List of military leaders in the American Revolutionary War

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Several military leaders played a role in the American Revolutionary War. This is a compilation of some of the most important leaders among the many participants in the war. Militia: a part of the organized armed forces of a country liable to call only in emergency or a body of citizens organized for military service.[1] In order to be listed here an individual must satisfy one of the following criteria:

  • Was a nation's top civilian responsible for directing military affairs
  • Held a commission of at least brigadier general or rear admiral in an organized military during the conflict
  • Was the highest-ranking member of a given nation's force that participated in the conflict (if that rank was not at least major general)
  • Was the highest-ranking member of a given state/colonial militia
  • Was a provincial or territorial governor who is documented to have directed a military action
  • Was a Native American tribal leader who had a documented leadership position in military action

Some individuals held concurrent positions in more than one organization, and a number of Continental Army generals also held high-ranking positions in their state militia organizations

United States[edit]

Detail from Washington and his generals at Yorktown (c. 1781) by Charles Willson Peale. Lafayette (far left) is at Washington's right, the Comte de Rochambeau to his immediate left.

When the war began, because the American colonists feared a very strong armed force (also known as a "standing army"), each colony had traditionally provided its own defense through the use of local militia. Each of which had their own command hierarchy. Some states, most notably Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, also had their own navies.

Seeking to coordinate military efforts, the Continental Congress established (on paper) a regular army—the Continental Army—in June 1775, and appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief. The development of the Continental Army was always a work in progress, and Washington reluctantly augmented the regular troops with militia throughout the war.

General and Commander-in-chief[edit]

Name Period of service in the rank, promotions and previous military experience. Termination of service Commentary
George Washington June 15, 1775 to Dec. 23, 1783.[2] Member of the Second Continental Congress. Former Colonel of the Virginia Regiment in the French and Indian War.[3]
Resigned at the end of the war.[4]
George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, reporting to the Second Continental Congress. His activities, including command of the Main Army, the direction of the overall war effort on behalf of the United States, and administration of the entire army, were overseen by the Board of War, established in June 1776. He held the rank of general during the war. He was subsequently appointed lieutenant general in 1798 and was posthumously promoted to General of the Armies of the United States in 1976.

Continental Army[edit]

Major generals[edit]

Name Period of service in the rank, promotions and previous military experience. Termination of service Commentary
Artemas Ward June 17, 1775 to April 23, 1776.[2] General and Commander-in-Chief of the Massachusetts troops.[5]
Resigned officially due to "want of health", but really did not want to leave Boston after the British evacuation.[6]
The first overall leader of the assembled militia forces outside Boston after the war began, and ranked second in seniority to Washington in the Continental Army. He commanded the Eastern Department, which was largely responsible for containing the British at Newport, until 1777, when he resigned due to poor health
Charles Lee June 17, 1775 to January 10, 1780.[2] Half-pay Lieutenant Colonel in the British Army, formerly of the 103rd Foot.[7]
Dismissed by Congress.[8]
An experienced British military officer, Lee had hoped to be appointed commander-in-chief instead of Washington. He was a somewhat difficult subordinate of Washington's, delaying execution of orders or deliberately flouting them at times. During the retreat across New Jersey from New York, Lee was captured by the British in a surprise raid. Quickly exchanged, he participated in the Philadelphia campaign. After he was convicted by a court martial for disobeying orders during the Battle of Monmouth, he resigned from the army in 1780.
Philip Schuyler June 19, 1775 to April 19, 1779.[2] Member of the Second Continental Congress.[9]
Resigned due to a dispute with Horatio Gates.[10]
As head of the Northern Department, Schuyler planned the 1775 invasion of Quebec, but was prevented from leading it by an illness. He was active in the defense of New York in 1777, but the withdrawal from Ticonderoga led Congress to replace him with Horatio Gates. He was also active in Indian relations, cultivating the neutrality or support of tribes in New York.
Israel Putnam June 19, 1775 to June 3, 1783.[2] Promoted from colonel of the 3rd Connecticut Regiment.[11]
Resigned officially at the end of the war. However, his active service ended in December 1779 due to a stroke.[12]
Active from the first days of the revolution, Putnam led the forces in the field at the Battle of Bunker Hill. After performing poorly in the Battle of Long Island, Washington assigned him to do primarily recruiting in the Highlands Department. He suffered a stroke in 1779, which ended his military career.
Richard Montgomery Dec. 9, 1775 to Dec. 31, 1775. (Brigadier General June 22, 1775).[2] Former Captain in the 17th Foot.[13]
Killed in action during the Battle of Quebec.[14]
Leading the Invasion of Canada in 1775 as a brigadier, Montgomery was killed in the Battle of Quebec, without knowing that he had been promoted to major general following the Siege of Fort St. Jean.
John Thomas March 6, 1776 to June 2, 1776. (Brigadier General June 22, 1775).[2] Lieutenant General of Massachusetts Militia.[15]
Died from smallpox during the retreat from Canada.[16]
Active from the beginning of the war in Boston, Thomas commanded the besieging forces at Roxbury. Sent to take over the forces besieging Quebec City, he died of smallpox during the army's retreat in June 1776.
William Heath Aug. 9, 1776 to Nov. 3, 1783. (Brigadier General June 22, 1775).[2] Major General of Massachusetts Militia.[17] Having a prominent role training troops in the early days of the war at the Siege of Boston, Heath spent most of the war leading the Highland Department, since Washington was apparently not confident of his ability in the field.[citation needed]
Horatio Gates May 16, 1776 to Nov. 3, 1783. (Brigadier General June 17, 1775).[2]
Half-pay Major in the British Army, formerly of the Royal American Regiment.[18]
Served at first as Washington's adjutant, and then in the Northern Department. He was in command during the pivotal battle of Saratoga in 1777, following which he lobbied Congress as a potential replacement for Washington. He was afterward given command of the Southern Department, where his army was disastrously defeated at Camden in 1780, ending his field leadership.
Joseph Spencer Aug. 9, 1776 to Jan. 13, 1778. (Brigadier General June 22, 1775 from Colonel of 2nd Connecticut Regiment).[2][19]
Resigned because Congress had ordered an investigation of his military conduct.[20]
John Sullivan Aug. 9, 1776 to Nov. 30, 1779. (Brigadier General June 22, 1775 when member of the Second Continental Congress).[2][21]
Resigned due to ill health.[21]
Active from the first days of the war, he led a relief column and ended up in command of the invasion of Quebec during its final weeks in 1776. He then served under Washington in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. He led American forces in the failed Battle of Rhode Island, and then led the 1779 Sullivan Expedition, which destroyed Indian villages in New York.
Nathanael Greene Aug. 9, 1776 to Nov. 3, 1783. (Brigadier General June 22, 1775).[2] Brigadier General of Rhode Island troops.[22] One of the best strategists in the Continental Army. He served under Washington in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and served for a time as the army's Quartermaster General. He led the ultimately successful campaign in 1780 and 1781 against the British "Southern Strategy" as commander of the Southern Department, effectively becoming the Continental Army's number two general.
Benedict Arnold Feb. 17, 1777 to Sept 25, 1780. (Brigadier General Jan. 10, 1776 from Colonel of 20th Continental Regiment).[2][23]
Deserted to the enemy.[24]
A leading force in the early days of the war, participating in the 1775 capture of Fort Ticonderoga and the invasion of Quebec. He played a crucial role in the 1777 Battles of Saratoga, in which he was severely wounded. In 1780, he acquired command of the Highlands Department with the intent of surrendering West Point to the British. The plot was uncovered and he fled to join the British, for whom he served until the end of 1781 as a brigadier general.
William Alexander Feb. 19, 1777 to Jan. 15, 1783. (Brigadier General March 1, 1776 from Colonel of 1st New Jersey Regiment).[2][25]
Died in active service.[26]
Spending most of the war with the Main Army under Washington, he was captured during the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and not long after that, exchanged for Montfort Browne. He also served with distinction in numerous battles in New Jersey. He died in 1783 shortly before the end of the war.
Thomas Mifflin Feb. 19, 1777 to Feb. 25, 1779. (Brigadier General May 16, 1776 from Quartermaster General with rank of colonel).[2][27]
Resigned when under investigation by Congress for his actions as Quartermaster General.[28]
Serving in a variety of roles during and after the American Revolution, several of which qualify him to be counted among the Founding Fathers. He was the first Governor of Pennsylvania, serving from 1790 to 1799; he was also the last President of Pennsylvania, succeeding Benjamin Franklin and serving from 1788 until 1790.
Arthur St. Clair Feb. 19, 1777 to Nov. 3, 1783. (Brigadier General Aug. 9, 1776 from Colonel of 2nd Pennsylvania Battalion).[2][29] Leading troops during the Quebec, New York, and New Jersey campaigns, and then put in command of Fort Ticonderoga, where he made the critical decision to retreat before Burgoyne's advancing army. Publicly criticized for this step, which saved his army, he held no more field commands, but served as an aide to Washington for the rest of the war.
Adam Stephen Feb. 19, 1777 to Feb. 25, 1777. (Brigadier General Sep. 4, 1776 from Colonel of 4th Virginia Regiment).[2][30]
Court-martialed and cashiered for drunkenness and firing on friendly troops at the battle of Germantown.[31]
Leading forces under Washington in the New York, New Jersey, and Philadelphia campaigns. Following a misstep in the Battle of Germantown in which, against orders, he advanced his troops to a point where they accidentally exchanged friendly fire with forces of Anthony Wayne, Stephen was court martialed and cashiered out of the army.
Benjamin Lincoln Feb. 19, 1777 to Oct. 29, 1783.[2] Commissioned from major general of Massachusetts Militia.[32] Present at three major surrenders during the war. Active in the New York campaign, Washington sent him to assist Horatio Gates in the Northern Department, where he was wounded after the Battle of Bemis Heights. Next he was put in command of the Southern Department, he was forced to surrender his army to Sir Henry Clinton when they were surrounded in Charleston in 1780. Exchanged later that year, he was present at the Siege of Yorktown where, as second-in-command to Washington, he accepted Cornwallis' sword, which Cornwallis had sent his second-in-command to deliver. From 1781 to 1783 he served as Secretary at War.
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette July 31, 1777 to Nov. 3, 1783.[2] Captain in the French Régiment de Noailles dragons.[33] Serving with Washington in the Philadelphia campaign, he fought in the Battle of Rhode Island, and successfully resisted significant engagements with British forces in Virginia before the armies of Washington and Rochambeau arrived. He was a favorite of Washington's, who treated him like a son.
Philip De Coudray Aug. 11, 1777 to Sept. 15, 1777.[2] Chef de brigade in the French Corps-Royal d'artillerie.[34]
Died in a riding accident.[34]
Johann de Kalb Sept. 15, 1777 to Aug. 19, 1780.[2] Former Captain and lieutenant colonel by brevet in the French Régiment d'Anhalt.[35]
Died of wounds received in the battle of Camden.[36]
Serving under Washington at Valley Forge, he was sent to the Southern Department with Horatio Gates when he took over that department.
Robert Howe Oct. 20, 1777 to Nov. 3, 1783. (Brigadier General March 1, 1776 from Colonel of 2nd North Carolina Regiment).[2][37] Commanding the Southern Department, he led a campaign against East Florida that failed due to disagreements with state militia commanders, and was forced to surrender Savannah. He then served under Anthony Wayne in the Highlands Department, seeing action at Stony Point, and under Washington in the Main Army, where he put down a mutiny in 1781.
Alexander McDougall Oct. 20, 1777 to Nov. 3, 1783. (Brigadier General Aug. 9, 1776.)[2] Former Colonel of 1st New York Regiment).[38] Active in the New York and Philadelphia campaigns, he spent most of the war in the Highlands Department under William Heath.
Thomas Conway Dec. 13, 1777 to April 28, 1778. (Brigadier General May 13, 1777).[2] Colonel in the French Régiment d'Anjou.[39]
Resigned when he lost his command after the Conway Cabal had been revealed.[40]
Inspector General of the Continental Army. Involved with the Conway Cabal together with Horatio Gates, he later served with Émigré forces during the French Revolutionary War.
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben May 15, 1778 to April 15, 1784.[2] (Volunteer Inspector General March 28, 1778.)[41] Former Captain in the Prussian Infantry Regiment von Salmuth.[42] His military drills and instruction, which included swearing and shouting commands to officers, were especially helpful at Valley Forge, are generally credited with significantly improving the performance of the Continental Army. He served in active roles in the Philadelphia campaign, and under Nathanael Greene in his southern campaign, before returning to Washington's army at Yorktown. He authored Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, the United States Army's training guide until the War of 1812. At President Washington's request, he created a blueprint for the future of the U.S. Military, including the establishment, framework, and curriculum for America's service academies, starting with West Point.[43]
William Smallwood Sept. 15, 1780 to Nov. 3, 1783. (Brigadier General Oct. 23, 1776 from Colonel of 1st Maryland Regiment).[2][44] Served with distinction in the New York campaign and was twice wounded at White Plains. He then served in the Philadelphia campaign, and was in the debacle at Camden in 1780. He also commanded the militia of North Carolina for a few months.
Samuel Holden Parsons Oct. 23, 1780 to July 22, 1782. (Brigadier General Aug. 9, 1776 from Colonel of 10th Continental Regiment.)[2][45]
Dissatisfied and in poor health, he repeatedly asked leave to resign but it was not granted by Congress until the end of hostilities.[46]
Henry Knox Nov. 15, 1781 to June 20, 1784. (Brigadier General Dec. 27, 1776 from Colonel of Artillery).[2][47] Chief artillery officer of the Continental Army. Active with Washington throughout most of the war, he brought Ticonderoga's cannons to Boston in early 1776, and saw the most action from New York to Yorktown. He oversaw the creation of an artillery training centre that was a precursor to the United States Military Academy, and later served as the first United States Secretary of War. Knox initiated the concept of The Society of the Cincinnati, formally organizing the society and authoring its founding document as the war ended in 1783.[48][49][50]
Louis Lebègue Duportail Nov. 15, 1781 to June 20, 1784. (Brigadier General Nov. 17, 1777 from Colonel of Engineers).[2][51] Lieutenant-Colonel in the French Corps royal du genie.[52] He oversaw the improvement of defenses throughout the states and directed the engineering efforts at Yorktown.
William Moultrie Oct. 15, 1782 to Nov. 3, 1783. (Brigadier General Sept. 16, 1776 from Colonel of 2nd South Carolina Regiment).[2][53]

Brigadier generals[edit]

Militia[edit]

Continental Navy[edit]

  • John Adams Famous Bostonian and Son of Liberty member, wrote the Navy's Code of Discipline. Additionally, through the Continental Congress commissioned the first war ships for defending the Colonies and seizing British resources from reaching enemy troops.[67]
  • John Barry was a captain in the Continental Navy. During his time as a commander he oversaw the commands of four American warships. He is known, along with John Adams and John Paul Jones, as the "Father of the American Navy".
  • John Hazelwood was a commodore in the Pennsylvania and Continental Navies, active in the Philadelphia campaign and siege of Fort Mifflin.
  • John Paul Jones was a captain in the Continental Navy and famously took captive HMS Serapis during the Battle of Flamborough Head after his ship, Bonhomme Richard, sank. He, along with John Barry, is known as "The Father of the American Navy".
  • Esek Hopkins was an established Sea Captain and Brigadier General of Militia from Rhode Island who was named commodore and commander in chief of the Continental Navy in 1776. He disregarded his instructions from Congress to take the fleet to cruise the Southern colonies, instead attacking British colonial holdings in the Caribbean in the Battle of Nassau. This act was Initially hailed as heroic, he was subsequently censured by Congress in August 1776, and was relieved of his command in January 1778.
  • James Nicholson of Virginia was the designated Senior Captain in the Navy for political reasons in October 1776. He was the senior officer in the navy after Commodore Hopkins's relief in 1778, but never exercised command over the whole navy because it had ceased to operate as an organized fleet.
  • Abraham Whipple was a commodore in the Continental Navy. In one of the first military actions of the revolution in 1772, Whipple led 50 Rhode Islanders in the capture and burning of the British revenue cutter Gaspee.

Great Britain[edit]

At the head of the British forces was the King, George III. From 1772 to 1778 the office of Commander-in-Chief was vacant, but from 1778 to 1782 Sir Jeffery Amherst held the post, with the title of general on the Staff. He was succeeded in February 1782 by Henry Seymour Conway.

Next in importance to the Commander-in-Chief was the Secretary at War, who served as head of the War Office, and was bidden "to observe and follow such orders and directions as he should from time to time receive from the King or the general of the forces". Not until 1783 was he a minister responsible to parliament. At the start of part of the war the secretary was Lord Barrington. He was replaced in 1778 by Charles Jenkinson who held this position until the fall of Lord North's government.

Crown and Government officials[edit]

Commander-in-Chief of the Forces[edit]

Secretaries at War[edit]

Commander-in-Chief, North America[edit]

Sir Henry Clinton

Until the war was widened into a global conflict by France's entry in 1778, the war's military activities were primarily directed by the Commander-in-Chief, North America.

  • General Thomas Gage was commander-in-chief of North American forces from 1763 until 1775, and governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay from 1774 to 1776. He presided over the rising tensions (with his actions sometimes contributing to them, in the opinions of some historians) that led to the outbreak of the war. He was recalled after the Battle of Bunker Hill.
  • General William Howe replaced Gage, and personally directed the war effort in 1776 and 1777, including the British captures of New York City and Philadelphia. He failed to gain control over New Jersey, and his actions in taking Philadelphia contributed to the failure of John Burgoyne's Saratoga campaign. He resigned in early 1778.
  • Sir Henry Clinton served as commander-in-chief from 1778 to 1782. He oversaw the British army's retreat from Philadelphia, and then directed the Siege of Charleston, the landing of a large body of troops early in the "Southern strategy". He directed most British activities afterward from his base in New York, and played a role in negotiating Benedict Arnold's change of allegiance. Following Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown, he was replaced by Guy Carleton.
  • Sir Guy Carleton was governor of Quebec from 1768 to 1777, overseeing the province's defense against the 1775 invasion, and its first counterattack. Denied command of what became John Burgoyne's campaign, he resigned in 1777. In 1782, King George appointed him to replace Clinton as commander-in-chief. He directed the withdrawal of British troops from the states and helped to organize the relocation of thousands of Loyalists to other British territories.

Lieutenant and Major Generals[edit]

  • Mariot Arbuthnot was Vice-Admiral of the Blue in the Royal Navy, and commanded its North American station from 1779 until 1781. He led the navy in the Siege of Charleston and the Battle of Cape Henry. He was also Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia from 1776 to 1778, active in suppressing Patriot sentiment in that province.
  • Sir Robert Boyd was a lieutenant general who served in the garrison at the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
  • John Burgoyne was a lieutenant general who led a British attempt to gain control of the Hudson River valley in 1777 that was stopped at Saratoga. Paroled to England and eventually exchanged, he did not serve further in the war.
  • The Hon. John Byron was the admiral in command of the West Indies naval station in 1778 and 1779. He fought the minor Battle of Grenada against d'Estaing in 1779, and retired the following year.
  • Archibald Campbell, while a lieutenant colonel, regained control of Georgia in 1779 and served as its royal governor. Promoted to major general, he served in Jamaica, becoming its governor in 1782.
  • John Campbell served in the Boston campaign and the New York and New Jersey campaign early in the war, before being given command of the defense of West Florida. Captured in the 1781 Siege of Pensacola, he ended the war in the New York City garrison.
  • Henry Clinton, was sent into Massachusetts along with William Howe and John Burgoyne to aid Thomas Gage. He was one of the men responsible for planning the Battle of Bunker Hill. He would later serve as commander in Chief, America.
  • Sir George Collier was the commander of the Royal Navy's North American station from 1776 to 1779, providing naval support to a variety of operations, and leading the relief of the 1779 Penobscot Expedition. Thereafter he served in European waters, where he participated in one of the relief convoys to Gibraltar.
  • Sir Eyre Coote was the commander-in-chief of British forces in India. While not personally involved in combat against the French and Dutch there, troops that were part of his command were involved in engagements against French and Dutch targets, while he was preoccupied with the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
  • Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis participated in many campaigns in North America. He served under Howe and Clinton in the New York and Philadelphia campaigns and was given control of the southern army by Clinton after the Siege of Charleston. At first successfully driving the Continentals from South Carolina, he was eventually forced to surrender his army at Yorktown in the last major engagement between American and British forces.
  • Sir John Dalling, 1st Baronet was a general and governor of Jamaica until 1781, where he coordinated British military affairs throughout the Caribbean and the West Indies.
  • William Dalrymple commanded British troops in Boston when 3-400 civilians provoked 8 soldiers into firing their muskets without orders, killing five. Patriots subsequently publicized it heavily as the "Boston Massacre". He served as quartermaster general of the British Army in North America from 1779 to 1783.
  • Sir Charles Douglas was an admiral in the Royal Navy. He led the advance fleet that brought relief to Quebec in April 1776, and served under Rodney in the Battle of the Saintes.
  • Sir William Erskine, 1st Baronet was a general who served under Howe and Clinton in the New York and Philadelphia campaigns. He also served for a time as quartermaster general before leaving active service in 1779.
  • Sir William Fawcett became the army's adjutant general in 1781. His most important role in the war was overseeing the embarkation of hired German troops for deployment to the various theaters of war.
  • The Hon. Simon Fraser of Lovat was a general and colonel of the 71st (Highland) Regiment of Foot. While he did not serve in the war, he was responsible for raising the regiment, which saw service throughout much of North America, and was captured at Yorktown.
  • Samuel Graves was the admiral in charge of the navy's North American station at the outbreak of the war. He directed naval activities for much of the Siege of Boston, and gave orders resulting in the politically and literally inflammatory Burning of Falmouth in October 1775. He was recalled in January 1776, and saw no more service in the war.
  • Thomas Graves, 1st Baron Graves was an admiral and the nephew of Samuel Graves. As a lieutenant, he participated in the Battle of Chelsea Creek in 1775. By 1781 he had risen to become commander of the North American station. His fleet was driven off in the critical Battle of the Chesapeake that enabled the French blockade of Yorktown.
  • Sir William Green was a general. He was the chief engineer during the Great Siege of Gibraltar, and had risen to major general by the end of the siege, later full general.
  • Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey was one of the more successful army leaders. He led a brigade at the Battle of Brandywine, led forces in the Battle of Paoli and in raids on New Bedford and Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts.
  • Frederick Haldimand was responsible for the British troops in the Siege of Boston, although his authority was often superseded by Thomas Gage, who had overall command. Haldimand served as governor of Quebec from 1778 to 1786, with responsibility for the defense of the province and the organization and support of frontier attacks in the Ohio Country.
  • Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood was an admiral, who served primarily under Rodney in the West Indies. He was also present at the Battle of the Chesapeake under Thomas Graves.
  • Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe was chief of the North American naval station from 1776 to 1778, and brother of Sir William Howe. He was given diplomatic authority by King George to conduct negotiations at the unsuccessful Staten Island Peace Conference with John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Edward Rutledge. Sympathetic to the colonists' cause, he saw no further service until 1782, when he participated in the relief of Gibraltar.
  • William Howe Before taking over as the commander in chief, North America, Howe, along with Henry Clinton were sent into Massachusetts to serve with then commander in chief, North America Thomas Gage. Howe was the main person in charge of the British forces in the Battle of Bunker Hill.
  • The Hon. Alexander Leslie served under Cornwallis in the southern campaigns, but was commanding forces in Charleston at the time of Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown.
  • William Medows distinguished himself in the Philadelphia campaign and the Battle of St. Lucia in 1778. He was then despatched to India, where he was primarily involved in the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
  • Hector Munro, 8th of Novar was a general active in India. He led the forces that captured Pondicherry in 1778, and led forces against the Mysoreans.
  • William Phillips was an artillery general. He served under Burgoyne and was captured at Saratoga in 1777. Exchanged in 1780, he took over leadership of Benedict Arnold's army in Virginia, before becoming ill and dying.
  • William Picton was a major general who served in the Gibraltar garrison during the siege.
  • George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney was the commander of the naval station in the West Indies. He also participated in one of the expeditions to relieve Gibraltar, and, after capturing de Grasse in the Battle of the Saintes, famously wrote, "Within two little years I have taken two Spanish, one French and one Dutch admirals."
  • Francis Smith. As a major general, he oversaw the expedition of Concord to find weapons that were being smuggled by rebels. The British troops were halted by rebels on the way in Lexington, causing a skirmish to break out. The first battle of the war.

Brigadier generals[edit]

Other notable officers[edit]

Major John André, Head of British Secret Service in America
  • Lieutenant Colonel James Abercrombie , while leading the retreat at the Battle of Bunker Hill, he was fatally injured in the thigh from being shot by a rebel.
  • Lieutenant Colonel John Graves Simcoe, he was a captain who traveled across the Northeast to look for American spies. He was featured in the AMC Series Turn: Washington's Spies, as one of the main antagonists.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, a cavalry officer who led the British Legion, a regiment of American loyalist cavalry and light infantry. Though reviled by Americans for alleged atrocities, Tarleton’s successes on the battlefield made him one of the few British heroes of the war.
  • Major John Andre  had just become head of British intelligence operations across the 13 Colonies, working under General Clinton. He negotiated with Benedict Arnold and, after being captured, was ordered hanged by a vengeful George Washington.
  • Major John Pitcairn  physically led the British forces in the expedition of Concord, in which it was speculated that rebels were hiding weapons. He died soon after The Battle of Bunker Hill after sustaining 6 gunshot wounds, including one to the head.
  • Captain Thomas Preston, a couple of years before the war broke out, Preston was in charge of the eight-man squad that shot five angered American colonists during the controversial Boston Massacre.

Royal governors[edit]

Frontier leaders[edit]

Native Americans[edit]

Chief Cornplanter portrait by F. Bertoli, 1796

The following Native American leaders from various nations took part in the American Revolution:

German principalities[edit]

Great Britain hired the services of military troops from a number of German dominions of the Holy Roman Empire. The largest number arrived in 1776 pursuant to agreements signed in late 1775 or early 1776, but additional forces were recruited in 1778, with only limited success. The single largest contingent came from Hesse-Kassel, hence the term "Hessians".

France[edit]

Government leaders[edit]

Admirals[edit]

Generals[edit]

Spain[edit]

Dutch Republic[edit]

The Dutch Republic played a significant economic role in the war, but its military participation was limited, in part due to internal political divisions.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Webster, Merriam. "Definition of MILITIA". www.merriam-webster.com.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Heitman 1914, pp. 9-10.
  3. ^ Fitzpatrick 1936, pp. 511, 514.
  4. ^ Chernow 2011, p. 455.
  5. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 568.
  6. ^ Tarbox 1876, p. 109.
  7. ^ Adams 1933, p. 98.
  8. ^ Chernow 2011, p. 436.
  9. ^ Krout 1934, p. 478.
  10. ^ Tucker 2018, vol. 4, p. 626.
  11. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 455.
  12. ^ Hubbard 2017, p. 173.
  13. ^ Adams 1934, p. 98.
  14. ^ Shelton 1994, p. 149.
  15. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 548.
  16. ^ Kohn 2008, p. 317.
  17. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 284.
  18. ^ Adams 1931, p. 185
  19. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 511.
  20. ^ United States Congress 1961, p. 1638.
  21. ^ a b United States Congress 1961, p. 1674.
  22. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 260.
  23. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 75.
  24. ^ Chernow 2011, p. 382.
  25. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 66.
  26. ^ Alden 1928, p. 175.
  27. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 3912.
  28. ^ Peeling 1933, p. 607.
  29. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 516.
  30. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 517.
  31. ^ Hannings 2008, p. 223.
  32. ^ Robinson 1933, p. 260.
  33. ^ Monaghan 1933, p. 536.
  34. ^ a b Tucker 2018.
  35. ^ Kapp 1862, p. 34.
  36. ^ Monaghan 1933a, p. 253.
  37. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 304.
  38. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 368.
  39. ^ Rossie 1975, p. 189.
  40. ^ Adams 1930, p. 366.
  41. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 518.
  42. ^ Lockhart 2008, p. 20.
  43. ^ Lockhart 2008, p. 301.
  44. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 500.
  45. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 428.
  46. ^ Clark 1934, p. 271.
  47. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 336.
  48. ^ The Origins of The Society of the Cincinnati, retrieved January 27, 2021
  49. ^ Thomas, p. 90.
  50. ^ Metcalf, p. 188.
  51. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 208.
  52. ^ Ferreiro 2016, p. 139.
  53. ^ Heitman 1914, p. 54.
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  • Broadwater, Robert P. (2012). American Generals of the Revolutionary War. McFarland & Company.
  • Chernow, Ron (2011). Washington. Penguin Books.
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  • Fredriksen, John C. (2006). Revolutionary War Almanac. Facts on File.
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  • Hannings, Bud (2008). Chronology of the American Revolution. McFarland & Company.
  • Hubbard, Robert E. (2017). Major General Israel Putnam. McFarland & Company.
  • Kapp, Friedrich (1862). Leben des amerikanischen Generals Johann Kalb. Stuttgart.
  • Kohn, George C. (2008). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence. New York.
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Literature[edit]

  • Black, Jeremy. War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783. St. Martin's Press (New York) and Sutton Publishing (UK), 1991. ISBN 0-312-06713-5 (1991), ISBN 0-312-12346-9 (1994 paperback), ISBN 0-7509-2808-5 (2001 paperpack).
  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: McKay, 1966; revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]