kurdish launched offensive, to help them begin the planned operation to retake the city of Mosul.
On 21 July 2015, it was reported that nearly 44,000 sorties have flown since August 2014.
Throughout 2015, the vast majority of bombs and missiles launched by the US (approximately 22,000 of 23,000 total) were directed at targets in Iraq and Syria, according to the Council on Foreign Relations.
U.S. ground forces
In July, Obama announced that due to the continuing violence in Iraq and the growing influence of non-state organizations, such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the United States would be elevating its security commitment in the region. Approximately 800 U.S. troops secured American installations like the Embassy in Baghdad and the Consulate in Erbil as well as taking control of strategic locations like the Baghdad airport in cooperation with Iraqi troops.
U.S. forces also undertook a mission to "assess and to advise [Iraqi security forces] as they confront [ISIL] and the complex security situation on the ground." Reports from these American units about the capabilities of the Iraqi military have been consistently grim, viewing them as "compromised" by sectarian interests.
On 13 August 2014, the U.S. deployed another 130 military advisers to Northern Iraq and up to 20 U.S. Marines and special forces servicemen landed on Mount Sinjar from V-22 aircraft to coordinate the evacuation of Yazidi refugees joining British SAS already in the area.
On 3 September 2014, Obama announced increase of U.S. forces in Iraq to 1,213. On 10 September, Obama gave a speech reiterating that U.S. troops will not fight in combat, but about 500 more troops will be sent to Iraq to help train Iraqi forces.
In early November 2014, Obama announced that he would be doubling the U.S. ground presence inside Iraq to around 3,000 men. By early December 2014, the number of U.S. ground troops in Iraq had increased to 3,100.
On 9 December 2014, the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations authorized U.S. Military force against ISIL. However, it limits military force to three years, requires the administration to report to Congress every 60 days, and prohibits the deployment of U.S. combat troops, except in specific cases, such as those involving the rescue or protection of U.S. soldiers, or for intelligence operations.
During the early morning hours of 14 December 2014, U.S. ground forces allegedly clashed with ISIL alongside the Iraqi Army and Tribal Forces near the Ain al-Assad Airbase, west of Anbar, in an attempt to repel them from the base of which includes about 100 U.S. advisers in it, when ISIL attempted to overrun the base. According to a field commander of the Iraqi Army in Anbar province, said that "the U.S. force equipped with light and medium weapons, supported by F-18, was able to inflict casualties against fighters of ISIL organization, and forced them to retreat from the al-Dolab area, which lies 10 kilometers from Ain al-Assad base." Sheikh Mahmud Nimrawi, a prominent tribal leader in the region, added that "U.S. forces intervened because of ISIL started to come near the base, which they are stationed in so out of self-defense," he responded, welcoming the U.S. intervention, and saying "which I hope will not be the last." This was said to be the first encounter between the United States and the Islamic State, in four years. However, this claim has been stated to be "false" by The Pentagon.
In late February 2015, another 1,300 US soldiers were deployed to Iraq, increasing the number of US ground troops in Iraq to 4,400.
The late naming of Operation Inherent Resolve
Unlike their coalition partners, and unlike previous American combat operations, no name was initially given to the 2014 intervention against ISIL by the U.S. government. The decision to keep the conflict nameless drew considerable media criticism. U.S. Service members remain ineligible for Campaign Medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the continuing U.S. involvement in Iraq.
On 15 October 2014, the United States Central Command announced that the U.S.-led air campaign against ISIL in Iraq and Syria was henceforth designated as Operation Inherent Resolve. The CENTCOM news release noted:
"According to CENTCOM officials, the name INHERENT RESOLVE is intended to reflect the unwavering resolve and deep commitment of the U.S. and partner nations in the region and around the globe to eliminate the terrorist group ISIL and the threat they pose to Iraq, the region and the wider international community. It also symbolizes the willingness and dedication of coalition members to work closely with our friends in the region and apply all available dimensions of national power necessary—diplomatic, informational, military, economic—to degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL."
On 3 October 2014, Prime Minister Tony Abbott and the Australian Cabinet approved for RAAF Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornet fighter bombers to begin airstrikes against Islamic State militants. Abbott said "It is in our national interest that we do so, it is in the interests of civilisation that we do so. It is in everyone's best interests that the murderous rage of the ISIL death cult be checked and rolled back and that's what we're determined to do."
On 6 October, Air Chief Marshal Mark Binskin announced two Super Hornets had conducted armed combat missions over Iraq although no armaments were expended. An Australian Air task Group KC-30A and an E-7A Wedgetail Airborne Early Warning and Control aircraft have also been flying in support to fighter bombers belonging to coalition forces. The KC-30A performs airborne refueling for coalition aircraft. Binskin said "One of our Super Hornet packages on the first night ... had an identified target which it was tracking and that particular target moved into an urban area where the risks of conducting a strike on that target increased to a point where it exceeded our expectations of collateral damage, so they discontinued the attack at that point."
On 9 October, Prime Minister Tony Abbott confirmed that RAAF Super Hornets had been involved in a "strike missions on an ISIL position in Iraq". The aircraft dropped two bombs onto an isolated building which ISIL was using as a command and control center.
As of 17 October, the Royal Australian Air Force had conducted 43 combat sorties over Iraq. Recent strikes had targeted equipment facilities, with "at least two" resulting in ISIL casualties after Australian aircraft had increased the number of missions flown to allow U.S. and coalition forces to assist Kurdish fighters around Kobanî, in northern Syria.
After more than 2 years of involvement in the coalition, Australia announced the end of its airstrikes in Iraq, after informing Iraq and other allies.
On 12 August 2014, the United Kingdom deployed six Tornado GR4 strike aircraft to RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus to help coordinate its humanitarian aid airdrops in Northern Iraq. On 16 August 2014, following the completion of humanitarian aid airdrops, the Tornado GR4s, along with an RC-135 Rivet Joint signals intelligence aircraft, were re-tasked to provide aerial surveillance to coalition forces.
In early September 2014, British Prime Minister David Cameron began voicing his support for British airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq. Weeks later, Parliament was recalled and Members debated whether or not to authorise airstrikes. The seven-hour debate resulted in overwhelming support for airstrikes, with 524 votes in favour and 43 votes against.
On 27 September 2014, the first armed sortie took place over Iraq. A pair of Tornado GR4s left Cyprus armed with laser-guided bombs, supported by a Voyager aerial refueling tanker. Ultimately, the aircraft did not locate any targets requiring immediate air attack and so gathered intelligence for coalition forces instead. The Royal Air Force (RAF) conducted its first airstrike on 30 September 2014. A pair of Tornado GR4s engaged an ISIL heavy weapon position and an armed pickup truck using a laser-guided bomb and air-to-surface missile.
On 3 October 2014, the RAF deployed two additional Tornado aircraft to bring its deployed fleet up to eight aircraft. During the same month, it was also confirmed that the Royal Navy was involved in anti-ISIL operations in a support role, with air defence destroyer HMS Defender providing escort to U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush as she launched aircraft into Iraq and Syria. Nick Clegg, then Deputy Prime Minister, also disclosed during an interview that there was a nuclear attack submarine armed with Tomahawk cruise missiles deployed to the region.
On 16 October 2014, the Ministry of Defence announced it would deploy MQ-9 Reaper drones to assist with surveillance, although, Defence Secretary Michael Fallon stated that the drones could also conduct airstrikes if required. The first Reaper drone strike occurred weeks later in Bayji, north of Baghdad, against a group of ISIL militants which had been laying improvised explosive devices.
In addition to operations over Iraq, the United Kingdom had also intervened in Syria by 21 October 2014, making it the first Western country, other than the United States, to do so. However, British aircraft were not permitted to carrying out airstrikes until Parliament had voted to give its authorization. Despite this, the Royal Air Force carried out a drone strike in Syria on 21 August 2015, against two UK-born ISIL fighters which had been plotting attacks against the United Kingdom. Prime Minister David Cameron insisted that it was a lawful act of self-defense.
Since the authorization of airstrikes in Iraq, Prime Minister David Cameron had made persistent calls for airstrikes in Syria, however, he acknowledged that no airstrikes would take place until after a vote in Parliament. On 2 December 2015, following the November 2015 Paris attacks and United Nations Security Council Resolution 2249, David Cameron opened a ten-hour debate in Parliament on Syrian airstrikes, which ended with a final vote. 397 MPs voted in favour of airstrikes, whilst 223 voted against. Airstrikes commenced two hours after the vote, taking place in eastern Syria against the ISIL-held Oman oilfield. Defence Secretary Michael Fallon also subsequently announced that the UK's "strike force" based in Cyprus would double, with the addition of six Eurofighter Typhoons and two Tornado GR4s.
In addition to airstrikes, the United Kingdom has also made significant contributions towards the coalition's ISTAR capabilities. The Royal Air Force has deployed Sentinel R1, Sentry AEW1, RC-135W Rivet Joint and Shadow R1 aircraft to gather surveillance, in addition to Tornado GR4 and MQ-9 Reaper strike aircraft. In September 2015, the United Kingdom was responsible for a third of all coalition surveillance flights over Iraq and Syria, with the Tornado GR4s RAPTOR reconnaissance pod accounting for 60% of the coalition's entire tactical reconnaissance in Iraq alone.
In December 2016, the Telegraph reported that Secretary of State for Defence Sir Michael Fallon said "The British Army have trained over 31,000 Iraqi and Peshmerga who are taking the fight to Daesh" It was also reported that the Royal Air Force is operating at its most intense for 25 years in a single theatre of operation which far outstripped the UK involvement in the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan (2001-2014), with RAF jets having dropped 11 times more bombs on Syria and Iraq in the preceding 12 months than they had in the busiest year of action in Afghanistan a decade previously.
Canada took part in airstrikes against ISIL from 2 November 2014 until 22 February 2016 when following the election of Justin Trudeau to Prime Minister withdrew its CF-18s fighter jets and ended all airstrikes in Syria and Iraq.
The Canadian contribution has been code-named Operation Impact by the Canadian Department of National Defence. Canadian aircraft left for the Middle East to join in airstrikes on 21 October 2014. In total, six CF-18 fighter jets, an Airbus CC-150 Polaris air-to-air refueling tanker and two CP-140 Aurora surveillance aircraft were sent, along with 700 military personnel.
Canadian CF-18 fighter jets completed their first operational flights departing from Kuwait on 31 October. The first Canadian airstrikes began on 2 November. Canada also flew an extra CF-18 to Kuwait to be used as a spare if the need arises, however a maximum of six are authorized to fly with the coalition missions.
On 4 November 2014, Royal Canadian Air Force CF-18s destroyed ISIL construction equipment using GBU-12 bombs. The construction equipment was being used to divert the Euphrates River to deny villages water, and to flood roads, diverting traffic to areas with IEDs.
On 12 November 2014, Canadian jets destroyed ISIL artillery just outside the Northern Iraqi town of Baiji. Airstrikes continued throughout December and into January 2015 totaling 28 strike missions. It was then reported that Canadian special forces troops, which had been highlighting targets for airstrikes, had engaged in fighting after coming under attack.
On 19 January 2015, Canadian special operations forces came under ISIL attack for the first time in Iraq over the last week, and returned sniper fire to "neutralize" the threat. Canadians are "enabling airstrikes from the ground," meaning they are actively finding targets for jets flying overhead.
On 29 January 2015, Canadian special forces in Iraq came under fire from ISIL forces, causing the Canadian troops to return fire, killing some ISIL militants. On 6 March, a Canadian soldier was killed in a friendly fire incident by Kurdish forces while returning to an observation post.
On 8 April 2015, two CF-18s carried out their first airstrike against ISIL in Syria, hitting one of the groups garrisons.
From 2 Nov 2014 to 13 May 2015 the Canadian armed forces struck 80 ISIL fighting positions, 19 ISIL vehicles, and 10 storage facilities.
On 21 October 2015, Canadian Prime Minister-designate Justin Trudeau informed U.S. President Barack Obama that he intended to withdraw Canadian aircraft from operations over Iraq and Syria but increase training missions on the ground.
On 8 February 2016, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that the CF-18's would be withdrawn from the bombing mission no later than 22 February 2016. However, the surveillance aircraft and air-to-air jet refueller would continue. In addition, the amount of training troops would triple.
On 24 September 2014, the Dutch government announced its participation in "the military campaign" against ISIL which, as they claimed, had been started by the United States, and sent six F-16 fighter jets to Iraq to bomb ISIL. Their motivations to join this war: ISIL's advance in Iraq and Syria, while displaying "unprecedented violence" and "perpetrating terrible crimes against population groups", formed "a direct threat for that region"; ISIL's advance in Iraq and Syria "causes instability at the borders of Europe" which threatens "our own [Dutch] safety". In January 2016, the Netherlands extended their bombings of ISIL to Syrian territory. By the end of July 2016 the Dutch Air Task Force flew more than 2100 missions and carried out over 1800 air strikes.
On 19 September 2014, the French Air Force used its Rafale jets to conduct airstrikes on ISIL targets in Mosul. The airstrikes were approved by French President François Hollande, which indicated that France was committed to fighting ISIL using air power alongside the United States. Hollande mentioned that no ground troops would be used in the conflict. To conduct its airstrikes, France deployed 9 Rafale fighters to the United Arab Emirates, 6 Dassault Mirage 2000 fighters to Jordan, in addition to an Atlantique 2 maritime patrol aircraft, a Boeing E-3 Sentry airborne early warning and control aircraft, and a Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker aerial refueling tanker.
On 23 February 2015, the French Navy also deployed its Task Force 473 carrier strike group to the Persian Gulf with the intent on conducting airstrikes from the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. The Charles de Gaulle contributed 12 Rafale fighters, 9 Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard strike aircraft, and 2 E-2C Hawkeye airborne early warning and control aircraft. The task force also included the French frigate Chevalier Paul (D621), a Rubis-class submarine, a Durance-class tanker, and the British frigate HMS Kent. After eight weeks of operations, the task force left the Persian Gulf on its way to India, heralding the end of its contribution to Operation Chammal.
On 5 November 2015, it was announced that the Charles de Gaulle would resume operations in Syria to fight ISIL.
On 15 November 2015, after the November 2015 Paris attacks, the French Air Force launched its largest airstrike of the bombing campaign sending 12 planes, including 10 fighters, that dropped 20 bombs in training camps and ammunition facilities in Raqqa, the de facto capital of ISIS.
After the downed Jordanian pilot Muath al-Kasasbeh was executed by ISIL by being burned to death, King Abdullah II vowed revenge and temporarily took the lead in the bombing raids on ISIL during February 2015. On 8 February, Jordan claimed that during the course of 3 days, from 5–7 February, their airstrikes alone had killed 7,000 ISIL militants in Iraq and Syria, and also reportedly degraded 20% of the militant group's capability.
In December 2014 Morocco sent 4 F-16s to bomb ISIL positions, initially in the outskirts of Baghdad and other undisclosed locations. The planes operated under the command of the UAE and suspended operations in February 2015.
See overview in section Turkish intervention.
US-led intervention in Syria
Hostage rescue attempt
On 4 July 2014, the U.S. bombed the "Osama bin Laden" ISIL military base in the village of Uqayrishah, Syria. Two dozen American Delta Force commandos then touched down in an effort to rescue hostages, including James Foley. In a series of videos, Foley, Steven Joel Sotloff, and several more hostages were murdered.
On 26 August 2014, the U.S. began sending surveillance flights, including drones, into Syria to gather intelligence. The Syrian Arab Republic was not asked for permission.
On 28 August, speaking about combatting ISIL in Syria, President Obama said "we don't have a strategy yet."
The British Royal Air Force has been operating over Syria in a surveillance role since 21 October 2014, making the UK the first Western country other than the United States to operate in both Iraq and Syria simultaneously.
Arming and training rebels
At the direction of President Obama, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency played an active role since the early stages of the Syrian Civil War. The U.S. originally supplied the moderate rebels of the Free Syrian Army with non-lethal aid but soon escalated to providing training, money, and intelligence to selected rebel commanders. On 17 September 2014, the House of Representatives voted to authorize spending to train and arm moderate Syrian rebels.
The United Kingdom announced in March 2015 that it would send 75 military personnel to help train moderate Syrian forces in the use of small arms, infantry tactics and basic medical skills. The training will take place in Turkey as part of the US-led effort.
According to the United States Department of Defense, Saudi Arabia has proposed that they would provide training to Syrian rebels so they could return to Syria and battle ISIL.
U.S. President Obama announced on 10 September 2014 that he would begin to pursue airstrikes in Syria with or without congressional approval. Starting on 22 September 2014, the U.S., Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates began airstrikes against ISIL targets in Syria with fighters, bombers, and sea-based Tomahawk cruise missiles. Strikes continue to take place in Syria daily. Additionally, on the first night, U.S. forces launched eight cruise missile strikes against the al-Qaeda-affiliated Khorasan. In early November early December 2014, the U.S. launched additional airstrikes against the same group. In November 2014, Morocco sent 3 F-16s to be deployed in UAE, to fight ISIL in Iraq and Syria under U.S.-led operations.
On 24 December 2014, ISIL shot down a Jordanian fighter jet over Syria and captured its pilot, Jordanian air force lieutenant Muath Al-Kasasbeh. Al-Kasabeh was offered in exchange for captured ISIL fighters. Jordan offered to make the exchange, but demanded "proof of life" first. However, Al-Kasabeh had already been executed by immolation. When video of the pilot's execution was released, a moratorium on executions in Jordan was lifted and the Al-Qaida operatives, Sajida al-Rishawi and Ziad al-Karbouli were executed.
On 21 August 2015, three ISIL fighters, two with UK nationality, were targeted and killed in Raqqa, Syria by a British Royal Air Force MQ-9 Reaper strike. Prime Minister David Cameron gave a statement to Parliament that one of the British nationals targeted had been plotting attacks in the United Kingdom. Another British national was killed in a separate air strike by US forces in Raqqa on 24 August.
In October and November 2015, the U.S. intensified its airstrikes on ISIL-held oil facilities in an operation named "Tidal Wave II", after the World War II campaign against Axis oil targets in Romania. The U.S. strategy aimed "to knock out specific installations for six months to a year" by focusing on facilities near Deir el-Zour. The Omar oil field, which produced 30,000 barrels of oil per day and $1.7 million to $5.1 million in revenue per month at full capacity, was hit on 21 October, reducing it to roughly a third of its capacity. French aircraft also participated in the strikes.
On 16 November 2015, a U.S. Operation Tidal Wave II sortie destroyed 116 IS fuel tankers clustered near Abu Kamal, a town on the Syrian border near Iraqi. Four A-10 Thunderbolt IIs and two AC-130 Spectre gunships participated in the raid. Before attacking the trucks the planes conducted several low-level, 'show of force' passes.
On 2 December, the Parliament of the United Kingdom voted in favour (397 to 223) to authorise air strikes in Syria. Within hours, RAF Tornado jets carried out their first air strikes, targeting the Omar oil fields in eastern Syria, which is under IS control. Tornado GR-4 jets are being used for surveillance and a further six Typhoons left RAF Lossiemouth, Scotland to join forces at RAF Akrotiri, Cyrpus. On 4 December 2015 Germany intervened in reaction to the November 2015 Paris attacks by sending a frigate and Panavia Tornado reconnaissance aircraft to the region. On 29 January 2016, the Netherlands announced its intent on expanding its airstrike operations to Syria.
On 11 September 2015, a Syrian military source made mention of Russian troops present in Syria to help the Syrian government in its fight against ISIL, as part of Operation Rescue. On 17 September, Syrian warplanes carried out a wave of airstrikes in the ISIL-held city of Raqqa with Russian weapons supplied by Russian Armed Forces. On 20 November, Russia claimed to have killed over 600 terrorists using cruise missiles in one mission.
Intervention in Libya
After ISIL killed 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians in Libya, Egypt conducted airstrikes on ISIL targets in Libya on 16 February 2015, killing a total of 64 ISIL militants (50 in Derna). Warplanes acting under orders from the "official" Libyan government also struck targets in Derna, reportedly in coordination with Egypt's airstrikes. A Libyan official stated that more joint airstrikes would follow.
U.S. surveillance flights
Concern over ISIL activities in Derna District in Libya in December 2014 led to U.S. drones and electronic surveillance planes making "constant flights" from Italian bases, over the district of Derna.
On 13 November 2015, the United States launched an airstrike in Derna, Libya. Two U.S. F-15E fighter jets targeted senior ISIL leader Abu Nabil al-Anbari in the airstrike, who was the top ISIL commander in Libya. In January 2016, ISIL's Libyan faction confirmed Abu Nabil's death in a eulogy to him.
Administration officials are weighing a new campaign plan for Libya that would deepen the United States' military and diplomatic involvement, on yet another front against ISIL. The United States and its allies are increasing reconnaissance flights and intelligence collecting there—and even preparing for possible airstrikes and raids, according to senior American officials. Special Operations forces have met with various Libyan groups over the past months to vet them for possible action against ISIL.
On 19 February 2016, US warplanes carried out an airstrike on multiple ISIL targets in Libya, hitting an Islamic State training camp and a senior extremist leader, the training camp was near Sabratha, Libya, 60 people were present at the camp at the time of the strike, more than 40 people were killed with more wounded, some critically, On 14 February 2016, a U.N.-designated council presented a new 18-member Libyan cabinet in the Moroccan city of Skhirat, weeks after an earlier lineup was rejected. The internationally recognized parliament has to endorse the new unity cabinet. If approved, the new unity government could eventually seek international military intervention against Islamic State extremists who have taken advantage of the country's political vacuum since 2014.
On 1 August 2016, U.S. crewed and uncrewed aircraft carried out airstrikes on IS targets in Libya, responding to the U.N.-backed government's request to help push the militants from their former stronghold of Sirte (where several hundred IS fighters remain), in what U.S. officials described as the start of a sustained campaign against the extremist group in the city. President Barack Obama authorized the airstrikes after a recommendation by U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter; the strikes hit an IS tank and two vehicles that posed a threat to forces aligned with Libyan GNA (Government of National Accord). This was the third U.S. air strike against Islamic State militants in Libya, but this time U.S. officials said it marked the start of a sustained air campaign rather than another isolated strike, U.S. airstrikes will continue to target ISIL in Sirte in order to enable the GNA to make a decisive, strategic advance. U.S. AFRICOM command is overseeing the US effort, which is known as Operation Odyssey Lightning, AV-8B Harrier II assigned to the 22nd MEU flying off the USS Wasp conducted the airstrikes and uncrewed aircraft launched from undisclosed locations. Airstrikes continued, on 2 August, airstrikes hit a rocket launcher, an excavator and a pickup truck with a mounted recoilless rifle and on 3 August airstrikes struck a pickup truck with a mounted recoilless rifle; by 9 August the U.S. conducted 28 strikes against ISIS in Libya, with more than half of the strikes being conducted from uncrewed aircraft. By 16 August, U.S. airstrikes hit an IS vehicle and 4 militant positions in Sirte, bringing the number of U.S. airstrikes in Libya to 48. On 17 August, U.S. Africa Command officials announced on 16 August airstrikes on ISIS targets in Sirte struck 7 enemy fighting positions, 4 vehicle-borne bombs, 1 pickup truck with a mounted recoilless rifle, 12 enemy fighting positions and 1 command-and-control vehicle, bringing the total number of airstrikes in support of Operation Odyssey Lightning to 57. On 22 August, Stars and Stripes reported that U.S. Marine AH-1W SuperCobra helicopters participated in strikes against IS militants in Sirte on 20 and 21 August; a small detachment of US special forces in Sirte provided most of the targeting information for the airstrikes which were then relayed to U.S. forces through Libyan government troops. On 31 August, Stars and Stripes reported that in the past month, the U.S. military conducted 104 airstrikes against IS targets in Libya.
On 22 September, Stars and Stripes reported that the pace of US airstrikes against IS militants in Libya slowed in September as the number of insurgents holed up in a hard-to-target section of Sirte had shrunk, (the US conducted 50 airstrikes against IS targets, compared with 108 in August) with about 200 militants remaining. On 28 September, Fox News reported that as of 26 September, U.S. Marine Corps Harrier jets and attack helicopters as well as drones conducted 175 airstrikes against ISIS in Libya, according to the U.S. military's Africa Command. According to a U.S. official the number of ISIS fighters in Sirte was estimated to be "under 100" and that "ISIS is only in three neighborhoods."
On 3 October, Stars and Stripes reported that on 2 October the US conducted 20 airstrikes (bringing the total number of strikes to 201) in Libya: knocking out a command and control facility, nearly 70 IS fighting positions and several other sites in what was the heaviest day of bombing since the operation began, according to U.S. Africa Command data. The strikes were in support of an offensive by ground forces aligned with the internationally backed Libyan government. On 11 October, Stars and Stripes reported that U.S. warplanes conducted 51 airstrikes against IS targets in Libya, particularly in and around Sirte, between 7 and 10 October, marking it as some of the heaviest bombing since the start of the Operation; bringing the total number of U.S. airstrikes in Libya to 261. On 17 October, Fox news reported that US airstrikes against ISIS in Libya doubled in less than a month (bringing the number of airstrikes up to 324). On 21 October 2016, Stars and Stripes reported that USS San Antonio deployed to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Operation Odyssey Lightning to replace the USS Wasp that was carrying out operations against ISIS. The San Antonio will carry UH-1 Y Hueys and AH-1 W Cobras from the 22nd MEU's Aviation Combat Unit, VMM-264; Marine Harrier fighters were part of the operation aboard the Wasp, however the San Antonio does not host fighter jets.
On 4 November 2016, Fox News reported that the U.S. military ended its bombing campaign against ISIS in Sirte after three months of round-the-clock airstrikes the U.S. military conducted a total of 367 airstrikes since 1 August 2016, according to officials, no American airstrikes took place since 31 October; units taking part in the operation received orders on 1 November from AFRICOM to end offensive and collective self-defence airstrikes. A senior defense official said the U.S. military would "continue to provide military support to the GNA...ISIL-held territory in Sirte is down to a few hundred square meters. We'll continue to discuss with the GNA leadership what additional support they may need moving forward including air strikes."
Sirte was liberated by GNA forces in early December; on 20 December 2016, ABC news reported that AFRICOM said that it carried out 495 airstrikes against militant vehicles and positions in the former IS stronghold of Sirte, Operation Odyssey Lightning concluded on 19 December, following an announcement from the Libyan government of the end of offensive military operations in Sirte.
On 18 January 2017, ABC News reported that two USAF B-2 bombers struck two ISIS camps 28 miles south of Sirte, the airstrikes targeted between 80 and 100 ISIS fighters in multiple camps, an uncrewed aircraft also participated in the airstrikes. One official called the airstrikes "a huge success," with more than 80 ISIS fighters killed, one counterterrorism official told ABC News there were "zero survivors" at the camps. Many of the ISIS fighters in the camps had fled Sirte during the battle, according to another official; Pentagon press secretary Peter Cook said in a statement ISIS fighters had fled to the remote desert camps "in order to reorganize and they posed a security threat to Libya, the region, and U.S. national interests;" The militants were carrying weapons, wearing tactical vests and standing in formation. The airstrikes were authorised by President Obama and were carried out in coordination with GNA; they are considered to be an extension of Operation Odyssey Lightning. BBC News reported that the B-2s flew a round-trip of around 34 hours from Missouri and dropped around 100 bombs on their targets, US Defence Secretary Ash Carter said those targeted were "actively planning" attacks in Europe. NBC news later reported that the number of IS fighters killed was revised upward to 90; a U.S. defense official said that "This was the largest remaining ISIS presence in Libya," and that "They have been largely marginalised but I am hesitant to say they've been completely eliminated in Libya."
On 22 September 2017, the US military conducted 6 airstrikes with unmanned aircraft on an ISIS camp 150 miles southeast of Sirte, killing 17 ISIS militants and destroying three vehicles, CNN reported an AFRICOM statement that the strikes took place "In coordination with Libya's Government of National Accord and aligned forces" and that "The camp was used by ISIS to move fighters in and out of the country; stockpile weapons and equipment; and to plot and conduct attacks". The strikes marked the first time airstrikes had been carried out in the country under the Donald Trump administration.
The U.S. military has been closely monitoring Islamic State movements in Libya, and small teams of U.S. military personnel has moved in and out of the country over a period of months. British, French, Italian and Jordanian special forces as well as the British RAF also have been in Libya helping with aerial surveillance, mapping and intelligence gathering in several cities, including Benghazi in the east and Zintan in the west, according to two Libyan military officials who were coordinating with them. British and American special forces have also been carrying out intelligence-gathering operations around Sirte.
Since the beginning of 2016, British Special forces have been escorting teams of MI6 agents to meet with Libyan officials and organise the supplying weapons and training to the Syrian army and to militias fighting against ISIS. On 27 February 2016, The Telegraph reported that British special forces had deployed alongside its U.S. counterparts in the city of Misrata to stop Islamist militants progress, their main role is to give tactical training to local militias and to build an army to fight ISIL. In May 2016, it was reported that British special forces have engaged in frontline combat against IS in Libya; in particular they destroyed two IS suicide vehicles that were targeting Libyan fighters. On 12 May, at the Shaddadah Bridge, 50 miles south of Misrata, the approach of a suicide vehicle sent Libyan forces fleeing in panic, British special forces intervened and destroyed the vehicle with a missile. An estimated dozen U.S. special forces have been operating out of a base near Misrata and have been in action near Tripoli, the U.S. publicly supports 3 groups who claim the right to govern the country in the fight against ISIS.
In a plan disclosed in late 2015, Britain was to offer the Libyan government 1,000 troops as part of a 5,000-strong combined with Italy, to train and equip the Libyan forces rather than take part in frontline fighting. In addition, British defence minister Michael Fallon announced that Britain is sending 20 troops from the 4th Infantry Brigade to Tunisia to help prevent Islamic State fighters from moving into the country from Libya.
In June 2016, it was reported that IS militants were retreating from Sirte and some fighters reportedly cutting off their beards and long hair to blend in with civilians as militia fighters allied to the unity government pushed into the city in tanks and armed trucks. The militias, mostly from Misrata, are allied to and are the main fighting force for the U.N.-brokered unity government installed in Tripoli the previous year. On 11 June, the BBC reported that Libyan forces claim they have retaken control of part of Sirte after fierce fighting with militants from Islamic State. In July 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said IS fighters in Libya are facing the "distinct possibility" of defeat in their last stronghold and are likely to scatter elsewhere in the country and the region; At the beginning of 2016, the Islamic State group was believed to have more than 5,000 fighters in Libya, by August 2016, estimating there could be less than 1,000 left, by 9 August, only 350 ISIS fighters remained in Sirte. US and British special forces were involved in the battle for Sirte: U.S. troops were operating out of a joint operations center on the city's outskirts, their role was limited to supporting forces unity government forces, providing direct, on-the-ground support. On 22 September, Stars and Stripes reported that Since the start of the Battle to retake Sirte by Libyan forces, many Islamic State members fled the city, "looking to hide among the population, relocate to other Libyan towns or attempting to leave Libya altogether."
U.S. intervention in Afghanistan
The BBC reported that in ISIS announced the establishment of its ISIS-K in January 2015, it was the first time that IS had officially spread outside the Arab world. Within weeks, the group appeared in at least five provinces in Afghanistan: Helmand, Zabul, Farah, Logar and Nangarhar-trying to establish pockets of territory from which to expand. In the first half of 2015, ISIS-K managed to capture large parts of territory in eastern Nangarhar province. This became the de facto "capital" principally for two reasons: its proximity to the tribal areas of Pakistan, home of ISIS-K's top leaders; and the presence of some people who follow a similar Salafi/Wahhabi interpretation of Islam to ISIS. ISIS-K is also trying to get a foothold in northern Afghanistan, where it aims to link up with Central Asian, Chechen and Chinese Uighur militants; IS's numerical strength inside Afghanistan vary, ranging from 1,000 to 5,000.
In February 2015, ISIL-K deputy commander Mullah Abdul Rauf Khadim was killed in a U.S. drone strike along with 5 others, his successor met the same fate a month later, and since then, the Islamic State has been absent from the southern Afghanistan.
A report says that, according to a Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) spokesperson, in July 2015, a US drone strike killed Shahidullah Shadid, a senior leader of an ISIL group for the Khorasan region (parts of Iran, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan), and 24 other militants, in Nangarhar province in Afghanistan.
In January 2016, President Obama sent a directive to the Pentagon to make it easier for the military to get approval for strikes in Afghanistan, targeting militias that have sworn allegiance to the Islamic State. For 3 weeks in that month, the United States military carried out at least a dozen operations, including commando raids and airstrikes, many of these raids and strikes taking place in the Tora Bora region of Nangarhar Province. American commanders in Afghanistan said they believed that between 90 and 100 Islamic State militants had been killed in these recent operations. On 1 February 2016, U.S. airstrikes in Nangarhar province eastern Afghanistan killed 29 ISIS fighters and struck the terrorist group's FM radio station. On 21 February, it was reported that just over a week before, Afghan forces supported by U.S. airstrikes pushed ISIL militants out of their stronghold in Nangarhar province in a military operation that is ongoing and had killed a total 43 Islamic State militants by 22 February. On 6 March 2016, Afghanistan's President announced that the ISIL-K had been defeated in the eastern parts of the country, Afghan forces claimed victory following the 21-day operation in 2 districts in Nangarhar province, claiming at least 200 militants killed. following this operation, an official confirmed that Islamic State militants had moved into Kunduz province and into Kunar province.
In early April 2016, it was reported that US and Afghan forces had killed 1,979 suspected militants, 736 others wounded and 965 detained between April 2015 and March 2016, ISIS militants have also been trying to flee into Ghazni and Nuristan province, whilst there has been a rise in defections from the group to the government and the Taliban. U.S. commanders in Kabul have scaled back their threat assessment for ISIL-K, since January, the U.S. and its allies launched between 70 and 80 airstrikes on IS militants in Afghanistan.
In late June 2016, IS militants attacked police checkpoints in the Kot area of Nangarhar province and heavy fighting ensued, as many as 36 IS militants were killed in the assaults, at least a dozen Afghan security forces and civilians were killed, with another 18 wounded. The latest attacks indicate the group remains a potent threat to a government.
On 23 July 2016, following the Kabul bombing, Afghan forces and U.S. special forces backed by U.S. airstrikes began an operation to retake parts on Nangarhar province from ISIS-K militants. Over 24 and 25 July whilst clearing areas of southern Nangarhar with Afghan special operations troops, 5 US special forces troops were wounded by small arms fire or shrapnel, making it the first reported instance of U.S. troops being wounded in fighting IS in Afghanistan. On 26 July, one of the most important leaders of IS in the region and one of the founders of the ISIS-K, Saad Emarati, was killed along with 120 other suspected militants in Kot District, Afghan troops pushed into Kot District, meeting little resistance due to heavy air and artillery bombardment that forced ISIL fighters to flee into nearby mountain areas, Afghan forces found an already destroyed training camp. Overall, the operation reclaimed large and significant parts of eastern Afghanistan, forcing ISIL militants back into the mountains of southern Nangarhar with hundreds of IS militants killed; the estimated size of the ISIS-K in January 2016 was around 3,000, but by July 2016 the number has been reduced to closely 1,000 to 1,500, with 70% of its fighters come from the TTP. In the operation, Afghan forces, backed by the US, killed an estimated 300 ISIS fighters.
Between January and early August 2016, US aircraft conducted nearly 140 airstrikes against Isis targets in Afghanistan, according to the US military.
On 4 October 2016, a US soldier from B Company, 2nd Battalion, 10th SFG was killed by a roadside bomb blast in Achin, Nangarhar province, he was on a patrol with Afghan forces during an operation against ISIL-K militants. This marked the first time a U.S. serviceman was killed in combat against IS militants in the country.
On 24 December 2016, Military.com reported that Brigadier General Charles Cleveland said that ISIL-K's presence in the country has been pushed back from nearly a dozen districts to just two or three, the number of its members in Afghanistan had been reduced to about 1,000 from an estimated strength of between 1,500 and 3,000 members the previous year. Overall, U.S. troops in Afghanistan conducted more than 350 operations against the IS and al-Qaeda this year. In early December, General John Nicholson, the international coalition's top military commander in Afghanistan, said U.S.-led counter-terrorism operations and Afghan government forces had killed 12 of the organization's top leaders in the country. U.S. officials have said IS fighters are primarily located in Nangarhar and Kunar Province's. Military.com reported that Nicholson estimated that his forces had killed about 500 ISIS fighters throughout 2016 (including the 12 most senior leaders), these losses accounted for about 25 to 30% of ISIS-K's total number of fighters and reduced its foothold in the country from 9 districts to 3.
In February 2017, the Washington Post reported that U.S. forces conducted more than 1,000 strikes in Afghanistan in 2016, including 267 against IS-K and 57 targeted al-Qaeda. The BBC also reported that ISIS-K has largely been eliminated from southern and western Afghanistan by the Afghan Taliban and military operations conducted by Afghan and US/NATO forces. Several hundred ISIS-K fighters have been killed in clashes with the Afghan Taliban.
In early April 2017, the Washington Post reported that Captain Bill Salvin, a spokesman for NATOs' mission to Afghanistan that Afghan and international forces have reduced ISIS-K controlled territory in Afghanistan by two-thirds and killed around half of their fighters in the previous 2 years. Since the beginning of 2017, there have been 460 airstrikes against terrorists (with drone strikes alone killing more than 200 IS militants); he added that the affiliate has an estimated 600 to 800 fighters in two eastern Afghan provinces.
The Army Times reported that in early March 2017, American and Afghan forces launched Operation Hamza to "flush" ISIS-K from its stronghold in eastern Afghanistan, engaging in regular ground battles. Stars and Stripes reported that General Dawlat Waziri, spokesman for Afghanistan's Defense Ministry, said that for four weeks before the 13 April Nangarhar airstrike (which was part of the operation), Afghan special forces unsuccessfully attempted to penetrate the area because of the difficult terrain and improvised explosive device (IEDs) planted by ISIS-KP militants. On 13 April, the Nangarhar airstrike took place, Stars and Stripes reported that 94 ISIS-K militants, including 4 commanders were killed by a GBU-43/B MOAB bomb that was dropped on an ISIS tunnel complex in Achin District; the Huffington Post reported that the bomb was dropped from a U.S.Lockheed MC-130. In Late April Military Times reported that Captain Bill Salvin said an estimated 400 to 700 fighters are active throughout Nangarhar and Kunar provinces.
U.S. intervention in Cameroon
In October 2015, with the approval of the Cameroonian government, the U.S. military deployed 300 personnel to Cameroon, their primary missions will revolve around providing intelligence support to local forces as well as conducting reconnaissance flights.
U.S. intervention in Yemen and Somalia
CNN reported that on 16 October 2017, US forces conducted airstrikes against two ISIL training camps located in al Bayda Governorate, Yemen, containing an estimated 50 fighters; a US defence official said that this is the first US strike specifically targeting ISIL in Yemen, the strike disrupted the groups attempts to train more fighters. CNN reported that on 23 October that two US airstrikes in al Bayda Governorate, the first strike killed 7 ISIL terrorists travelling in pickup trucks, a second strike (5 miles west) killed a further 2 ISIL terrorists. Military Times reported that on 25 October, two US airstrikes in al-Bayda Governorate killed 9 ISIL fighters, a CENTCOM statement said that "In the last ten days, U.S. forces have targeted and killed approximately 60 ISIS terrorists in Yemen." Maher Farrukh, an al-Qaida analyst for the Critical Threats Project at the American Enterprise Institute said that "AQAP and ISIS cooperate on a tactical level in central Yemen against al Houthi-Saleh forces, they often co-claim attacks and likely share some militants," and that "ISIS' continued presence in Yemen is likely sustained by its cooperation with AQAP, but it does not appear to be growing at this time." 
Military.com reported that on 3 November 2017, that a US drone conducted two airstrikes against Islamic State in Somalia, at least six missiles were used which struck in Buqa, 37 miles north of Qandala, AFRICOM said in a statement that "several terrorists" were killed and that the strikes were carried out in coordination with Somalia's government; the strikes marked first time that the US has conducted airstrikes against ISS terrorists in Somalia. CNN reported that US drone aircraft conducted 5 strikes against al-Shabaab and ISS linked militants between 9 and 12 November, killing 36 al-Shabaab and 4 ISS terrorists. The US conducted a three strikes in al Bayda Governorate targeting ISIS in Yemen between 10 and 12 November, killing 5 suspected militants. The US now estimates there are between 3,000 and 6,000 al-Shabaab fighters and less than 250 ISS operatives in Somalia
On 22 January 2015, U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Stuart Jones stated that the coalition airstrikes had degraded ISIL, including killing off half of their leaders in Iraq and Syria.
In early February 2015, the Australian Defence Minister, Kevin Andrews, stated that more than 6,000 ISIL fighters had been killed in coalition airstrikes since they began, and that over 800 square kilometres (310 sq mi) had been recaptured; yet ISIL strength was estimated to have grown during this period to around 31,500 core fighters, including 3,000 fighters from Western nations.
On 23 February 2015, US General Lloyd Austin stated that over 8,500 ISIL militants had been killed by Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria. In early March 2015, General Lloyd repeated this statement, saying that "ISIS has assumed a defensive crouch" in Iraq, and that "We are where we said we would be," in relation to the airstrikes. This was in contrast to Jordan's claim that its airstrikes alone had killed 7,000 ISIL militants in Iraq and Syria over the course of 3 days, from 5 to 7 February 2015.
In August 2016, U.S. Army Lieutenant General Sean MacFarland told reporters at a news briefing "Although it's no measure of success and its difficult to confirm, we estimate that over the past 11 months we've killed about 25,000 enemy fighters. When you add that to the 20,000 estimated killed prior to our arrival, that's 45,000 enemies taken off the battlefield." 
In December 2016, a senior US military official told CNN that as many as 50,000 ISIS fighters have been killed since the war against the terror group began.
According to Airwars, a team of independent journalists, by August 2015, 450 civilians had been killed by the U.S.-led coalition air campaign against ISIL in Iraq and Syria (of whom roughly 60% in Syria, 40% in Iraq). By that time, the US-led coalition officially acknowledged only two non-combatant deaths. According to Airwars, by January 2016, "between 815 and 1,149 civilian non-combatants appear likely to have been killed in 135 incidents where there is fair reporting publicly available of an event, and where Coalition strikes were confirmed in the near vicinity on that date."
According to Airwars, about 1000 civilians had been killed by the U.S.-led coalition air campaign in March 2017 alone.
According to Airwars, the air strikes and artillery of US-led coalition killed as many as 6,000 civilians in Iraq and Syria in 2017. According to Airwars, "In 2017 the war against ISIS [Islamic State] moved into the most densely-populated urban centres controlled by the group, with dire results for civilians."
On 1 February 2015, Iraq's Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari stated that the War on ISIL was effectively 'World War III', due to ISIL's proclamation of a worldwide caliphate, it also aims to conquer the world, and its success in spreading the conflict to multiple countries outside of the Levant region. Speaking of ISIL's destruction of pre-Islamic sites in the region, Syria's head of antiquities, Maamoun Abdul Karim, stated that "this is the entire world's battle."
Involvement by country
The table below summarizes each country's level of involvement in the overall international intervention against ISIL. Several countries that are militarily involved do also provide humanitarian aid.
- Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve
- 2003 invasion of Iraq
- Iraq War
- Arab Winter
- Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)
- Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014)
- Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (August 2014–present)
- List of wars and battles involving ISIL
- "Exclusive: U.S. Targets ISIS in Libya Airstrike". The Daily Beast. 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Australia says it is deploying warplanes to join Iraq campaign". The Daily Telegraph. Yahoo. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Om, Jason (9 September 2015). "Federal Cabinet gives go ahead to RAAF air strikes on Islamic State in Syria". ABC News. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "Minister Sajjan Announces Extension of Canada's Contribution to the Global Coalition against Da'esh". National Defence. National Defence / Canadian Armed Forces. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- "Battling Dutch, Belgium prepare to send forces". MSN. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014.
- "Denmark, Isis". The Huffington Post. 9 September 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014.
- "Sweden rejects calls for military support to Iraq". The Local. SE. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- KrigerenDK (20 March 2017). "Chief for Jægerkorpset: We will likely be fighting house to house in Iraq and Syria". KrigerenDK (in Danish). Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- "Sweden to increase support in fight against ISIS". Radio Sweden. 21 July 2016.
- "Islamic State: France ready to launch Iraq air strikes". BBC. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "France bombs Isis depot in Iraq". The Guardian. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Syria conflict: German MPs vote for anti-IS military mission". BBC News. 4 December 2015.
- "Germany joins anti-Isis military campaign". theguardian. 4 December 2015.
- "German parliament approves anti-IS Bundeswehr mission in Syria". Deutsche Welle. 4 December 2015.
- "Isis, la guerra segreta dell'Italia: forze speciali in Libia e Iraq. Ma il Parlamento è all'oscuro di tutto - Il Fatto Quotidiano".
- "Anche l'Italia fa la guerra all'Isis: missioni segrete dei nostri soldati in Iraq e Libia".
- "Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against ISIL". world bulletin.net. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- "Turkey bombs Islamic State targets in Syria". BBC News. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- "Dutch send fighter jets to strike Iraq". Yahoo. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014.
- Young, Sarah (15 August 2014). "Britain ready to supply Kurds with arms". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Jordan carries out air strikes in Iraq, killing 55 IS militants". i24 News. i24 News. 4 February 2015. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Morocco is the latest Arab nation to respond to an American appeal for more firepower, sending several F-16s to the fight 
- Morocco is to send F-16s to attack the militants under the US-led operation 
- Officials said the North African kingdom has agreed to join the U.S.-led coalition air strikes against ISIL positions in Iraq and Syria.
- "Moroccan F-16 Carry Out Airstrikes Against ISIS". Morocco World News.
- "Daesh amenaza a España con más atentados si no deja la coalición internacional". republica.com. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- "RAF jets sent on Iraqi combat mission". BBC News. 27 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Syria air strikes conducted by UK military pilots". BBC News. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- "UK troops to train moderate Syrian opposition". Ministry of Defence. 26 March 2015.
- Nadimi, Farzim (10 September 2014). "Iran Is Expanding Its Military Role in Iraq in a Bunch of Ways". Business Insider. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Likmeta, Besar (27 August 2014). "Albania Starts Shifting Weapons to Iraqi Kurds". Balkan Insight.
- Klix.ba. "BiH će Iraku donirati više od 15 miliona metaka za borbu protiv IDIL-a". klix.ba(In Bosnian). Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "До 2020 година 1.8 млрд. лв. ще бъдат вложени в армията" [1.8 bln. lv will be invested in the military by 2020] (in Bulgarian). BG: Dir. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
Shalamanov does not consider the conflict in Ukraine to be the only short-term threat for Bulgarian national security, which is why our country is sending armaments to the opponents of Islamic State... According to him, the events in northern Iraq and Syria represent a growing risk that threatens our national interests.
- "Hrvatska u borbi protiv islamista: Na zahtjev SAD-a šaljemo oružje za iračku vojsku". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). HR. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Cyprus says facilities at France's disposal to fight Islamic State". Cyprus. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Payne, Sebastian (22 September 2014). "What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing". Washington Post. US.
- "Greece Brings War Against the Islamic State". Greek Reporter. 25 September 2014.
- "L'Italia pronta a bombardare Isis in Iraq. La Difesa: ipotesi da valutare". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "Isis, Corriere della Sera: "Italia bombarderà lo State islamico in Iraq". Difesa: "Solo ipotesi"". L'Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "UAE 'pulls out' of coalition air strikes against ISIL". Al Jazeera English. Al Jazeera. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Dearden, Lizzie (17 February 2017). "Pakistan 'kills 100 terrorists' in crackdown after Isis shrine bombing". The Independent. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Singapore will join coalition against Islamic State". Channel NewsAsia. SG. 3 November 2014. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- Nissenbaum, Dion (14 August 2014). "US Military Shifts to Helping Kurds Fight Back". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Weaver, Matthew (14 August 2014). "Iraq crisis: EU backs plans by member states to arm Kurd fighters". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Polish Aid For Refugees from Nineveh in Iraq". PL: MSZ.
- Rousek, Leos (14 August 2014). "Slovakia Launches Aid for Displaced Civilians in Northern Iraq". The Wall Street Journal (blog). Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Joint Statement Issued by Partners at the Counter-ISIL Coalition Ministerial Meeting". U.S. Department of State. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Sweden rejects calls for military support to Iraq". The Local. SE. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Confirmed: Israel Providing Intel Against ISIS – Defense/Security – News – Arutz Sheva". Arutz Sheva.
- "Russia conducts first airstrike in Syria". CNN. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
- "В Ирак прибыла партия российских истребителей "Сухой"". Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Sputnik (20 February 2015). "US-Russia Exchange of Intelligence to Fight ISIL Possible– Security Service". Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Россия направила в Сирию 15 тонн гуманитарной помощи". Российская газета. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Россия отправила в Ирак 40 тонн гуманитарной помощи". Рамблер-Новости. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Tehran's Boots on the Ground". Foreign Policy. 9 September 2014. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Blanford, Nicholas (16 July 2014). "Why Hezbollah is playing a smaller role in this Iraqi conflict". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Schmitt, Eric; Rubin, Alissa J. (12 July 2014). "US and Iraqis Try to Fragment Extremist Group". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Libyan forces prepare for last push against Islamic State in Sirte". 31 August 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016 – via Reuters.
- "Algerian army claims killing 22 Isis-inspired Islamists". International Business Times. 20 May 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- "Boko Haram swears formal allegiance to ISIS". Associated Press. Fox News. 8 March 2015.
- "An internal struggle: Al Qaeda's Syrian affiliate is grappling with its identity". Brookings Institution. 31 May 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Charkatli, Izat (23 February 2017). "Over 2,000 radical rebels defect to ISIS following intra-rebel deal".
- "Search for the dead begins in Idlib after Islamic State-linked brigade leaves for Raqqa".
- Caleb Weiss (14 February 2017). "Uighur jihadist fought in Afghanistan, killed in Syria". Long War Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- "Bustle". Bustle. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Isis controls over 50% of Syria after taking Palmyra". Newsweek. 21 May 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "ISIL now controls 'less than 6 percent of Iraq'". Al-Jazeera. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- "As Caliphate Shrinks, ISIS Expected to Head for the Hills". Middle East Online. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Helfrich, Kim. "Islamic State moves to Libya's desert valleys after Sirte defeat - defenceWeb".
- "Boko Haram War Not Yet Over". Leadership. 24 February 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "The regime forces impose their control over about 100 thousand square km of the area of the Syrian territory and the last fighting against the "Islamic State" organization rages8 in Deir Ezzor". SOHR. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- Tomlinson, Lucas; Griffin, Jennifer. "What comes after Raqqa for ISIS?". Fox News.
- Usher, Sebastian. "Iraq declares war with Islamic State is over". BBC.
- "France strikes Islamic State group's depot in Iraq". ABC News.
- Abdelhak Mamoun. "ISIS leader al-Baghdadi is incapacitated, says the Guardian". Iraq news, the latest Iraq news. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Report: A former physics teacher is now leading ISIS - Business Insider". Business Insider. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "ISIS' Abu Alaa al-Afri killed alongside dozens of followers in air strike - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. London. 13 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Hubbard, Ben; Schmitt, Eric (27 August 2014). "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". New York Times. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Alessandria Masi (11 November 2014). "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph Of The Islamic State Group?". International Business Times. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- Matt Bradley and Ghassan Adnan in Baghdad, and Felicia Schwartz in Washington (10 November 2014). "Coalition Airstrikes Targeted Islamic State Leaders Near Mosul". WSJ.
- "Kadyrov Claims Red-Bearded Chechen Militant al-Shishani Dead". ElBalad. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015.
- "Kadyrov Says Islamic State's Leader From Georgia Killed". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 November 2014.
- "U.S. confirms death of ISIS operative Omar al-Shishani". CNN. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- ABC News. "Top ISIS Commander 'Omar the Chechen' Believed Dead After Airstrike". ABC News. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Defense.gov News Article: Carter: Special Operations Troops Conduct Raid in Syria". Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Statement from Pentagon Press Secretary Peter Cook on Nov. 13 airstrike in Libya > U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE > News Release View". Defense.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- "Derna Islamist leader killed in Benghazi". Libya Herald. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Daesh butcher captured Benghazi solider but lose a commander". Libya Herald. 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Senior ISIS commander killed in Libya". Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- Antonopoulos, Paul (26 February 2017). "BREAKING: Al-Qaeda's deputy leader killed in Idlib drone strike".
- "War On Terror: Who Is Abu Khayr al-Masri? Al Qaeda Second In Command Killed In Drone Strike In Syria". 26 February 2017.
- "Syria: Al Qaeda Deputy Killed In Apparent Drone Strike".
- "Syria's Qaeda leader killed in explosion - ARA News". ARA News. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Syrian Nusra Front's Abu Firas killed in suspected drone strike: rebels". Reuters. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Al-Qaeda top official killed in American strike northern Syria - ARA News". ARA News. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Al-Qaida Reasserts Itself With Khorasan Group". NPR. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Khorasan leader killed by U.S. air strike in Syria last week, Al-Qaida member tweets". Haaretz. 28 September 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Officials: Khorasan Group bomb maker thought dead survived". CNN. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- "Key al-Qaeda figure Muhsin al-Fadhli killed in U.S. airstrike in Syria - Pentagon". BNO News. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Starr, Barbara; Hume, Tim (18 October 2015). "Al Qaeda leader killed in U.S. airstrike, Pentagon says". CNN. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "French jihadist Drugeon killed in Syria: US official". AFP. 11 September 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- BBC News (18 April 2016). "US extra troops to boost fight against IS in Iraq". Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- Barnes, Julian E. (1 October 2014). "2,300 U.S. Marines deploy new quick-reaction force in Kuwait". The Wall Street Journal.
- Lamothe, Dan (19 July 2014). "US companies pulling contractors from Iraqi bases as security crumbles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Nissenbaum, Dion (3 February 2014). "Role of US Contractors Grows as Iraq Fights Insurgents". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- BBC news (30 May 2015). "'Hundreds' more UK troops to be sent to Iraq - Michael Fallon". BBC News.
- "See U.S. warships head for ISIS fight". CNN. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "USS Carl Vinson begins return to San Diego". 13 April 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "US airstrikes in Syria", ABC News, Go
- Hennigan, W.J.; Cloud, David S. (25 September 2014). "AT WAR – AGAIN". FLCourier.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Foster, Peter (23 September 2014). "US military launches air strikes against Isil in Syria". Telegraph.co.uk. London. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "The A-10 Thunderbolt, Saved By Congress, Joins Airstrikes Against ISIS in Syria". International Business Times. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Axe, David (8 March 2016). "Why Is America Using These Antique Planes to Fight ISIS?". thedailybeast.com. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "Raptors, bombers & drones: How US-led ISIS strikes caused carnage in Syria". RT. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Browne, Ryan (8 March 2016). "B-52 bombers to take on ISIS". CNN.com. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- Capaccio, Tony (10 October 2014). "Pentagon Says Islamic State Fight Costs $7.6 Million/Day". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "Kobani: US drops weapons to Kurds in Syria". TheGuardian.com. Associated Press. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "How US is Pinpointing ISIS Targets in Air War". NDTV.com. Agence France-Presse. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Baldor, Lolita (6 October 2014). "Pentagon: Up to $1.1B cost for Iraq, Syria". MarineCorpsTimes.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Majumdar, Dave (25 September 2014). "Exclusive Pictures of Stealth Jet Raid on Syria". TheDailyBeast.com. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Rush, James (6 October 2014). "Isis air strikes: US brings in Apache helicopters as British jets target militants in Iraq". The Independent. London. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Trevithick, Joseph (18 November 2014). "U.S. Commandos Are Flying Around Iraq". Medium.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Sanchez, Raf (8 September 2014). "Predator drones being flown over Isil's Syrian 'capital'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Reaper drones pinpoint Jihadi John: Terrorist has been tracked by British forces but security chiefs fear 'kill or capture' mission would end in failure". Daily Mail. London. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Gordon, Greg (29 September 2014). "Once targeted, Global Hawk drone now hidden weapon in U.S. airstrikes". McClatchyDC.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Tilghman, Andrew (7 April 2016). "Near ISIS front, U.S. Marine artillerymen 'fire every day'". militarytimes.com. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- Trevithick, Joseph (25 November 2015). "The U.S. Army Hurls Hundreds of Rockets at Islamic State". WarIsBoring.com. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- Cooper, Hayden (5 October 2014). "Australians back air strikes against Isis in Iraq by three to one, poll shows". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Australia says ready to strike ISIL in Iraq". AlJazeera.com. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Deal agreed for Australian forces to deploy in Iraq, Foreign Minister Julie Bishop says". ABC News. 20 October 2014.
- Bree, Max (9 October 2014). "Largest group in decades". Australian Department of Defence. p. 3. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- McGuirk, Rod (3 October 2014). "Australia says it will launch airstrikes in Iraq". Navy Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Radulova, Lillian (1 September 2014). "Australian military transport plane 'shot at' by Islamic State fighters in northern Iraq while delivering aid". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Partner Nations Contributions Summary". Justin Fishel. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- McInnis, Kathleen (18 November 2015). "Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. p. 10. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "Operation Inherent Resolve - Canada". Operation Inherent Resolve. Operation Inherent Resolve. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
- "Canadian Armed Forces expands contribution to Global Coalition to defeat ISIL". Government of Canada. National Defence / Canadian Armed Forces. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
- "MPs vote to join U.S.-led bombing campaign against ISIL". Postmedia Network Inc. 7 October 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
- "Operation IMPACT". National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Canadian transport planes join military effort in Iraq". The Star. Ottawa. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
- "FAKTA: Danmarks militære indsats i Irak og Syrien" (in Danish). Information.
- "Le Charles-de-Gaulle engagé contre Daech, des Rafale décollent en mission". L'Express. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "Iraq: The aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle left the operation Shamal". Zone Militaire. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "La frégate anti-aérienne Jean Bart quitte l'opération Chammal". Zone Militaire. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "Pinotti: "Contro l'Isis 500 unità italiane in Iraq"". Corriere della Sera. 10 February 2015.
- "Iraq: 450 italiani a difesa diga Mosul. Arabia Saudita lancia coalizione islamica anti-Is". Repubblica.it. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- "M5s: "Il governo invia caccia contro l'Is senza autorizzazione"". Repubblica.it. 16 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Iraq, il ministro Pinotti: "Dall'Italia 280 soldati per addestrare i curdi, Predator e armi"". rainews.
- "Decollano i droni italiani, missioni in Iraq e Ucraina".
- "Morocco's counter-terrorism support will focus on military, operational and intelligence aspects, according to WAM. According to the ministry, the contribution of the kingdom will focus on military operational and intelligence aspects.
- Morocco is a member of the anti-ISIL coalition where the kingdom provides intelligence and operational support to Emirati, Saudi, Bahraini, Qatari Jordanian and American forces operating in Syria.
- Morocco will send military forces to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to help fight terrorism and preserve regional peace and stability, the Foreign Ministry said on Wednesday. Speaking at a press briefing in Rabat, Moroccan Foreign Minister Salaheddine Mezouar did not reveal further information on this mission, such as the specific number of the dispatched troops. (...)"Morocco will provide military support to these brother countries in case that the Gulf states require intervention,"
- Souhail Karam (29 October 2014). "Morocco Says Sending Troops to U.A.E. to Help Counter Terrorism". Bloomberg.com.
- "Dutch Parliament commits soldiers, F-16s to fight ISIS in Iraq". NL Times. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Portugal vai enviar 30 comandos do exército para o Iraque". RTP. 16 December 2014.
- Andrew Chuter (25 February 2015). "Saudi Typhoons Use Paveway IV Bombs on ISIS". Defense News.
- "Wary Spain Remains Reluctant Partner in anti-IS Coalition". Rudaw. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Spain to send 300 soldiers to Iraq to train its Army". El País. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Peþmerge'ye eðitim 'Bordo Bereliler'den". HÜRRÝYET - TÜRKÝYE'NÝN AÇILIÞ SAYFASI. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Turkish forces 'strike ISIL convoy in Syria'". Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "More UK troops to train Iraqi forces". BBC News. 12 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "UK troops to train moderate Syrian opposition". Ministry of Defence. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "British special forces join fighters on Isil front line". Telegraph. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "ISIS fighters are using human shields to protect themselves from RAF drone strikes: Militants deliberately travelling with women and children in Syria and Iraq". Daily Mail. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "RAF Typhoons Join Syrian Bombing Mission". Forces TV. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "UK details extent of combat activity over Iraq". Flightglobal. 2 March 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "It's WAR: RAF Tornados bomb ISIS strongholds in Syria in two waves just 57 mins after vote". Express. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "RAF Tornado jets ready for attack role over Iraq". Ministry of Defence. 27 September 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "RAF Tornado jets in Cyprus for Iraq aid mission". BBC News. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
A "small number" of Chinook helicopters would also be sent for "further relief options", the Foreign Office said.
- "RAF steps up Iraq and Syria spying missions in 'new Battle of Britain'". The Guardian. 19 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- "Global Gateway" (PDF). Royal Air Force. March 2015.
The first Operational Atlas load was delivered to Op SHADER in Cyprus on 3 Mar - a sign of things to come.
- "Frères D'Armes – Brothers in Arms". Royal Navy. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- Nichols, Tristan (26 September 2014). "Royal Navy attack sub already deployed off coast of Iraq". The Herald. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
Oliver Colvile, Tory MP for Plymouth Sutton and Devonport, tabled a question to the Deputy Prime Minister asking about the likelihood of Royal Navy involvement in the campaign. "He said there was already a submarine in the Persian Gulf," Mr Colvile told The Herald.
- "Russian soldiers geolocated by photos in multiple Syria locations", MARIA TSVETKOVA, 8 November 2015, Reuters. "U.S. security officials and independent experts told Reuters last week that Moscow had increased its forces in Syria to 4,000 personnel from an estimated 2,000. A U.S. defense official said multiple rocket-launcher crews and long-range artillery batteries were deployed outside four bases the Russians were using".
- "4 Russian warships launch 26 missiles against ISIS from Caspian Sea". RT English. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Rosyjskie rakiety manewrujące uderzyły w IS. Wystrzelone z okrętu podwodnego". defence24.pl. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Russian missile cruiser ordered to work with French in Syria". New York Daily News. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Russia Pounds ISIS With Biggest Bomber Raid in Decades". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Russian Marines Position Themselves in Eastern Latakia". The Aviationist. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Thomas Gibbons-Neff (21 September 2015). "This is the airpower Russia has in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "Russian Fighter Aircraft Arrive in Syria". Stratfor. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "Russian Fighter Aircraft Arrive in Syria". Stratfor. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Schmitt, Eric; MacFarquhar, Neil (21 September 2015). "Russia Expands Fleet in Syria With Jets That Can Attack Targets on Ground". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Главком ВКС РФ признал: в Сирию были переброшены зенитные ракетные системы NEWSru, 5 Nov 2015.
- Beauchamp, Zack (28 May 2015). "Iran is fighting on the Iraqi government's side". Vox. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Martin Chulov. "Iran sends troops into Iraq to aid fight against Isis militants". the Guardian. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Iran Appears to Be Launching Airstrikes Against ISIS in Iraq: Pentagon". NBC News.
- "Iran Is Expanding Its Military Role in Iraq in a Bunch of Ways". Business Insider. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "ISIS militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". ElBalad. Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "ISIS can 'muster' between 20,000 and 31,500 fighters, CIA says". CNN. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "U.S. Bombing in Libya Reveals Limits of Strategy Against ISIS". The New York Times. 20 February 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "ISIS Shifts to Libya After Strikes in Syria". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "How Big Is Boko Haram?". 2 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "Islamic State group loyalists eye a presence in Afghanistan". Associated Press. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "US 'tracking closely' ISIL threat in Afghanistan". Aljazeera. 18 December 2015.
- "U.S.-led forces drop nearly 5,000 bombs on ISIS". Al Arabiya. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Fears of massacre as Isis tanks lead assault on Kurdish bastion". The Times. 4 October 2014.
- "ISIS: We Nabbed an Iranian Drone". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Now ISIS has drones?". CNN. 24 August 2014.
- "Footage From an ISIS Drone". NYTimes.com – Video. 30 August 2014.
- Taylor, Adam (27 October 2014). "In bizarre new video, Islamic State hostage gives tour of Kobane". Washington Post.
- Leith Fadel. "ISIS Drone Downed by the Syrian Army at Kuweires Airbase in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- Tomson, Chris (21 May 2017). "Islamist rebel group joins Al-Qaeda franchise in Syria". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Al-awsat, Asharq (30 January 2017). "Syria: Surfacing of 'Hai'at Tahrir al-Sham' Threatens Truce - ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English".
- "Gen. Dempsey Claims Airstrikes in Syria that Targeted Khorasan Group Disrupted Plots Against US". KNEB Radio. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014.
- UN Casualty Figures
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of January 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of February 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of March 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of April 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of May 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of June 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of July 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of August 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of September 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of October 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of November 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of December 2014
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of January 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of February 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of March 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of April 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of May 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of June 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of July 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of August 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of September 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of October 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of November 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of December 2015
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of January 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of February 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of March 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of April 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of May 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of June 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of July 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of August 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of September 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of October 2016
- UN Casualty Figures for the Month of November 2016
- UN Casualties Figures for Iraq for the Month of December 2016
- "احصائية رسمية: 1997 العدد الكلي لمفقودي مجزرتي سبايكر وبادوش". Rudaw. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Syria HR report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Reuters Syria Crisis Military
- Dailystar Base lost
- Almasdarnews Al Shaar gas fields
- nmedia Report
- Syria HR Report
- HRW Report
- Independent Army General Ghassan
- NDTV Syria army, Kurds Hasakeh City
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report Yarmouk
- HR Report
- Aranews Syrian Army Aleppo
- Almasdarnews Kuweires air base
- WSJ Report
- Syria HR Report
- Almasdarnews Syrian army Palmyra
- Syria HR Report
- Almasdar News Aleppo Offensive
- Almasdar News Al-Bab
- Southfront Aleppo province
- Hindustantimes Attacks North Syria
- Almasdar News Eastern Aleppo
- Almasdar News 9 East Aleppo bombing
- Sputnik news Al Qaryatayn
- Townhall Palmyra retake
- Almasdar News Deir-ezzor losses
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Almasdar News Deir-ezzor
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Almasdarnews ISIS counter offensive
- Almasdarnews ISIS eastern Homs
- Syria HR Report
- Syria HR Report
- Almasdarnews east Hama
- Ahram Battle for Syria gas field
- sacbee Syria fights fo free gas field
- Dailystar 60 syria soldiers
- Syria HR Report Archive
- Syria HR Report Archive
- 15 killed (31 October 2012), 25 killed (19 November 2012), 379 killed (2013), 537–706 killed (2014), 680 killed (2015),"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-23. total of 1,636–1,805 reported killed
- "Iraq 2015: A Catastrophic Normal". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Kurds needs arms to fight against ISIS - Business Insider". Business Insider. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "Ministry: 1,300 Peshmerga dead since start of war with ISIS".
- "Egypt: ISIS attack kills 15 security personnel in north Sinai". Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- "Chad troops killed in Boko Haram counter-attack". News24.
- "11 Chadian soldiers killed in Boko Haram attack: army". AFP. 6 October 2015.
- The Christian Science Monitor. "Nigerian troops rescue more Boko Haram captives from forest redoubt (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor.
- "Boko Haram kills one in north Cameroon attack -army". reuters.com. 17 March 2015.
- "Suicide attacks killed at least 13 in northern Cameroon". Reuters. 13 July 2015.
- "Nigerian military claims destruction of 10 Boko Haram camps". Fox News. 18 May 2015.
- Babak Dehghanpisheh (3 August 2014). "Iran's elite Guards fighting in Iraq to push back Islamic State". Reuters.
- Amir Vahdat (25 June 2014). "3 Iranian troops killed in attack near Iraq border". Navy Times. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014.
- "Senior Iranian military adviser killed in Iraq". alarabiya.net.
- "29 Iranian soldiers killed in Iraq in a month: Reports". Middle East Eye. 5 January 2015.
- Wong, Kristina (22 October 2015). "Pentagon confirms first US combat death against ISIS". thehill.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "The Isis-US kill ratio is extremely one-sided". independent.co.uk. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Calamur, Krishnadev. "The American Casualties in the Fight Against ISIS". theatlantic.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "US special forces soldier killed in Afghanistan operation against ISIS". foxnews.com. 9 April 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "2 US Army soldiers killed fighting ISIS in Afghanistan". foxnews.com. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Marszal, Andrew (23 July 2015). "Turkey tanks open fire on Isil over Syria border after soldier killed". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- "ISIL connection in attack against Turkish security forces". The Daily Sabah Turkey. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "Turkish soldier killed in cross-border fire from ISIS territory in Syria".
- "Turkey hits ISIL positions in northern Iraq after Turkish soldier killed - MIDEAST". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "109 Boko Haram fighters dead' after first attack on Niger". AFP. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "BBC News – Saudi guards killed in attack on Iraq border". BBC News.
- "Hero of Russian Special Forces Killed in Syria Operation". 25 March 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- BBC News. "Syria conflict: Russian helicopter crashes, killing two crew". Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "Four Russian servicemen killed in car blast in Syria". TASS. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- "Глава Кабардино-Балкарии подтвердил гибель двадцатого российского военного в Сирии". Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- "Andrew Joseph Doiron of Moncton, N.B., killed in Iraq". CBC News. 7 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- "Jordan pilot hostage Moaz al-Kasasbeh 'burned alive'". BBC. 3 February 2015.
- "Once promised paradise, ISIS fighters end up in mass graves". The Straits Times. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "Airstrikes in Iraq and Syria". US Department of Defense. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "SpecOps Commander: 60,000 ISIS Fighters Killed by US Troops". military.com. 14 February 2017.
- "Al-Ghasri: 2500 IS radicals were killed in Sirte battle". Libya Observer. 19 December 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- "U.S. says 300 Islamic State fighters killed in Afghan operation". Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Egyptian air strikes in Libya kill dozens of Isis militants". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "SIRTE, Libya: Islamic State fighting in Libya's Sirte claims at least 19 lives - Middle East - McClatchy DC". McClatchy DC. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "US jets target senior IS leader in attack on Libya camp". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "About 3 thousand citizens were killed by the International Coalition warplanes in Syria within about 10700 persons who were killed during 38 months of their military operations in Syria". SOHR. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "U.S. Airstrike Kills More Than 100 al-Qaida Fighters in Syria". US Department of Defense. 20 January 2017.
- "Iraq 2014: Civilian deaths almost doubling year on year". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "2142 civilian citizens among the 4000 people executed by the "Islamic state" during the 20th month of announcing the "Caliphate State" in Syria". SOHR. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- "Airstrike monitoring group overwhelmed by claims of U.S.-caused civilian casualties". The Washington Post. 24 March 2017.
- "Is the Australia Defence Force transparent enough about its role in Iraq and Syria?". ABC News. 14 March 2017.
- "Civilians killed as Egypt launches air strikes in Libya". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "Isis: Worst refugee crisis in a generation as millions flee Islamic State in Iraq and Syria". International Business Times. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Lister, Charles (7 August 2014). "Not Just Iraq: The Islamic State Is Also on the March in Syria". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Combat report: Russia flies 107 sorties in Syria eliminating 289 terror targets in 2 days". RT International. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- "Syrian rebels to Russia: Stop bombing us". Reuters. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Report: ISIL losing in Iraq, Syria; gaining in Libya". Al Jazeera. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Ansari, Azadeh (27 June 2016). "Airstrikes in Syria kill scores of civilians". CNN. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Harress, Christopher (11 January 2016). "Russia Airstrikes In Syria 2016: Thousands Of ISIS Targets Hit By Moscow's Jets This Year". International Business Times. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- Rogin, Josh (13 July 2016). "Obama's Syria plan teams up American and Russian forces". Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "U.S., Russia Working On A Plan To Coordinate Bombing In Syria". NPR. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- McKay, Hollie; Trump, Mattis turn military loose on ISIS, leaving terror caliphate in tatters; FOX News; 8 December 2017; http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/12/08/trump-mattis-turn-military-loose-on-isis-leaving-terror-caliphate-in-tatters.html
- Iraq declares war with Islamic State is over; BBC News; 9 December 2017; https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-42291985
- Iraq declares victory in its war against ISIS; CBS News; 9 December 2017; https://www.cbsnews.com/news/iraq-declares-victory-in-its-war-against-isis/
- ‘NAVO veroordeelt unaniem ‘barbaarse daad’ van Islamitische Staat’ [NATO unanimously condemns ‘barbaric act’]. nrc.nl, 5 September 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- ‘Verenigde Staten passeren Nederland voor alliantie tegen IS’ [US pass over the Netherlands for alliance against ISIL]. nrc.nl, 9 September 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- ‘U.S. Forms Anti-ISIS Coalition at NATO Summit’. Time, 5 September 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve: APO AE 09306 // HISTORY
- ‘US-led coalition to battle IS group for ‘as long as it takes’. France 24, 4 December 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- ‘High Representative/Vice President attends Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)’. EEAS (European External Action Service), 5 December 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- ‘Joint Statement Issued by Partners at the Counter-ISIL Coalition Ministerial Meeting’. United States Department of State, 3 December 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- ‘International Conference on Peace and Security in Iraq (Paris, 15 September 2014)’. France Diplomatie (undated). Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- UNSC Resolution 2170 (15 August 2014). UN. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Russia, Iran, Iraq & Syria setting up 'joint information center' to coordinate anti-ISIS operations". RT English. 26 September 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- "Russia, Jordan agree on military coordination on Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Israel, Russia to coordinate military action on Syria: Netanyahu". Reuters. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Vladimir Putin orders Russian military pullout from Syria". NBCNews.com. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- Putin announces Russian troop withdrawal from Syria during visit; BBC News; 10 December 2017; https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-42307365
- Ed Payne and Salma Abdelaziz, CNN (15 December 2015). "34 Islamic nations form coalition to fight terrorism - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- "Bomba İddia! 60 Bordo Bereli, IŞİD'in Kontrolündeki Köye Girdi". Haberler.com. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- Ulusal Kanal (23 July 2015). "60 Bordo Bereli, IŞİD'in kontrolündeki köye girdi iddiası". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Bordo Bereliler affetmedi! 100 PKK'lı öldürüldü". İnternethaber.com. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Turkey vows to fight Islamic State, calls it 'primary threat'". mcclatchydc. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- Piri Medya (23 July 2015). "60 Bordo Bereli Suriye'ye girdi iddiası". Yeni Şafak. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "60 Bordo Bereli o köye girdi iddiası". Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- Black, Ian (16 June 2014). "Qassim Suleimani: commander of Quds force, puppeteer of the Middle East". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- Gordon, Michael R.; Schmitt, Eric (25 June 2014). "Iran Secretly Sending Drones and Supplies into Iraq, U.S. Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "Insight - Iran's elite Guards fighting in Iraq to push back Islamic State". Reuters. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- War is Boring. "The Syrian and Iranian Air Forces Are Now Bombing Iraq". Medium. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "'Iranian attack jets deployed' to help Iraq fight Isis". BBC. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "First footage surfaces: Iranian jet seen attacking ISIS targets in Iraq". Haaretz. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "Iran jets bomb Islamic State targets in Iraq - Pentagon". BBC News. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "Iran's Qasem Soleimani Is Guiding Iraqi Forces in Fight Against ISIS". NBC News, 13 March 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "Hezbollah man dies on 'jihad duty' in Iraq". Al Jazeera English. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Al-Ali, Misbah (16 June 2014). "Hezbollah sets up operations room to cope with Iraq fallout". The Daily Star (Lebanon). Beirut. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Levitt, Matthew (25 June 2014). "Iran Has A Secret Weapon To Fight Sunnis In Iraq". Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Blanford, Nicholas (16 July 2014). "Why Hezbollah is playing a smaller role in this Iraqi conflict". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Dehghanpisheh, Babak (3 August 2014). "Iran's elite Guards fighting in Iraq to push back Islamic State". Reuters. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Hizbollah is fighting ISIL in Iraq, Nasrallah reveals". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Josh Wood. "Hizbollah declares war on ISIL". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Shear, Michael D. (10 August 2014). "US airstrikes on militants in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Obama outlines plan to target IS fighters". Al Jazeera English. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Iraq crisis: EU condemns 'atrocities' by IS militants". BBC. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- Khalilzad, Zalmay (5 August 2014). "To fight the Islamic State, Kurdish and Iraqi forces need expedited aid". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Cloud, David; Bennet, Brian (11 August 2014). "U.S., allies rush heavy weapons to Kurds to fight militants in Iraq". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "JTF633 supports Herc mercy dash" (Press release). Department of Defence. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Australia steps up assistance to Iraqi people" (Press release). Department of Defence. 31 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Obama Authorizes Air Strikes in Iraq". ABC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "News Article: U.S. Conducts Another Humanitarian Airdrop in Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Airstrikes kill ISIS fighters in Iraq, officials say". CNN. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "National Defence – Canadian Armed Forces – Article – Air Task Force-Iraq takes part in Sinjar Mountains Offensive". forces.gc.ca.
- Entous, Adam; Barnes, Julian E. (12 June 2014). "U.S. Secretly Flying Drones Over Iraq". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "U.S. has armed drones over Baghdad, official says". CNN. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Stewart, Phil (27 June 2014). "Armed U.S. aircraft now flying over Iraq: defense officials". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Statement by the President". The White House. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "U.S. warplanes, drones strike ISIS in Iraq, again". CNN. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Alissa J. Rubin, Tim Arango and Helene Cooper (8 August 2014). "U.S. Jets and Drones Attack Militants in Iraq, Hoping to Stop Advance". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Kurdish forces claim to recapture 2 Iraqi towns from IS with US air support (+ video)". Christian Science Monitor. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Iraq: Troops swell in Baghdad amid humanitarian chaos". CNN. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Harper, Jon (11 August 2014). "General: Iraq airstrikes have limited, 'temporary effect'". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- Cooper, Helene; Shear, Michael D. (13 August 2014). "Militants' Siege on Mountain in Iraq Is Over, Pentagon Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Iraq crisis: US strikes aid Kurdish bid to retake dam". BBC. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Iraq crisis: Mosul dam recaptured from militants – Obama". BBC. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Bill Roggio (18 August 2014). "US airpower supports Peshmerga, Iraqi forces to retake Mosul Dam". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- John Beck (8 September 2014). "Iraqi Forces Have Pushed Back Islamic State Fighters From the Haditha Dam". Vice News. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "David Haines's 'evil murder' condemned by PM". BBC News. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Airstrike Agreement Keeps US Air Controllers Away From Combat – Military.com, 29 September 2014
- Chloe Sommers (18 December 2014). "The Pentagon has a new name for ISIS". CNN.
- Per Liljas (25 December 2014). "Iraqi Police: Coalition Airstrikes Kill ISIS Governor of Mosul". Time. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Aaron Mehta (19 January 2015). "A-10 Performing 11 Percent of Anti-ISIS Sorties". Defense News.
- Master. "Iraq: ISIS leader Baghdadi injured, stays in Syria". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015.
- Morris, Loveday (22 January 2015). "Kurds say they have ejected Islamic State militants from large area in Northern Iraq". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Stealthy Jet Ensures Other War-Fighting Aircraft Survive". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 13 August 2015.
- "News brief". The Week. 18 March 2016. p. 18.
- Youssef, Nancy A. (30 June 2014). "WASHINGTON: 480 U.S. troops now in Baghdad as officials move to secure access to airport". McClatchy DC. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Baghdad airport 'seized by US troops'". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Jacob Siegel. "Will U.S. Troops Stand By While ISIS Starves Thousands?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Schmitt, Eric; Gordon, Michael R. (13 July 2014). "U.S. Sees Risks in Assisting a Compromised Iraqi Force". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Cox, Carmen (15 July 2014). "Report: Iraqi Army Infiltrated with Extremists from Both Sides". ABC News Radio. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Pentagon report warns of security risks for US advisers in Iraq". The Hill. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Cooper, Helene (12 August 2014). "In Increase, U.S. to Send 130 Advisers to Aid Iraqis". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "US troops land on Iraq's Mt Sinjar to plan for Yazidi evacuation". The Guardian. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Obama to send approximately 350 additional military personnel to Iraq". Fox News. Associated Press. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Obama doubling US troop levels in Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Islamic State: Coalition 'pledges more troops' for Iraq". BBC News. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "Authorization for the Use of Military Force Against ISIL". U.S. Department of State. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "First ground clash between ISIS and US forces in Iraq". Shafaq News. 16 December 2014. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "US servicemen in first ground battle with ISIS – Kurdish media". Russia Today. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "Reports of U.S. Ground Fighters Emerge as ISIS Gains in Iraq". The Fiscal Times. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "American troops battle ISIS for first time as they see off attempted attack by militants on Iraqi base". London: Daily Mail. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "U.S. Ground Troops Fighting Isis In Iraq". Fox News Radio. 18 December 2014. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "Hundreds of US troops now deployed in Iraq's Anbar province". Stars and Stripes.
- Mark Thompson (5 January 2015). "U.S. Troops Now Under 'Frequent' Attack at Iraqi Base". TIME.com.
- "1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "US Operation Against ISIL in Iraq Remains Nameless". Military.com. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The War on ISIS Has 'No Name". Business Insider. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The Military Can't Come Up with a Name For Its War Against ISIS. We're Here To Help". Huffington Post. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "What's in a Name: Obama's Anonymous War Against ISIS". U.S. News & World Report. 29 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "U.S. Needs a Name for the Operation Against ISIS". New York. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The War With No Name". The American Prospect. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Troops not eligible for campaign medal in fight against ISIS". The Hill. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Iraq and Syria Operations Against ISIL Designated as Operation Inherent Resolve". Release #20141018. U.S. Central Command. 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "Cabinet approves Australian airstrikes in Iraq". The Australian. 3 October 2014.
- "Australian fighter jets conduct first armed flights over Iraq". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "Islamic State fighters fled into civilian areas at first sight of Australian forces: Defence". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "Islamic State jihadists advance on Syrian border town Kobane despite US-led air strikes". Daily Telegraph.
- Wroe, David (10 October 2014). "Australian bombs dropped on Islamic State building". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Brissenden, Michael (17 October 2014). "Deadly Australian air strikes dent IS morale in Iraq: Rear Admiral David Johnston". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Chan, Gabrielle (17 October 2014). "Australian air strikes in Iraq kill Isis fighters on 'at least two' occasions". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Chief of Joint Operations Vice Admiral David Johnston and Air Commodore 'Joe' Vincent Iervasi, deliver the second briefing in the Australia room at the Australian Defence Offices in Russell, Canberra". Transcript. Department of Defence. 17 October 2014. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Mercer, Phil (23 December 2017). "Australia Ending Role in Airstrikes Against IS in Iraq and Syria". Voice of America (VOA). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Tornados ready to support humanitarian operations". Ministry of Defence. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Iraq: 'Secret' Surveillance Flights Revealed". Sky News. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "David Cameron overrules Philip Hammond on air strikes in Syria". The Guardian. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "MPs support UK air strikes against IS in Iraq". BBC News. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "RAF conducts first air strikes of Iraq mission". Ministry of Defence. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "PM announces Tornado deployment". Ministry of Defence. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "HMS Defender supports operations against ISIL in the middle east". Royal Navy. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "UK deploys Reaper to the Middle East". Ministry of Defence. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "LATEST: air strikes in Iraq". Ministry of Defence. 6 November 2015.
- "Surveillance missions over Syria confirmed". Ministry of Defence. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Islamic State conflict: Two Britons killed in RAF Syria strike". BBC News. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- "Cameron: IS threat may require Syria intervention". BBC News. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- "Syria air strikes: What you need to know". BBC News. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- "Islamic State: Military Intervention:Written question - 9798". Parliament. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "About 330 Isis members killed in RAF airstrikes in past year – MoD". The Guardian. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "Lord Hansard text for 26 Nov 2015". HM Government. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "Op Shader - A Year On". Ministry of Defence. 26 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- "RAF jets busiest for 25 years as they "pound" Isil positions in Iraq and Syria". the telegraph. 11 December 2016.
- "Canada to end bombing missions in Iraq and Syria". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- "Operation IMPACT". Canadian Armed Forces. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Forces, Government of Canada, National Defence and the Canadian Armed (14 October 2014). "Canada News Centre - Archived - Statement by Canada's Chief of the Defence Staff Following Meeting with Coalition Partners - Meeting focussed on the ongoing campaign against ISIL".
- "ISIS mission: Canadian CF-18s complete operational flights in Iraq". CBC News. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "ISIS mission: Canadian CF-18s drop laser-guided bombs over Iraq". CBC News. 2 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Mission 'has begun' for Canadian warplanes". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- Laura, Payton. Canada's ISIS bomb attack destroyed heavy engineering equipment
- Ling, Justin. "New Info Has Emerged About Canada's Controversial Battle Against ISIS". Vice.com. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Campion-Smith, Bruce (19 January 2015). "Canadian soldiers get into firefight in Iraq". Toronto Star. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Chase, Steven (19 January 2015). "Mission creep concerns raised in Canadian fight against Islamic State". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Canadian special forces come under fire on Iraq front lines, 'neutralize threat'". CTVNews. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Canada's top general says special forces' role in Iraq has evolved". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Mullen, Jethro (9 April 2015). "Canadian warplanes carry out first airstrike against ISIS in Syria". CNN. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "Canada to withdraw fighter jets from Syria and Iraq strikes". BBC News. 21 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Hollande gives Trudeau a pass on pulling CF-18s from anti-ISIS bombing mission". CTVNews. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "Canada to end bombing mission against ISIS, triple size of training troops". Toronto Star. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- "Dutch military contribution in Iraq". www.defensie.nl. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "France to deploy largest warship in mission against IS". BBC. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Henley, Jon and Ian Traynor (15 November 2015). "France launches 'massive' airstrikes in wake of Paris attacks". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "Jordan Says 7,000 ISIS Fighters Killed In 3 Days Of Airstrikes; U.A.E. Rejoins Bombings — The Christian Times". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "Moroccan F-16 Carry Out Airstrikes Against ISIS". Morocco World News. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "Moroccan air strikes against Daech suspended in Syria and Iraq". Maghreb Daily News. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- Sherlock, Ruth (21 August 2014). "The failed US mission to try and rescue James Foley from Islamic State terrorists". Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "James Foley: US Military Launched Secret Rescue Operation in Syria for Journalist, Other Americans". ABC News. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Julie Pace (20 August 2014). "U.S. Attempted And Failed To Rescue American Hostages in Syria". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Goldman, Adam (20 August 2014). "U.S. staged secret operation into Syria in failed bid to rescue Americans". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "ISIS beheading U.S. journalist James Foley, posts video". CNN. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Tim Walker (19 March 2014). "James Foley 'beheaded': Isis video shows militant with British accent 'execute US journalist' – as hunt begins for killer – Middle East – World". London: The Independent. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Entous, Adam; Barnes, Julian E.; Nissenbaum, Dion (26 August 2014). "U.S. Lays Groundwork for Syria Strike". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Julie Pace. "Politics". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Miller, Zeke J (28 August 2014). "Obama Says 'We Don't Have a Strategy Yet' for Fighting ISIS". Time. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "U.S. has secretly provided arms training to Syria rebels since 2012". Los Angeles Times. 21 June 2013.
- "Secret CIA effort in Syria faces large funding cut". The Washington Post. 12 June 2015.
- Bowman, Tom; Fordham, Alice (23 April 2014). "CIA Is Quietly Ramping Up Aid To Syrian Rebels, Sources Say". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Spencer, Richard (17 February 2014). "US-backed head of Free Syria Army voted out". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Youssef, Nancy A. (26 May 2014). "Syrian Rebels Describe U.S.-Backed Training in Qatar". Frontline. PBS. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "House Grudgingly Approves Arms for Syrian Rebels". ABC News. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "U.S. Starts New Training for Syrian Rebels". Wall Street Journal. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "UK to send 75 military trainers to help moderate Syrian rebels". The Guardian. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- Marshall Jr., Tyrone C. "Spokesman: Airstrikes Only Part of the Strategy Against ISIL". Department of Defense. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "Only '4 Or 5' U.S.-Trained Rebels In Syria? Not Exactly." The Huffington Post. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "US-trained Syrian rebels refuse to fight al-Qaida group after kidnappings". The Guardian. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "US-trained Syrian rebels killed and leaders captured by al-Qaida affiliate". The Guardian. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "US, Arab allies launch first wave of strikes in Syria". Fox News. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "US airstrikes hit ISIS inside Syria for first time". CNN. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "US, Arab allies launch first strikes on fighters in Syria". The Daily Star.
- Jim Michaels and John Bacon, USA TODAY (3 February 2015). "Jordan executes two in response to pilot's slaying". USA TODAY.
- "Jordan To Execute Female Prisoner After ISIS Video Released". <