Egyptian Armed Forces

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Military of Egypt)
Jump to: navigation, search
Egyptian Armed Forces
القوات المسلحة المصرية
El Qowat El Mosalaha El Masriya
Egyptian Soldiers carrying flags Navy and Ground forces and Air Force and air defense.jpg
Egyptian soldiers carrying flags of the main branches of the armed forces
Motto Victory or Martyrdom
Founded 3200 BC[1][2][3]
Current form 1820–present (196 years)[4][5][6]
Service branches
Headquarters Kobri El Oubba, Cairo
Leadership
Supreme Commander President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Commander-in-Chief and Minister of Defence Col. Gen. Sedki Sobhi
Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Mahmoud Hegazy
Manpower
Military age 18–49 years old[7]
Conscription 1–3 years[7]
Available for
military service
42,000,000[8], age 18–49[7]
Fit for
military service
35,306,000[9], age 18–49[7]
Reaching military
age annually
1,535,000[10]
Active personnel 438,500[11] - 470,000[12] (ranked 10th - 11th)
Reserve personnel 479,000[11] - 800,000 [13] In addition paramilitary 397,000[11]
Deployed personnel Over 2613 deployed in 24 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Europe.[14]
Expenditures
Budget 56.1 billion (~US$7.85 billion)[15]
Industry
Domestic suppliers
Foreign suppliers
  •  United States
  •  Russia
  •  France
  •  China
  •  Germany
  •  North Korea
  •  South Korea
  •  Finland
  •  Italy
  •  United Kingdom
  •  Ukraine
  •  Spain
  •   Switzerland
  •  Czech Republic
  • Former:  Soviet Union
Related articles
History
Ranks

The Egyptian Armed Forces (Arabic: القوات المسلحة المصرية‎; Arabic pronunciation: [el qowat el mosalaha el masriya]) are the military forces of Egypt and are one of the largest in Africa, the Middle East, and the world. They consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense Forces.

The supreme commander of the armed forces is the President of the Republic as provided for in the Egyptian constitution. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces consists of 20 to 25 members, headed by the Commander-in-Chief and Defence Minister and his deputy, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. Members of the council are formed of the leaders of the main military branches (ArmyAirNavyAir DefenseBorder Guard) and the leaders of the two armies (Second Army And Third Army) in addition to the leaders of the military regions (Western Military ZoneNorthern Military ZoneSouthern Military ZoneCentral Military ZoneEast Military Canal Zone) along with the heads of the upper bodies (Chief of Operations – Reinforcement – Logistics – Engineering – Training – Finance – Military Justice – Management and Administration), administrative managers (Military Intelligence and Director of Morale Affairs) and the Assistant Defense Secretary for Constitutional and Legal Affairs and Secretary General of the Department of Defense (Secretary of the Council).

The Egyptian army is one of the oldest armies in history, the first of its wars began to unite Egypt at the hands of King Menes in 3200 BC,[16] and have fought major wars and battles over the centuries, from the Pharaonic era and through Ptolemaic and Romania, Islamic and even modern era. The Egyptian army have fought battles and wars in many parts of the world, mostly defensive, with the most notable being: the Battle of Pelusium, Battle of Carchemish, Battle of Hamath, Battle of Megiddo, Fall of Ashdod, Battle of Qarqar, Battle of Bitter Lakes, Battle of Bitter Lakes, Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian-Sea People wars, Battle of the Delta, Battle of Djahy, Battle of Al Mansurah, French campaign in Egypt and Syria, Mahdist War, Greek War of Independence, First Egyptian-Ottoman War, Second Egyptian-Ottoman War, Ethiopian–Egyptian War, 'Urabi Revolt, Anglo-Egyptian War, World War I, World War II, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Egyptian Revolution of 1952, Suez Crisis, North Yemen Civil War, Six-Day War, Nigerian Civil War, War of Attrition, Yom Kippur War, Egyptian bread riots, Libyan–Egyptian War, Gulf War, Egyptian Crisis, Second Libyan Civil War, and the Sinai insurgency.

Military equipment varies in the Egyptian army between eastern and western armament, coming from several countries through mutual military cooperation, including the United States, Russia, France, Italy, Ukraine, China, as well as locally from the AOI, NSPO, EAEA and MMP.

The power of the Egyptian Armed Forces since the Arab Spring has caused it to be called a "state within a state".[17][18]

History[edit]

For military arrangements in antiquity, see Military history of Ancient Egypt.
Ahmose I commander of the Egyptian army fighting the Hyksos in 1700 BC.

For most parts of its long history,[19] ancient Egypt was unified under one government. The main military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out. The arid plains they wanted to get rid of and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who occasionally tried to raid or settle in the fertile Nile river valley.[20] Nevertheless, the great expanses of the desert formed a barrier that protected the river valley and was almost impossible for massive armies to cross.[21] The Egyptians built fortresses and outposts along the borders east and west of the Nile Delta,[22] in the Eastern Desert, and in Nubia to the south. Small garrisons could prevent minor incursions,[23] but if a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked city walls and other defenses.[24][25]

The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three kingdoms and two intermediate periods. During the three Kingdoms Egypt was unified under one government.[26] During the Intermediate periods (the periods of time between Kingdoms) government control was in the hands of the various nomes (provinces within Egypt) and various foreigners. The geography of Egypt served to isolate the country and allowed it to thrive.[27] This circumstance set the stage for many of Egypt's military conquests.[28] They weakened their enemies by using small projectile weapons,[29] like bows and arrows. They also had chariots which they used to charge at the enemy.[30]

Under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty[edit]

Muhammad Ali Pasha of Egypt displaying his army and navy 1830-1848

Following his seizure of power in Egypt, and declaration of himself as Khedive of the country,[31] Muhammad Ali Pasha set about establishing a bona fide Egyptian military.[32] Prior to his rule, Egypt had been governed by the Ottoman Empire, and while he still technically owed fealty to the Ottoman Porte,[33] Muhammad Ali sought to gain full independence for Egypt. To further this aim,[34] he brought in European weapons and expertise, and built an army that defeated the Ottoman Sultan, wresting control from the Porte of the Levant, and Hejaz.[35] The Egyptian Army was involved in the following wars during Muhammad Ali's reign:[36]

In addition, he utilised his army to conquer Sudan, and unite it with Egypt.

Egypt was involved in the long-running 1881-99 Mahdist War in the Sudan.

The Making of a Professional Army[edit]

King Farouk I of Egypt inspecting small army units in Abdeen Square.

During Muhammad Ali Pasha's reign, the Egyptian army became a much more strictly regimented and professional army.[37] The recruits were separated from daily civilian life and a sense of the impersonal of law was imposed.[38] The new recruits were also drawn from the Egyptian farmers (the fellah), not from Sudanese slaves or Mamluks.[39]

In previous times, the wives and family were allowed to follow the army as they were camped out. This was no longer the case. Isolating the recruits in barracks, military schools and training camps was the first essential step towards the creation of the professional, disciplined force of soldiers.[40]

Inside these barracks, soldiers were also subjected to new practices. The rules and regulations were not made to inflict punishment on the recruits but rather to impose a sense of respect for the law; the threat of punishment was enough to keep them in line and from deserting. The roll-call was taken twice a day and those found missing would be declared deserters and would have to face the punishment for their actions.[41]

Passing laws with a strict punishment regime was not sufficient for the soldiers to internalize the different army regulations that they were asked to obey. For this to succeed these soldiers had to be interned and isolated from outside influences. They then had to be taught to follow rules and regulations that came with army life. This process helped to transform the fellah into disciplined soldiers.[42]

After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952[edit]

Members of the Free Officers gathered after the revolution. From left to right: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein, Gamal Abdel Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Muhammad Naguib, Youssef Seddik and Ahmed Shawki

After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, a revolutionary organisation was created secretly by the Egyptian officers under the name of Free Officers.[43] This Free Officers,[44] led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser,[45] overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.[46] The Free Officers then forced the British troops based in the Suez Canal to leave Egypt in what became known later as Anglo - Egyptian Treaty (1954),[47] marking the end of Britain's military presence in Egypt.[48] During the Cold War,[49] the army actively fought in the Suez Crisis,[50] known in Egypt and the Arab World as the Tripartite Aggression,[51] the North Yemen Civil War from 1962 to 1967,[52][53] and the 1967 Six Day War.[54][55]

Just before the Suez Crisis, politics rather than military competence was the main criterion for promotion.[56] The Egyptian commander, Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer,[57] was a purely political appointee who owed his position to his close friendship with Nasser. A heavy drinker,[58] he would prove himself grossly incompetent as a general during the Crisis.[56] Rigid lines between officers and men in the Egyptian Army led to a mutual "mistrust and contempt" between officers and the men who served under them.[59] Egyptian troops were excellent in defensive operations,[60] but had little capacity for offensive operations,[61] owing to the lack of "rapport and effective small-unit leadership".[59][62]

The North Yemen Civil War[edit]

Egyptian army in Sanaa 1962.

Within three months of sending troops to Yemen in 1962,[63] Nasser realized that this would require a larger commitment than anticipated. By early 1963,[64] he would begin a four-year quest to extricate Egyptian forces from Yemen,[65] using an unsuccessful face-saving mechanism, only to find himself committing more troops.[66] A little less than 5,000 troops were sent in October 1962. Two months later, Egypt had 15,000 regular troops deployed.[67] By late 1963, the number was increased to 36,000;[68] and in late 1964,[69] the number rose to 50,000 Egyptian troops in Yemen.[70] Late 1965 represented the high-water mark of Egyptian troop commitment in Yemen at 55,000 troops,[71] which were broken into 13 infantry regiments of one artillery division,[72] one tank division and several Special Forces as well as airborne regiments.[73] All the Egyptian field commanders complained of a total lack of topographical maps causing a real problem in the first months of the war.[74]

The Six Day War[edit]

On 22 May 1967, President Nasser addressed his pilots at Bir Gafgafa airbase in Sinai: "The Jews are threatening war – we say to them ahlan wa-sahlan (welcome)![75]

Before the June 1967 War, the army divided its personnel into four regional commands (Suez, Sinai, Nile Delta, and Nile Valley up to the Sudan).[76] The remainder of Egypt's territory, over 75%, was the sole responsibility of the Frontier Corps.

In May 1967, Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to passage of Israeli ships.[77] On 26 May Nasser declared, "The battle will be a general one and our basic objective will be to destroy Israel".[78] Israel considered the Straits of Tiran closure a Casus belli.[79] The Egyptian army now comprised two armoured and five infantry divisions, all deployed in the Sinai.[80]

In the weeks before Six Day War began, Egypt made several significant changes to its military organisation. Field Marshal Amer created a new command interposed between the general staff and the Eastern Military District commander, Lieutenant General Salah ad-Din Muhsin.[81] This new Sinai Front Command was placed under General Abdel Mohsin Murtagi, who had returned from Yemen in May 1967.[82] Six of the seven divisions in the Sinai (with the exception of the 20th Infantry 'Palestinian' Division) had their commanders and chiefs of staff replaced. What fragmentary information is available suggests to authors such as Pollack that Amer was trying to improve the competence of the force, replacing political appointees with veterans of the Yemen war.[83]

After the war began on 5 June 1967, Israel attacked Egypt and occupied the Sinai Peninsula.[84] The forward deployed Egyptian forces were shattered in three places by the attacking Israelis, and a retreat to the mountain passes fifty miles east of the Canal was ordered.[85] This developed into a rout as the Israelis harried the retreating troops from the ground and from the air.[86]

Arab Republic of Egypt[edit]

Egyptian soldiers on the east bank. Notice the carts. Pulled by two men, these transports greatly assisted in the movement of weapons and matériel on the east bank, while no vehicles had yet crossed.

After the 1967 debacle, the army was reorganised into two field armies, the Second Army and the Third Army, both of which were stationed in the eastern part of the country.[87]

The October War of 1973 began with a massive and successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal.[88] After crossing the cease-fire lines, Egyptian forces advanced virtually unopposed into the Sinai Peninsula.[89] The Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and initially made threatening gains into Israeli-held territory.[90] As Egyptian president Anwar Sadat began to worry about Syria's fortunes,[91] he believed that capturing two strategic mountain passes located deeper in the Sinai would make his position stronger during the negotiations.[92] He therefore ordered the Egyptians to go back on the offensive,[93] but the attack was quickly repulsed.[94] The Israelis then counterattacked at the juncture of the Second and Third Armies,[95] crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt,[96] and began slowly advancing southward and westward in over a week of heavy fighting which inflicted heavy casualties on both sides.[97]

On 22 October a United Nations-brokered ceasefire quickly unraveled,[98] with each side blaming the other for the breach. By 24 October,[99] the Israelis had improved their positions considerably and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army and the city of Suez.[100] This development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.[99] As a result, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on 25 October to end the war.[101] At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were just 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Damascus and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cairo.[102]

Egyptian forces crossing the Suez Canal on 7 October

Egypt claimed victory in the Yom Kippur War because its military objective of capturing a foothold of Sinai was achieved.[103] The army had an estimated strength of 320,000 in 1989.[104] About 180,000 of these were conscripts.[105] Beyond the Second Army and Third Army in the east, most of the remaining troops were stationed in the Nile Delta region, around the upper Nile,[106] and along the Libyan border.[107] These troops were organized into eight military districts. Commando and airborne units were stationed near Cairo under central control but could be transferred quickly to one of the field armies if needed.[108] District commanders, who generally held the rank of major general, maintained liaison with governors and other civil authorities on matters of domestic security.[109]

After 1967 the army fought in the 1969-1970 War of Attrition,[110] the 1973 October War, and the 1977 Libyan-Egyptian War.[111]

Decision making in the army continued to be highly centralized during the 1980s.[105] Officers below brigade level rarely made tactical decisions and required the approval of higher-ranking authorities before they modified any operations.[108] Senior army officers were aware of this situation and began taking steps to encourage initiative at the lower levels of command.[112] A shortage of well-trained enlisted personnel became a serious problem for the army as it adopted increasingly complex weapons systems.[113] Observers estimated in 1986 that 75 percent of all conscripts were illiterate when they entered the military.[114]

Egyptian soldiers man M-2 .50-caliber machine guns atop M-113 armored personnel carriers during a demonstration for visiting dignitaries, part of Operation Desert Shield

Since the 1980s the army has built closer and closer ties with the United States, as evidenced in the bi-annual Operation Bright Star exercises.[115] This cooperation eased integration of the Egyptian Army into the Gulf War coalition of 1990-91,[116] during which the Egyptian II Corps under Maj. Gen. Salah Mohamed Attia Halaby, with 3rd Mechanised Division and 4th Armoured Division,[117] fought as part of the Arab Joint Forces Command North.[118]

The Army conducted Exercise Badr '96 in 1996 in the Sinai.[119] The exercises in the Sinai were part of a larger exercise that involved 35,000 men in total.[120]

Today conscripts without a college degree serve three years as enlisted soldiers.[citation needed] Conscripts with a General Secondary School Degree serve two years as enlisted soldiers. Conscripts with a college degree serve 14 months as enlisted or 27 months as a reserve officer.[121]

On 31 January 2011, during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, Israeli media reported that the 9th, 2nd, and 7th Divisions of the Army had been ordered into Cairo to help restore order.[122]

Overview[edit]

The Headquarters of the Egyptian Armed Forces are in Koubri el-Quba, Cairo. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the senior uniformed officer, is currently Colonel General Sedki Sobhi and the Chief of Staff is currently Lieutenant General Mahmoud Hegazy. The Ministry of Defense is responsible for managing the affairs of the Egyptian Armed Forces and maintaining its facilities.

The Armed Forces' inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world. Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern US, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams tank. Egypt remains a strong military and strategic partner and is a participant in NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue forum. The Egyptian military is one of the strongest in the region,[123] and gives Egypt regional military supremacy rivaled only by Israel,[124] besides being one of the strongest in Africa.[125] Egypt is one of the few countries in the Middle East, and the only Arab state, with a reconnaissance satellite and has launched another one in 2014.[126]

However the Egyptian armed forces were not in such a good state in the mid 1950s. Just before the Suez Crisis, political allegiance rather than military competence was the main criterion for promotion.[56] The Egyptian commander, Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer, was a purely political appointee who owed his position to his close friendship with Nasser. A heavy drinker, he would prove himself grossly incompetent as a general during the Crisis.[56] In 1956, the armed forces was well equipped with weapons from the Soviet Union such as T-34 and IS-3 tanks, MiG-15 fighters, Ilyushin Il-28 bombers, SU-100 self-propelled guns and assault rifles.[56] Rigid lines between officers and men in the Egyptian Army led to a mutual "mistrust and contempt" between officers and the men who served under them.[59] Egyptian troops were excellent in defensive operations, but had little capacity for offensive operations, owing to the lack of "rapport and effective small-unit leadership".[59]

In January 2011, a delegation led by the chief of staff of Egypt's armed forces, Lt. Gen. Sami Hafez Enan, was in Washington, D.C., although the visit was truncated due to the protests. The sessions, an annual country-to-country military coordination, were being led for the U.S. by Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs Alexander Vershbow. A meeting with Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, and other talks had been planned to extend to 2 February. However, in light of events in Egypt, the delegation left Washington to return home.[127] Before their Friday night departure, Vershbow urged the two dozen Egyptian military representatives "to exercise 'restraint'".[128]

The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces was convened during the course of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, and assumed power when Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011.[129]

On Sunday 12 August 2012, newly elected President Mohamed Morsi announced a series of military appointments. Hussein Tantawi, the Minister of Defence and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces was retired.[130] Morsi also retired Sami Anan, the Army's Chief of Staff. Morsi awarded both men state medals and appointed them as advisors to the president. Thirdly, the president appointed the head of military intelligence, Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, as Minister of Defence to replace Tantawi. Sedki Sobhi, the commander of the Third Army, was appointed as Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. Morsi also retired the Commander of the Navy, Mohab Memish, and appointed him as head of the Suez Canal Authority.

On 3 July 2013 in response to millions of Egyptians demands demonstrating in streets all over Egypt since 30 June 2013,[131][132][133][134][134][135] the head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, then-Colonel General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, announced the removal of President Mohamed Morsi from power, the suspension of the constitution, and new presidential and House of Representatives elections. The severe crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood and pro-Morsi supporters commenced. Notable incidents such as the 2013 Republican Guard headquarters clashes and the August 2013 Rabaa massacre claimed the lives of hundreds to thousands of demonstrators by military and police forces.[136]

The US provides annual military assistance to the Egyptian Armed Forces. In 2009, the U.S. provided nominal $1.3 billion to the Egyptian military ($1.43 billion in 2016).[137][138] Much of this is in equipment such as tanks and jet fighters that are surplus to Egyptian needs and kept in storage.[139]

According to Article 200 of the Egyptian Constitution, the Armed Forces belong to the People, and their duty is to protect the country, and preserve its security and the integrity of its territories.

Politics[edit]

Main article: Politics of Egypt
Members of the Free Officers welcomed by crowds in Cairo in January 1953. Standing in the automobile, from left to right: Youssef Seddik, Salah Salem, Gamal Abdel Nasser and Abdel Latif Boghdadi

The Armed Forces enjoy considerable power, prestige and independence within the Egyptian state.[140] During almost the entire history of the Republic of Egypt,[141] active or retired military officers have been head of the Egyptian state.[142] The first democratically-elected president who served for one year was removed by a military coup after the June 2013 Egyptian protests throughout Egypt.[143] Even the constitution drafted and passed under Morsi included protections for the military from legal and parliamentary oversight,[144] and deferred to "objections from the country's military leadership" by removing a "clear prohibition on trials of civilians before military courts" some drafters had tried to include.[145]

An Egyptian soldier atop a tank in Tahrir Square, during the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.

Starting with the Egyptian Revolution of 1952,[146] which created the Republic of Egypt, and was organized by the Free Officers Movement,[147] presidents of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat, Hosni Mubarak were ex-military officers for almost 60 years.[148] This was interrupted with the 2011 revolution,[149] when President Mubarak was forced to step down by the military in response to the revolution, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces ruled until it held a presidential election which resulted in Mohamed Morsi taking office.[150] On 3 July 2013, responding to millions in the streets, the head of the Armed Forces then-General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi announced the removal of Morsi and installation of the interim civilian president the Chief Justice of Supreme Constitutional Court Adly Mansour.[151] On 4 July 2013,[152] 68-year-old Mansour was sworn in as acting president.[153] On 26 March 2014 el-Sisi resigned from the military,[154] announcing he would stand as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election.[155] He won the 26–28 May 2014 election in a landslide.[156] Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt on 8 June 2014.[157][158][159]

Business[edit]

Main article: Economy of Egypt

The military has its own hospitals, factories, clubs, and gas stations staffed by its officers, soldiers, and civilians. The organization is influential in business circles, engaging in road and housing construction, consumer goods, resort management,[140] and owning extensive tracts of real estate. Much military information is not made publicly available, including budget information, the names of the general officers and the military's size (which is considered a state secret).[140] According to journalist Joshua Hammer, "as much as 40% of the Egyptian economy" is controlled by the Egyptian military.[160] the number which is described as a "myth" by some economists and journalists and contribution considered by some as "necessary" for the Egyptian economy and the needs of the Armed Forces to maintains its strength.[161]

Structure[edit]

Egyptian Armed Forces, consists of several main branches, departments and authorities. Main branches are the Army, the Air Forces, the Air Defense, and the Navy.

The Egyptian Army is administratively divided into four regions (Northern, Western Military Region, Central, Southern), each under control of a Major General in addition to two armies (2nd, 3rd army) and different corps (Armor, Mechanized, Artillery, Airmobile, Airborne, Infantry, frontier, military police, intelligence, Republican Guard, Special Forces). The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) are the second biggest branch under control of the armed forces. The EAF has over 1,100 aircraft (fixed-wing and helicopters)[162][163] and controls about 17 air bases.[164] The Egyptian Navy is the largest navy in the Middle East and Africa. The Egyptian Air Defense Forces is the latest established branch in the Armed Forces consists of 30,000 officers & soldiers plus 40,000 conscripts.[11]

Departments of the Egyptian Armed Forces include the Departments of Armament Affairs, Officers' Affairs, Management and Administration and the Department of Morale Affairs (DMA) which is responsible for managing the Egyptian Armed Forces' public image, boosting goodwill towards troops, writing the speeches of the Armed forces' public statements, contacting the media and organizing the Egyptian Armed Forces' conferences and symposiums. Moreover, The Medical management of the armed forces is responsible for managing the medical affairs of the armed forces as well as controlling the hospitals run by the Armed Forces which serves both civilians and military personnel estimated at 19 hospitals in Cairo, 8 in Alexandria, 3 in Matrouh, 2 in each of Ismailia and Gharbia, one in each of Port Said, Al Sharqia, Dakahlia, Beni Suef, Minya, Sohag, Qena, Aswan, Kafr el-Sheikh, and North Sinai.[165]

Authorities of the armed forces include the Engineering Authority (EAAF), it's the sector beneath the Armed Forces responsible for the Engineering work, its missions variety between War and peace time, In War time the authority is responsible for the engineering aid to the Forces, one of the Authority major operations was Operation Badr. In Peace time the authority is responsible in helping build Egypt's infrastructure and the national projects including Cities, stadiums, clubs. In addition to The Financial Authority (FA) responsible for the financial matters in the armed forces and the Research Authority.

The armed forces also hold control of military judiciary and military intelligence directorate.

Structure of the field armies[edit]

Under the Ministry of Defence is the Egyptian Military Operations Authority with its headquarters in Cairo.[166] The Egyptian Armed Forces' Chief of Staff's office is in Cairo. He is also chief of staff of the army. Formally, he is also chief of staff of the air force and navy as well, but apparently the commanders of the other two services frequently report directly to the Minister of Defence/Commander-in-Chief.[167] From the Chief of Staff's office are directed three command-and-control headquarters and nine command-and-control field headquarters.

Structure of the First Field Army (click to enlarge)
Structure of the Second Field Army (click to enlarge)
Structure of the Third Field Army (click to enlarge)

Personnel[edit]

Main article: Conscription in Egypt
Egyptian paratroopers conduct rehearsals at Pope Air Force Base, the jump was part of the Bright Star Exercise,

The Constitution mandates conscription but provides a variety of options for national service. Conscripts may be required to serve either in the police force, the prison-guard service, or in one of the military economic service units. As of 2012 men 18–30 years of age a subject to conscript military service; service obligation - 18–36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 16. Women were not subject to conscription.[170]

In 1988 almost 12.5 million men were between the ages of fifteen and forty-nine. More than 8 million of these men were considered fit for military service. Although 519,000 men reached the draft age of twenty each year by 1990, only about 80,000 of these men were conscripted to serve in the armed forces. By 2010 more than 21 million men were between the ages of fifteen and forty-nine. More than 18 million of these men were considered fit for military service. Over 780,000 men reached the draft age of twenty each year in 2010, but only a fraction of these men were conscripted to serve in the armed forces.[171]

An Egyptian Army soldier takes his position on top of an armored vehicle as he guards in front of the Supreme Constitutional court in Cairo.

Volunteers earned considerably higher salaries and twice as much leave time as conscripts. Those conscripts who chose to reenlist were often among the less qualified. The result of this situation was a scarcity of NCOs with the proper level of proficiency. The navy and the air force had a smaller conscript-to- volunteer ratio, but these branches of the military faced similar problems. In all services senior NCOs could become candidates for commissions after eight years of duty. These NCOs usually were those with functional specialties who could qualify as warrant officers.[172]

Conscripts served three years of active duty after which they remained in reserve for an additional period. Conscripts with degrees from institutions of higher education had to serve only eighteen months. The government required all males to register for the draft when they reached age sixteen. The government delineated several administrative zones for conscription purposes. Each zone had a council of military officers, civil officials, and medical officers who selected draftees. Local mayors and village leaders also participated in the selection process. After the council granted exemptions and deferments, it chose conscripts by lot from the roster of remaining names. Individuals eligible to be inducted were on call for three years. After that period, they could no longer be drafted.

Personnel in each service[edit]

As of 2015, The Egyptian Armed Forces were reported to have 438,500 active personnel, 479,000 reserve personnel and 397,000 paramilitary personnel making it one of the largest armed forces in the world.[11]

Component in service Reserve
Flag of the Army of Egypt.svg Egyptian Army 310,000[11] 375,000[11]
Eafflag.svg Egyptian Air Force 30,000[11] 20,000[11]
Naval Flag of Egypt.svg Egyptian Navy 18,500[11] 14,000[11]
Egypt Air Defense Flag.png Egyptian Air Defense Forces 80,000[11] 70,000[11]
Totals 438,500[11] 479,000[11]
Central Security Forces Emblem.svg Egyptian Central Security Forces 397,000[11]
Egyptiannglogo.png Egyptian National Guard 60,000[11]
Republican Guard Egypt.png Egyptian Republican Guard 24,000[11]
Egyptian Border Guard Forces 16,000[11]
Egyptian Coast Guard 5,000[11]
Totals 478,000[11]

Main military branches[edit]

Egyptian Army[edit]

M1 Abrams; the main tank of the Egyptian Army.
Main article: Egyptian Army

The inventory of the Egyptian armed forces includes equipment from the United States, France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China.[173] Equipment from the Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern U.S., French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1A2 Abrams tank which makes Egypt the owner of the second largest number of latest generation main battle tanks in the region and the first in the case of the older generations. Conscripts for the army and other service branches without a university or secondary school degree serve three years as enlisted soldiers. Conscripts with a General Secondary School Degree serve two years as enlisted personnel. Conscripts with a university degree serve one year as enlisted personnel or three years as a reserve officer. Officers for the army are trained at the Egyptian Military Academy,one of the oldest academies in the world.

Egyptian Air Force[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Air Force

The Egyptian Air Force or EAF is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. Currently,[174] the backbone of the EAF is the F-16.[175] The EAF (planes and pilot training) is considered to be the strongest in Africa and one of the strongest in the Middle East.[176] The Mirage 2000 is the other modern interceptor used by the EAF. The Egyptian Air Force has 228 F-16s (plus 12 awaiting delivery) making it the 4th largest operator of the F-16 in the World.[177] It has about 1,086 fixed-wing and rotary aircraft in operational service.[162] Having at least 46 Apache's AH-64D[178] as it also continues to fly extensively upgraded MiG-21s, F-7 Skybolts, F-4 Phantoms, Dassault Mirage Vs,[179] and the C-130 Hercules among other planes.[180] The Air Force is undergoing massive modernization. Mikoyan in late 2014 confirmed that Egypt signed a deal to acquire 24 MiG-29M fighter jets, and is in negotiations to acquire 24 MiG-35 fighter jets,[181] and it was reported that Egypt is in negotiations with French Dassault for an initial order of 24 Rafale fighter jets.[182]

Egyptian Air Defense[edit]

S-300VM Entered service in November 2014.[183][184][185]

The Egyptian Air Defense Command or EADC (Quwwat El Diffaa El Gawwi in Arabic) is Egypt's military command responsible for air defense.[186] One of the most powerful air defenses in the world. Egypt patterned its Air Defense Force (ADF) after the Soviet Anti-Air Defenses,[187] which integrated all its air defense capabilities – antiaircraft guns, rocket and missile units, interceptor planes, and radar and warning installations.[188]

Its commander is Lt. Gen. Abdul Meniem Al-Toras.

Egyptian Navy[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Navy
On 16 February 2015, The Egyptian Navy ordered one FREMM vessel to enter service before the opening of the New Suez Canal.

Although the Egyptian Navy is the smallest branch of the military, it is large by Middle Eastern standards.[189] The Egyptian Navy is known to be the strongest in the African continent, and the largest in the Middle East in spite of the rapid growth of other countries' navies within the region.[190]

Some fleet units are stationed in the Red Sea, but the bulk of the force remains in the Mediterranean. Navy headquarters and the main operational and training base are located at Ras el Tin near Alexandria. The current commander is Vice admiral Osama El-Gendi.

The Navy also controls the Egyptian Coast Guard. The Coast Guard is responsible for the onshore protection of public installations near the coast and the patrol of coastal waters to prevent smuggling. It has an inventory consisting of about thirty five large patrol craft (each between twenty and thirty meters in length) and twenty smaller Bertram-class coastal patrol craft built in the United States.

See list of naval ships of Egypt for a list of vessels in service.

Other branches[edit]

Egyptian Republican Guard[edit]
Egyptian honor guard soldiers welcome U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, during a welcoming ceremony to Cairo, Egypt.

The Egyptian Republican Guard, Founded Republican Guard at the hands of the team / Laithi Nassif is one of the elite forces in the army, but it does not receive instructions from the leadership of the armed forces, unless the president is the commander of the Republican Guard, so this actually happened in the 1973 war, but receives his instructions from his officers only and top commander in this weapon It is the commander of the Republican Guard, which is usually officer of the rank of brigade or team, which does not receive instructions from the President of the Republic only. The Republican Guard mission to protect the President of the Republic and the Republican entire system, including its facilities and its institutions, including the presidential palaces and command centers, airports presidency, extending their suitability for the protection of institutions such as the People's Assembly and the Constitutional Court and the Council of State during the war.

Covers the Republican Guard movements President of the Republic in Egypt using a working group made up of the Central Security soldiers belonging Interior Ministry to secure the roads going through the president's motorcade and the area around his whereabouts, then infantry Republican Guard to secure his whereabouts, and vehicles of the Republican Guard started carrying soldiers from lightning Republican Guard, as 8 precedes the procession of motorcycles trained forces on coherent fighting.

Egyptian Border Guards[edit]
A soldier of the Egyptian border guards whilst securing the waterway of the Suez Canal.

The Border guards was founded in 1887 under the name of the interest of the Coast Guard, and was a two departments coastal management and border management, and established border guards Management in 1917 during the reign of Sultan Hussein Kamel, and attached to the Ministry of Finance, and in the 6 July 1972 was the integration of the Departments of border and coast to be under the name of the leadership of border guards and coast, and in November 241 973 was ordered to amend the label of leadership to be the leadership of the border guards.

Forces has seen since its inception several developments in the organization, uniforms, weapons, equipment and systems and means of insurance and devices with new technologies that enable them to implement the tasks entrusted to it to the fullest, and that is to protect the land and coastal borders of Egypt along the more than ten thousand kilometers, and implementation of reconnaissance, surveillance and insurance and control, and to prevent infiltration and smuggling, anti-farming narcotic and crackers and exploration for gold on the border, and detect and destroy tunnels in collaboration with the Engineering Authority of the armed forces, and securing the waterway of the Suez Canal, and stop illegal immigration to protect national security, as troops cooperate with civilians and civilian devices and police in fishing boats and insurance operations, and to prevent water pollution in coastal areas, and secure the land and sea border crossings and ports

Egyptian Coast Guard[edit]
Main article: Egyptian Coast Guard

Egyptian Coast Guard, part of the Egyptian Navy, is responsible for the onshore protection of public installations near the coast and the patrol of coastal waters to prevent smuggling. Currently consists of one hundred five ships and craft. The Egyptian Coast Guard has over 5,000 personnel.[11]

Special forces[edit]

Member of Egyptian Thunderbolt Forces perform close range combat during a medal parade in Bukavu.
Egyptian Rapid deployment forces heading to the Sinai 27 October 2014.
Parachutes fill the air as a mass drop of approximately 1000 troops takes place during exercise Bright Star '82.
Members of the Egyptian Army Special Operations Forces fire weapons during a combat marksmanship exercise at an indoor firing range.
An Egyptian Navy Special Unit With ARX 160 ( forth from bottom left ) with A silencer.

Special forces in the Egyptian Armed forces are units under control of different branches. Most of the officers take the special Sa'ka Course. In addition to Sa'ka, Special forces take specialized training in the fields of Direct action, Hostage rescue, Counter-terrorism, Unconventional warfare, Special reconnaissance, Asymmetric warfare. However, most information about Egyptian Army's units are classified.[191]

Special forces from officers and noncommissioned officers from Infantry, Sa'ka, Paratroopers and Navy can take the Seal course which is considered the most advanced course in the Egyptian Armed Forces.

Egyptian Rapid deployment forces[edit]

Egyptian Rapid deployment forces (RDF) is one of the branches of the Egyptian Armed Forces. It was formed in March 2014 by the former defense minister field marshal Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.[192] It is mainly airborne troops with a special formation, and it is characterized by the ability to perform operations inside and outside the Egyptian mainland. It comprises the most efficient elements of the mechanized Infantry, armored corps, air defense, artillery and anti-tank teams.[193]

Sa'ka Forces[edit]

Main article: Sa'ka Forces

Sa'ka Forces are forces was founded in 1955 and was re-formed after the June 1967 and has participated since its founding in all wars beginning of the tripartite aggression until the October War. Forces can overcome the natural and artificial barriers, and engagement with live ammunition, and has a slide and swimming air and passing the rough terrain to reach the goals of skills, and the use of outstanding for the transfer of supplies and administrative needs bridges across barriers that require high fitness.

Forces and specializes in dealing with various hostilities using methods interest and cautious approach of engagement with the objectives of the various atypical throwing motion and stability by using live ammunition and deal with hostile elements quickly and accurately and efficiently teamwork situations. You may also implement air-drop and intrusion and control and implementation of raids on enemy operations.

Egyptian Paratroopers[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Paratroopers

Egyptian Paratroopers are characterized by the skills of engagement and martial arts coherent, and the implementation of the maneuvering and navigation and overlaps the diverse air and entanglements, and surge capacity to deal with the various hostilities by the free jumping own skills. It is also the implementation of tasks in cooperation with the Air Force. And it belongs to the Units Delta Force and groups of Bird Bat.

Unit 333[edit]

Main article: Unit 333

Unit 333 is a unit of the armed forces but it is a time of peace and cooperation of the Ministry of Interior, was established in the seventies, and carry out the functions free the hostages, and operations against international terrorism operations and rapid intervention. And knew their role in dealing with radical Islamists organizers for terrorist operations.

Unit 777[edit]

Main article: Unit 777

Unit 777 is a counter-terrorism and Special operations unit was founded by Major General / Ahmad Rajai Attia in the seventies, the most famous operations were raiding the Larnaca International Airport in Cyprus, in the 19 February 1978 while intervened unity to liberate hostages Egyptians and Arabs were detained by members of the Palestine Liberation Organization following the operation clashed forces Cypriot Security at the airport with members of the Egyptian unity,[194] resulting in the killing of 15 and wounding 16 Egyptian.[195]

Unit 999[edit]

Main article: Unit 999

Unit 999 is a Special operations and reconnaissance unit, was founded by Major General / Nabil Abu Naga at the end of the seventies, is concerned with the tasks of combat are very sensitive and dangerous behind enemy of peace and war time lines, and relies on men with special private and arming capabilities.

Navy Sa'ka[edit]

Main article: Navy Sa'ka

Navy Sa'ka (Navy Thunderbolt) are units of special nature trace the Navy, and specializes in dealing with various hostilities using intrusion methods and approach of caution and engagement with the coastal targets, and implementation of Alrmayat live ammunition of diving conditions, the surface using fast launches against goals and Alrmayat, and secure maritime theater against floating facilities suspected and the work of the various maritime infiltration. And famous during the War of Attrition Bagartha to the Israeli port of Eilat and the destruction of warships house Sheva and Bat Yam.

Equipment[edit]

Built by Egypt under license since 1992 during 4 phases: Phase I - 555 vehicles, Phase II - 200 vehicles, Phase III - 125 vehicles, and Phase IV - 125 vehicles, with production ending in 2011 for phase IV.[196] All vehicles were produced at M1A1 standard . An additional 125 are being procured as kits and built in Egypt under Phase V,Egypt is having 755 M1A1 up-grade to the M1A2 SEP.

Even though the Egyptian military became oriented toward the West after the October 1973 War, it still had large amounts of Soviet equipment in its arms inventory. In the 1970s,[197] the Egyptian armored corps was composed almost exclusively of Soviet tanks, the best of which was the T-62.[198] In the 1980s, the stock of main battle tanks consisted of 785 M60A3s from the United States,[199] together with more than 1,600 Soviet-made T-54, T-55,[200] and T-62 models. Some of these older Soviet tanks were being refitted in the West with 105mm guns,[198] diesel engines, fire-control systems, and external armor. Armored personnel carriers (APCs) consisted of 1,000 M-113A2s from the United States,[201] more than 1,000 BTR-50s and OT-62s from the Soviet Union,[202][203] and about 200 Fahds,[204] which were manufactured in Egypt based on a design from the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). The army also had more than 700 infantry combat vehicles that were manufactured by the Soviet Union and Spain. Egypt also launched a program to increase the mobility of artillery and rockets by mounting them on the chassis of tanks and APCs.

By the late 1990s the mechanized divisions consisted of 4,500 armored personnel carriers,[205] the core of which was 2,000 US M113's.[206] In the late 1990s Egypt took delivery of 611 Dutch YPR-765 armored infantry fighting vehicles to replace its BMPs. By the late 1990s, Egypt's armored corps was composed of the most modern US tanks. Cairo acquired 850 M60A3s, and formed two armored divisions. After the Gulf War, under the 'Factory 200' program Egypt began to assemble the US-made M1A1, widely regarded as one of the finest tanks in the world. By the late 1990s Egypt had 1,700 M60's (1,100 M60A3's), and approximately 200 M1A1's in addition to approximately 1,600 Soviet tanks. At that time Egypt planned to upgrade all M60A1 tanks to the A3 standard. Additionally, Egypt expanded domestic production of military armaments.[207]

K-8 variant developed for export to Egypt in 1999, featuring 33 modifications to the airframe and avionics. Built in Egypt from Chinese-supplied kits, production of 80 Egyptian-built Chinese kits was completed in 2005, with license production of an additional 40 K-8Es undertaken thereafter.

Egypt has the largest air force in the Arab world, with over 1,086 airplanes, more than half of which are of Western origin. Unlike the U.S. military where all services fly aircraft, in Egypt, only the EAF flies aircraft. Not only does the EAF operate U.S. aircraft, but also French, Czechoslovak, Russian, Chinese, and Egyptian aircraft. Some items of U.S. equipment, SH-3 and CH-47, were manufactured underlicense in England and Italy. The U.S. supports only a portion of the total EAF inventory. Managing the logistics support for any one service is a difficult task, combining three U.S. Services as well as seven other countries under both Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and Commercial Contracts.[208]

As of 1989, the Egyptian air force had more than 1,086 combat aircraft and 30,000 personnel, of which 10,000 were conscripts. Its front-rank fighters consisted of sixty-seven multimission F-16 A/Cs and thirty-three F-4Es from the United States, as well as sixteen Mirage 2000s from France. A large inventory of older MiG aircraft (some of which were Chinese versions assembled in Egypt) backed up the more modern fighters. The air force had fitted many of the MiGs with advanced Western electronics, including radars, jamming equipment, and Sidewinder and Matra air-to-air missiles.[209]

The Ambassador MK III fast missile craft or Ezzat-class is a small warship built by VT Halter-Marine for the Egyptian Navy. Four ships were planned at a total cost of US$1,290m; the first, S. Ezzat, was handed over in November 2013 and the remainder were scheduled to follow in 2013-14[210]

The air force operated seventy-two combat helicopters and a number of electronic-monitoring, maritime-patrol, reconnaissance, and earlywarning aircraft. Some of these aircraft were capable of detecting low-flying targets at great distances. Soviet doctrine has been swept away as the Egyptian Air Forces re-equip with Western aircraft. US Air Force doctrine and tactics, including the coordination between the E-2C and the F-16 aircraft, have been adopted. US squadrons conduct yearly exercises with the Egyptian forces.[211]

The Egyptian Navy is the largest navy in the Middle East and Africa, and is the seventh largest in the world measured by the number of vessels.[212] The majority of the Egyptian Navy's ships were received from the Soviet Union in the 1960s and China in the 1980s. Since the late 1990s Egyptian navy made a modernization project in which new vessels were acquired from western sources such as the United States, Germany and France.[213]

See also List of ships of the Egyptian Navy.

A Skyguard battery consists of two launchers, each with four missiles, two 35 mm guns, and a fire control radar. "AMOUN" is the Egyptian name for the point- defense system designed to protect high-value assets, such as airports and cities.[214]

In 1989 the Egyptian Air Defense Forces had an estimated 80,000 ground and air personnel, including 50,000 conscripts.[215] Its main constituents were 100 antiaircraft-gun battalions, A large share of the ADF's antiaircraft artillery, SAMs, and radar equipment was imported from the Soviet Union. As of 1989,[216] the most modern weapons in the air defense system were the 108 mediumaltitude I-Hawk SAMs acquired from the United States beginning in 1982.[217] These weapons were supplemented by 400 older Soviet-made SA-2 SAMs with a slant range of forty to fifty kilometers and about 240 SA-3s,[218][219] which provided shorter-range defense against low-flying targets. A British firm helped the ADF modernize the SA-2s. In addition, Egypt was producing its own SAM, the Tayir as Sabah,[220] based on the design of the SA-2. The ADF had mounted sixty Soviet SA-6 SAMs on tracked vehicles as tactical launchers.[221] Sixteen tracked vehicles provided mobile launching platforms for its fifty French-manufactured Crotale SAM launchers.[222] Egypt was also introducing its own composite gun-missile-radar system known as Amoun (skyguard),[223] integrating radar-guided twin 23mm guns with Sparrow and Egyptian Ayn as Saqr SAMs.

Egyptian Air Defense requirements include technical and maintenance support for TPS-59, TPS-63 and other air defense radars.[224] Technical and maintenance support for HAWK, Chaparral and Sparrow Air Defense Systems, and the Avenger Air Defense System. Procurement of additional 2D and 3D radars and Avenger. Long term procurement of Patriot Systems .[225] Upgrades to Chaparral systems.[226] New procurement of Sentinal radars.[227] Additionally, Egypt has been cooperating with the US to develop an advanced C3I system that will assimilate data from air and ground sources into a single network so that aircraft and missile systems can engage multiple targets simultaneously. Russia will supply Egypt regiment air defense systems "Antey-2500" by the end of next year. The contract value exceeds $1 billion,[228][229][230][231]

Military industry[edit]

Egyptian-made Fahd APC

In addition to importing weapons, Egypt maintains a large industrial fortress as its military industry is considered the most important in the Arab World.[232] State-owned enterprises which are under control of the Armament Authority headed by a major general, are the main domestic producers of Egypt's defense systems.[233]

Arab Organization for Industrialization, which has about 19,000 employees out of which are 1250 engineers,[234] more than nine military factories producing both civilian and military products,[235] is considered Egypt military's most important domestic weapons supplier.[236]

descriptive drawing of the Egyptian Infantry Fighting Vehicle

Egypt's main battle tank, the M1 Abrams,[237] is made locally under license in addition to Egyptian-upgraded Ramses II,[238] T-62 and T-45E. Egyptian military industry includes Sakr Eye missiles,[239] (Nile 23, Sinai 23) Self-propelled air defense,[240] RPGs. K-8E Trainer aircraft,[241] in addition to aircraft overhaul and maintenance.[242]

Locally made military vehicles include various Fahd APCs and IFVs,[243] EFIVs, SIFV, Walid MKII, Jeep Wrangler TJL, Jeep J8, Kader-320 armored vehicle, Mercedes G-320 armored vehicle, Iveco VM 90 and Hotspur HUSSARD.[244]

Egypt also locally produces small arms such as Helwan, Helwan 920 guns,[245] Misr machine gun,[246] Maadi assault rifles,[247] FN Minimi, FN MAG, SG-43 Goryunov, MK19.[248]

Weapons of mass destruction[edit]

The International Red Cross hospital at Uqd, North Yemen, where the use of chemical weapons was alleged to have occurred.

Egypt, with a history of using weapons of mass destruction,[249] remains one of only four countries not to sign the Chemical Weapons Convention and hasn't ratified the Biological Weapons Convention.[250] Egypt's chemical weapons program is the most developed of its pursuit of developing a Weapons of Mass Destruction program though it is thought this reached its peak in the 1960s.[251] Egypt was one of the few countries to use chemical weapons after WWI during the North Yemen Civil War when phosgene and mustard gas was used against Royalist forces in Northern Yemen.[252] Egypt has maintained a policy of not signing the Chemical Weapons Convention until questions regarding Israel's nuclear weapons program are answered.[253] Egypt signed the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) on 10 April 1972 but has not ratified it.[254]

Prior to signing the BWC President Anwar Sadat of Egypt made the following comment to a question about Israel and should they use Biological weapons.[255]

"The only reply to biological warfare is that we too should use biological warfare. I believe that the density of the Israeli population confined in a small area would provide the opportunity to reply with the same weapon if they should begin using it. Briefly, we have the instruments of biological warfare in the refrigerators and we will not use them unless they begin to use them."[256]

NBC Capabilities[edit]

  • Nuclear capability: A 22 MW research reactor from Argentina, completed in 1997; A 2 MW research reactor from the USSR, in operation since 1961. Party to the NPT. Safeguards agreement with the IAEA in force. Signed, but not ratified the African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba).
  • Chemical weapons and protective equipment: Alleged continued research and possible production of chemical warfare agents. Alleged stockpile of chemical agents (mustard and nerve agents). Personal protective equipment, Soviet type decontamination units, Fuchs (Fox) ABC detection vehicle (12), SPW-40 P2Ch ABC detection vehicle (small numbers). Not a party to the CWC.
  • Biological weapons: Suspected biological warfare program, no details available. Not a party to the BWC.[249]

Missile[edit]

Al-Zafer 1

The origins of Egypt's missile program date back to the 1950s,[257] when the Nasser regime hired German scientists and engineers to develop liquid-fueled missiles and a satellite launcher.[258] The scientists developed three missile systems: the al-Zafar (300 km range), the al-Kahir (450 km range), and the al-Raid (750 km range).[259] However, none became operational due to program mismanagement, the USSR's refusal to provide modern guidance systems,[260] and the departure of the German scientists.[261]

In the 1980s, Egypt cooperated with Iraq and Argentina to develop an 800 to 1,000 km range solid-fueled missile, which was designated Condor-II in Argentina, Badr-2000 in Iraq, and "Vector" or "Delta" in Egypt.[262][263]

By 1990, pressure from Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) member states and financial setbacks resulted in the program's collapse. Since then, Egypt has focused on its indigenous Scud-B and Scud-C manufacturing capabilities. With North Korean assistance,[264] Egypt developed a Scud-B production capability,[265] and may also have developed an enhanced Scud-C missile.[266]

In 2001, Egypt reportedly attempted to acquire 800 to 1,000 km range Nodong missiles from North Korea. Whether or not Egypt actually received the missiles remains unclear.[267][268]

Military budget[edit]

Main article: Military budget
Military spending of countries around the world.

Egypt’s defense spending will increase at an annual rate of 9.51 percent over the next five years to be valued at $8.5 billion in 2019,[269] Business Monitor International said 4 November 2014.[270] In a new market research report,[271] Business Monitor International said during 2014 Egyptian military expenditure reached a value of $5.2 billion. "The country’s increasing military expenditure is reflected in the ongoing modernization drive to counter threats of terrorism in the Sinai Peninsula,[272] a strained relationship with Ethiopia,[273] political turmoil following the recent democratic revolution and maritime security concerns over the Suez Canal," the report said.[274]

Budget allocation for Egyptian Armed Forces was set to increase by LE3.4 billion in 2013/14,[275] military source told Ahram Online May 2013.[276] The state budget allocation for Egypt’s military was set to rise by LE3.4 billion (approx. $0.5 billion) in the 2013/14 fiscal year to reach some LE31 billion (approx. $4.4 billion).[277] According to Egypt's 2013/14 state budget,[275] unveiled by the Shura Council (the upper house of Egypt's parliament, endowed with legislative powers),[278] military allocations only represented between 3 and 4 percent of the total.[279] The Egyptian military depended largely on annual US military assistance worth $1.2 billion to finance most of its arms purchases.[280] Around 60 percent of the military budget allocation was spent on salaries,[277] while the rest was earmarked for spare parts and arms purchases.[281]

Armed Forces Day[edit]

Sadat - Mubarak - Abu Ghazala, October 6, 1981

Armed Forces Day, public holiday observed in Egypt on 6 October,[282] celebrating the day in 1973 when combined Egyptian and Syrian military forces launched a surprise attack on Israel and crossed into the Sinai Peninsula, which marked the beginning of the October Yom Kippur War.[283]

Celebrations on Armed Forces Day typically include parades and other events staged by the military, as well as patriotic television shows, songs, and fireworks displays. The holiday took on additional meaning after the 1981 assassination of President Sādāt during an Armed Forces Day parade in Cairo.[284]

Military exercises[edit]

Left: Aircraft over the pyramids during Bright Star '83
Right: Egyptian, Pakistani and American paratroopers during Military Operations in Urban Terrain training at the Mubarak Military City

The Egyptian Armed forces' different branches are engaged in annually military exercises locally in addition to exercises with different armies including:

  • Operation Bright Star, one of the largest joint training exercises in the world led by the American and the Egyptian Armed Force.
  • Sea of Friendship Maneuvers, held in the Mediterranean Sea between the navy forces of the Egypt and Turkey.
  • Tabuk Maneuvers, held in Saudi Arabia with the Saudi Armed Forces.
  • Morgan Maneuvers, held in Saudi Arabia between the navy forces of Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
  • Faisal Maneuvers, held in Saudi Arabia between the Air Forces of Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
  • Zaid Maneuvers, held in United Arab Emirates with the Union Defence Force.
  • Ein Jalut Maneuvers, held in Jordan, with the Jordanian Armed Forces.
  • Ra'd Maneuvers, held in the western command between different army branches.
  • Badr Maneuvers, held by the Third Army command between different army branches.
  • Nasr Maneuvers, held by the Second Army command between different army branches.
  • Sea's Victory Maneuvers, held by the navy command between different army branches.

Overseas deployments[edit]

Members of Egyptian special forces perform during a medal parade in Bukavu
Egyptian medical personnel for their support during a tour of the Egyptian field hospital in Bagram.
Egyptian contingent celebrate during a medal parade in Bukavu.

Egypt has and continues to be committed to strengthening international action through the United Nations and African action through the African Union to achieve collective security and uphold the goals enshrined in the Purposes and Principles of the UN Charter and the Constitutive Act of the African Union.[285] Egypt is a longstanding and committed contributor to UN peacekeeping operations.[286] Egypt’s first contribution to UN peacekeeping was in 1960 in the Congo.[287] Since then, Egypt has contributed to 37 UN missions with over 30,000 peacekeepers, deployed in 24 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Europe.[288]

Countries that Egypt participated in international peacekeeping forces:

  • Sarajevo, Bosnia; during the civil war in 1990s.
  • Ivory Coast; to help the Ivorian parties to implement the peace agreement signed between them in the January 2003, and end the civil war.
  • Congo; during the period of civil war in the period from 1960 to 1961 a force of 258 personnel was deployed.
  • Somalia; one mechanical battalion-sized 240 personnel deployed in the period from December 1992 to May 1993 after which the force size was increased in the period from May 1993 to February 1995 to 1680 personnel with the aim of protecting Mogadishu Airport and the training of Somali police officers.
  • Central Africa; from June 1998 to March 2000 a number of infantry units consisting of 125 personnel, an administrative unit and a medical unit of 294 personnel were deployed as part of a mission United Nations peacekeeping.
  • Angola; 28 military observers were deployed during the period from 1991 to 1999.
  • Mozambique; 20 military observers were deployed during the period from February 1993 to June 1995.
  • Liberia; 15 military observers were deployed during the period from December 1993 to September 1997.
  • Rwanda; 10 military observers were deployed.
  • Comoros; a number of three military observers were deployed during the period from 1997 until 1999.
  • Western Sahara; 19 military observers are deployed since September 1991 until now.
  • Sierra Leone; a number of military observers are deployed since 9 September 1998 until now.
  • DRC; 28 military observers are deployed since November 1999 until now.
  • Liberia; a number of military observers deployed since 8 December 2003 until now.
  • Burundi; 2 military observers are deployed since September 2004 until now.
  • Darfur, Sudan; a number of 34 military observers and three officers are deployed since August 2004 as part of the security forces African Union, in addition 1046 are deployed as part of the United Nations mission in Sudan.

In order to support peacekeeping efforts of the African continent, Egypt established the Cairo Center for Training on Conflict Resolution and Peacekeeping in Africa.[289] Starting from 1995 until now, the center trained around 200 students per year from African countries.[290] The center offer courses in French, English and Portuguese with the aim of strengthening the cooperation and interaction between the linguistic and cultural groups in Africa.[291] The center also collaborates closely with the African Union and a number of peace keeping institutes including the Pearson peacekeeping Center to prevent disputes.[292]

Military leadership[edit]

Egyptian Armed Forces Logo
Left: Coat of Arms of Egypt.
Right: Flag of the Army of Egypt and war.
Egyptian Minister of Defense and Commander-In-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces Sedki Sobhi

President Abdul Fattah al-Sisi chaired a meeting of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, during which he issued two consequential declarations. The first changed the force structure of the army by creating a “unified command” to oversee counterterrorism operations east of the Suez Canal. The second promoted Osama Askar, commander of the Third Field Army, both in rank and in title: he is now a lieutenant general—one of a handful in the armed forces—and in charge of the “unified command.”[293] He will also retain his seat on the SCAF. Askar’s former deputy, Muhammad Abdullah, has been appointed commander, and Tarek Anwar Helal the chief of staff, of the Third Field Army.[294]

Update July 31, 2014: In early July, the Egyptian military released a bulletin detailing personnel changes in the armed forces. Two well-established generals were removed from the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces and given new positions: Taher Abdullah, director of the Engineering Authority, and Saeed Abbas, commander of the Northern Military Zone. Abdullah is now an assistant defense minister, while Abbas is head of the infantry—neither of these positions warrant a spot on the SCAF. They have been replaced by their deputies, Emad al-Alfi and Mohamed al-Zamalout, respectively. Also, according to reports, Salah al-Badri is now acting director of military intelligence. He previously served as head of security within military intelligence when Abdul Fattah al-Sisi was director. Click the graphic below to download the amended SCAF organizational chart. The original Policy Watch appears thereafter, as published in March.[295]

In light of today's announcement and other information, twenty-five generals will likely hold seats on the SCAF (see chart). Based on Law No. 20, however, the defense minister may invite other experts to consult with the council or attend its meetings as he sees fit. So while the official SCAF membership may consist of these individuals, the law's flexibility leaves room for other officers—active or retired—to partake in the SCAF's deliberations, signaling the potential emergence of Egypt's newest men on horseback.[296]

Military academies[edit]

Military organization[edit]

APP-6A Symbol Name Nature Strength Constituent units Commander or leader
XXXXXX region, theater Command 1,000,000–10,000,000 4+ army groups general, army general, five-star general or field marshal
XXXXX army group, front Command 400,000–1,000,000 2+ armies general, army general, five-star general or field marshal
XXXX army Command 100,000–200,000 2–4 corps general, army general, four-star general or colonel general
XXX corps Formation 40,000–80,000 2+ divisions lieutenant general, corps general or three-star general
XX division Formation 10,000–25,000 2–4 brigades or regiments major general, divisional general or two-star general
X brigade Formation 3,000–5,000 2+ regiments, 3–6 battalions or Commonwealth regiments brigadier, brigadier general, brigade general, or one-star general (sometimes colonel)
III regiment or group Formation 1,000–3,000 2+ battalions or U.S. Cavalry squadrons colonel
II infantry battalion, U.S. Cavalry squadron, Commonwealth armoured regiment or Argentine Army regiment/artillery group/battalion Unit 300–1,300 2–6 companies, batteries, U.S. Cavalry troops, or Commonwealth squadrons, Argentine squadrons/companies lieutenant colonel
I infantry company, artillery battery, U.S. Cavalry troop, or Commonwealth armour or combat engineering squadron Subunit 80–250 2–8 platoons or Commonwealth troops Chief Warrant Officer, captain or major
••• platoon or Commonwealth troop Sub-subunit 26–55 2+ Section, or vehicles warrant officer, first or second lieutenant
•• section or patrol 12–24 1-2+ squad or 3–6 fireteams corporal to sergeant
squad or crew 8–12 2–3 fireteams or 1+ cell corporal to staff sergeant
Ø fireteam 4 n/a lance corporal to sergeant
Ø fire and maneuver team 2 n/a any/private first class

Military Decorations and Medals[edit]

Militarycourage.jpg Sinai Libration.jpg Trainingdeco.jpg Militaryduty.jpg OctWar-SilverJubileeOct.jpg Longevandexemp.jpg DestinServ.jpg Kuwaitlibr.jpg Goldenjubile23.jpg
Medal of Courage Medal of Sinai Liberation Medal of Training Medal of Military Duty Medal of the Silver Anniversary of October Victory Medal of Long Service and Good Example Medal of Distinguished Service Kuwait Liberation Medal Medal of the Gold Anniversary of 23 July 1952 Revolution

Military ranks[edit]

Rank insignia were similar for the army, navy, and air force. The grade structure had seventeen ranks ranging from private to general. Each rank had a counterpart in all services. Commissioned officers in the army and navy wore gold insignia on shoulder boards; officers in the air force wore silver ones. Army enlisted personnel wore green stripes; air force enlisted personnel wore blue stripes on the upper sleeve.[315]

Egyptian Army ranks[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Army ranks
Egyptian Army ranks
Commissioned Officers & Enlisted personnel
Shoulder straps —- EgyptianArmyInsignia-Corporal.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-Sergeant.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-StaffSergeant.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-WarrantOfficer.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-ChiefWarrantOfficer.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-Lieutenant.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-FirstLieutenant.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-Captain.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-Major.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-LieutenantColonel.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-Colonel.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-BrigadierGeneral.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-MajorGeneral.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-LieutenantGeneral.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-ColonelGeneral.svg EgyptianArmyInsignia-FieldMarshal.svg
Patches Private
Expert/Specialist Raqīb First Raqīb
Assistant
First Assistant
Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General Colonel General Field Marshal
Code NATO OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9 OF-10 OF-11 OF-12 OF-13 OF-14 OF-15 OF-16 OF-17

Egyptian Air Force ranks[edit]

Egyptian Air Force ranks
Commissioned Officers & Enlisted personnel
Shoulder straps —- Pilot Officer - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Flying Officer - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Flight Lieutenant - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Squadron Leader - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Wing Commander - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Group Captain - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Air Commodore - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Air Vice-Marshal - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Air Marshal - Egyptian Air Force rank.png Air Chief Marshal - Egyptian Air Force rank.png
Patches Aircraftman Corporal Sergeant Master Sergeant Pilot Officer Flying Officer Flight Lieutenant Squadron Leader Wing Commander Group Captain Air Commodore Air Vice-Marshal Air Marshal Air Chief Marshal
Code NATO OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9 OF-10 OF-11 OF-12 OF-13 OF-14

Egyptian Navy ranks[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Navy ranks
Egyptian Navy ranks
Admirals Senior officers Junior officers
Shoulder straps EgyptianNavyInsignia-Admiral-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-ViceAdmiral-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-RearAdmiral-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-Commodore-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-Captain-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-Commander-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-LieutenantCommander-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-Lieutenant-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-SubLieutenant-shoulderboard.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-Ensign-shoulderboard.svg
Patches Generic-Navy-O11-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-O10-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-O9-sleeve.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-Commodore-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-O7-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-O5-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-O4-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-O3-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-O2-sleeve.svg Generic-Navy-O1-sleeve.svg
Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sub-Lieutenant Ensign
Code NATO OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1

Military flags[edit]

The several branches of the Egyptian Armed Forces are represented by flags, among other emblems and insignia. Within each branch, various flags fly on various occasions, and on various ships, bases, camps and military academies.[316]

In general, the order of precedence when displaying military flags together is Air Defense, Air Force, Navy and the Army.

Flag of the Egyptian Army Flag of the Egyptian Navy Flag of the Egyptian Air Force Flag of the Egyptian Air Defense Forces
Flag of the Army of Egypt.svg Naval Flag of Egypt.svg Eafflag.svg Egypt Air Defense Flag.png

Military uniforms[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Army Uniform

Egyptian military uniforms were similar to British uniforms. Each branch of the military had dress, service or garrison, and field uniforms. Dress uniforms were worn mostly on formal occasions. The service uniform was worn for daily duty.[317] The service uniform for the ground forces was khaki cotton; personnel in the air force wore blue, and the navy wore navy blue in winter and white in summer. Egyptian officers purchased their uniforms, but enlisted personnel received a standard uniform issue, which consisted of service and field uniforms, fatigues, and in some cases, dress uniforms.[318]

Rank insignia were similar for the army, navy, and air force. The grade structure had seventeen ranks ranging from private to general. Each rank had a counterpart in all services. Commissioned officers in the army and navy wore gold insignia on shoulder boards; officers in the air force wore silver ones. Army enlisted personnel wore green stripes; air force enlisted personnel wore blue stripes on the upper sleeve.[315]

Egyptian Army Thunderbolt camouflage uniform Egyptian Army Thunderbolt camouflage uniform Egyptian Army Thunderbolt camouflage uniform Egyptian Republican Guard camouflage uniform
Army Airborne Thunderbolt Republican Guard
Egyptian Army Beret.png Paratroops Beret - Egyptian Army.png Egyptian Army Thunderbolt camouflage uniform Egyptian Republican Guard camouflage uniform

Non-military affairs[edit]

The Egyptian Armed Forces established the "The National Service's projects' organization" which has more than 10 sub-companies and factories specialized in public service and civil production including chemicals, cements, plastics, housing construction, consumer goods and military-owned resorts management.[319]

The armed forces of Egypt helped in building several national projects such as construction of Egypt's main roads, bridges, tunnels, ports, stadiums, clubs, hospitals, international medical centers, medical units, schools, scientific centers, educational centers, cities, factories, desert land reclamation, slums developments, water desalination plants and faculties.[320]

Egyptian armed forces also has three football clubs playing in the Egyptian Premier League. El-Entag El-Harby SC (Military Production), Tala'ea El-Gaish SC (Army's Vanguards) and Haras El-Hodood SC (Border Guards).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The army in ancient Egypt". www.reshafim.org.il. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  2. ^ "Ancient Egypt Military". www.ancientmilitary.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  3. ^ "The Egyptian Military, Part One: From the Ottomans through Sadat | Middle East Policy Council". www.mepc.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  4. ^ "Egypt Muhammad Ali, 1805-48 - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues,International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System". workmall.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  5. ^ "Turks and the Turkish Language the Egyptian Army". World history. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  6. ^ Lutsky, Vladimir Borisovich. "Modern History of the Arab Countries by Vladimir Borisovich Lutsky 1969". www.marxists.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  7. ^ a b c "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  8. ^ "2015 Available Military Manpower by Country". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  9. ^ "2015 Manpower Fit for Military Service by Country". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  10. ^ "2015 Manpower Reaching Military Age Annually by Country". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v International Institute for Strategic Studies (3 Feb 2014). The Military Balance 2014. London: Routledge. pp. 315–318. ISBN 9781857437225. 
  12. ^ "2015 Active Military Manpower by Country". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  13. ^ "2015 Active Reserve Military Manpower by Country". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  14. ^ "CCCPA :: Egypt and Peacekeeping". www.cairopeacekeeping.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  15. ^ "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's | IHS". articles.janes.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  16. ^ "The Armies of the Pharaohs, 3200–1300 BC". The Air University. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  17. ^ Reuters (28 November 2013). "Egypt's new constitution strengthens army's 'state within a state' status". Haaretz. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  18. ^ "Suez Canal: from crisis to crisis". The Huffington Post. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  19. ^ "Ancient Egypt Military". www.ancientmilitary.com. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  20. ^ "Ancient Egyptian History for Kids: Army and Soldiers". www.ducksters.com. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  21. ^ "The army in ancient Egypt". www.reshafim.org.il. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  22. ^ "War and Battle in Ancient Egypt - Quatr.us". quatr.us. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  23. ^ "Weapons in ancient Egypt". www.reshafim.org.il. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  24. ^ "Ancient Egyptian Military". www.historyembalmed.org. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  25. ^ "Experience Ancient Egypt". Experience Ancient Egypt. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  26. ^ "Ancient Egyptian Warfare | Ancient Wars". www.thefinertimes.com. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  27. ^ "Egypt's Golden Empire . New Kingdom . Soldiers | PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  28. ^ "Warfare". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  29. ^ "Ancient Egyptian society: Chariots in Ancient Egypt". www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  30. ^ "Ancient Egypt - Ancient History - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  31. ^ "Muhammad 'Ali | pasha and viceroy of Egypt". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  32. ^ "Muhammad Ali Pasha Biography - life, children, name, history, mother, young, son, old, born, time". www.notablebiographies.com. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  33. ^ "Muhammad Ali Pasha in Egyptian History - The Founder of Modern Egypt". www.egyptianagriculture.com. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  34. ^ "Egypt - Muhammad Ali, 1805-48". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  35. ^ Pollack, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991, Council on Foreign Relations/University of Nebraska, 2002, p.14
  36. ^ "Muhammad Ali Pasha the Great - New World Encyclopedia". www.newworldencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  37. ^ "Biography of King Farouk of Egypt (1920-1965)". madmonarchs.guusbeltman.nl. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  38. ^ "Egypt's 1952 revolution and military rule, a history in photos". Plog. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  39. ^ "Farouk I Facts". biography.yourdictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  40. ^ "Military History Online- Egypt's Canal Zone Guerrillas". www.militaryhistoryonline.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  41. ^ Famhy, From peasants to soldiers: discipline and training, 128.
  42. ^ Famhy, From peasants to soldiers: discipline and training, 138.
  43. ^ "Free Officers | revolutionary group, Egypt". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  44. ^ "Who are the April 8th Free Officers, the Pride of Egypt and the Egyptian Military?". www.tahrirdocuments.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  45. ^ "1952: Egyptian army ousts prime minister". BBC. 1952-09-07. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  46. ^ "The Abdication of King Farouk | History Today". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  47. ^ "Anglo–Egyptian Treaty (1954) – FREE Anglo–Egyptian Treaty (1954) information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Anglo–Egyptian Treaty (1954) research". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  48. ^ "BBC - History - British History in depth: The Suez Crisis". Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  49. ^ says, COLD WAR LEGACY: EGYPT’S EMERGENCY LAW 162 OF 1958. "Egypt during the Cold War". Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  50. ^ "Suez Crisis - Cold War - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  51. ^ "An affair to remember". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  52. ^ 7, 1 vanessa beeley on July; Said, 2015. "The covert war in Yemen, 1962-70". Mark Curtis. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  53. ^ "The Proxy of My Proxy: Saudi Arabia vs. Egypt in North Yemen | Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training". adst.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  54. ^ "Egyptian Front". www.sixdaywar.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  55. ^ "Six-Day War | Middle East [1967]". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  56. ^ a b c d e Varble, Derek (2003) p. 19.
  57. ^ "How 1967 defined the Middle East". BBC. 2007-06-04. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  58. ^ Tattrie, Jon. "Suez Crisis". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  59. ^ a b c d Varble, Derek (2003) p. 20.
  60. ^ "Suez Crisis: Operation Musketeer". History Net: Where History Comes Alive - World & US History Online. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  61. ^ "Suez: A Very British Crisis". Top Documentary Films. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  62. ^ "The Suez Crisis, 1956 | Gresham College". www.gresham.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  63. ^ "North Yemen Civil War - the Polynational War Memorial". www.war-memorial.net. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  64. ^ Pike, John. "North Yemen Civil War (1962-1970)". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  65. ^ "Behind Yemen’s 50-year civil war - Timeline". Timeline News. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  66. ^ ""Nasser’s Inter-Arab Rivalries: 1958-1967"". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  67. ^ "North Yemen Civil War - the Polynational War Memorial". www.war-memorial.net. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  68. ^ the number was increased to 36,000. ISBN 0521528909. 
  69. ^ late 1963, the number was increased to 36,000; and in late 1964. ISBN 0521528909. 
  70. ^ Yemen History and Culture: A Book by AnVi OpenSourceKnowledge Trust (2015). By late 1963, the number was increased to 36,000; and in late 1964, the number rose to 50,000 Egyptian troops in Yemen. In late 1965, the Egyptian troop. ISBN 0521528909. 
  71. ^ "Yemen’s First Civil War Offers Lessons for Ending the Country’s Current Conflict". Muftah. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  72. ^ http://www.alexthorn.com/writings/Thorn-EgyptsVietnam.pdf
  73. ^ "North Yemen Today | Middle East Research and Information Project". www.merip.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  74. ^ "North and South Yemen: Lead-up to the Break-up". WRMEA. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  75. ^ Ami Gluska (12 February 2007). The Israeli Military and the Origins of the 1967 War: Government, Armed Forces and Defence Policy 1963–67. Routledge. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-134-16377-9. On the evening of 22 May, President Gamal Abdul Nasser, accompanied by ... Egyptian air force base at Bir Gafgafa in Sinai and addressed the pilots and officers. ... 'The Jews are threatening war – we say to them ahlan wa-sahlan (welcome)! 
  76. ^ John Keegan, World Armies, Second Edition, MacMillan, 1983, p.165 ISBN 978-0-333-34079-0
  77. ^ "1967: a war of miscalculation and misjudgment - Le Monde diplomatique - English edition". mondediplo.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  78. ^ Samir A. Mutawi (18 July 2002). Jordan in the 1967 War. Cambridge University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-521-52858-0. 
  79. ^ "BBC: Nasser 'asked' UN peacekeepers to leave Sinai in 1967". BBC Watch. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  80. ^ Tsouras, 'Changing Orders,' Facts on File, 1994, 191
  81. ^ Pollack, 2002, 60.
  82. ^ Jankowski, James (2013-01-01). "Review of Nasser's Gamble: How Intervention in Yemen Caused the Six-Day War and the Decline of Egyptian Power". Bustan: The Middle East Book Review 4 (2): 153–157. doi:10.1163/18785328-13040204. 
  83. ^ "Ferris, J.: Nasser's Gamble: How Intervention in Yemen Caused the Six-Day War and the Decline of Egyptian Power. (eBook, Paperback and Hardcover)". press.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  84. ^ "1967 War: Israeli Occupation". The Jerusalem Fund. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  85. ^ Makers of Modern Strategy
  86. ^ "40 Years Of Israeli Occupation". www.arij.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  87. ^ Pike, John. "Army - Egypt". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  88. ^ "Suez Canal: from crisis to crisis". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  89. ^ A Christian From Egypt. ISBN 1499080549. 
  90. ^ "Yom Kippur War from a deletant perspective". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  91. ^ Middle East. ISBN 1742203590. 
  92. ^ "Asymmetric Negotiations (I): The Middle East Peace Process". www.passia.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  93. ^ Debating Palestine and Israel. ISBN 1907605509. 
  94. ^ The Egyptian Expeditionary Force in World War I: A History of the British. ISBN 078645797X. 
  95. ^ "Yom Kippur War: Embattled Israeli Bridgehead at Chinese Farm". History Net: Where History Comes Alive - World & US History Online. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  96. ^ "Egypt storms across the Suez Canal". www.combatreform.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  97. ^ "middle east politics Archives - DaNa AlThani". DaNa AlThani. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  98. ^ "THE LAST TIME I SAW CAIRO". www.spysoftball.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  99. ^ a b The Last Daze: The Truth About End-Times Theology. ISBN 1300295511. 
  100. ^ Hero of the Crossing: How Anwar Sadat and the 1973 War Changed the World. ISBN 1612347959. 
  101. ^ "October 1973: the Arab-Israeli War Remembered". Veterans Today. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  102. ^ "Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Yom Kippur War - October 1973 [VHS]". www.amazon.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  103. ^ a b The Egyptian Strategy for the Yom Kippur War: An Analysis. ISBN 0786454008. 
  104. ^ Democratic Civil-military Relations: Soldiering in 21st-century Europe. ISBN 0415516463. 
  105. ^ a b Library of Congress Country Study, Egypt, Army, 1990
  106. ^ "Background Notes on Selected Middle Eastern Countries from the Department of State". www.shsu.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  107. ^ "The Arab-Israeli War of 1973: Honor, Oil, and Blood". History Net: Where History Comes Alive - World & US History Online. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  108. ^ a b "Egypt - Army". www.country-data.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  109. ^ Pike, John. "October 1973 War / Yom Kippur War / Ramadan War". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  110. ^ "War of Attrition | Egyptian-Israeli history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  111. ^ "Egyptian-Libyan War of 1977". www.historyguy.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  112. ^ "Egypt’s Army Will Not Intervene | Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies". Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  113. ^ "Egyptian Army Info". www.freerepublic.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  114. ^ "World View Changed: February 25, 1986 - Cairo, Egypt". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  115. ^ Pike, John. "Bright Star". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  116. ^ Times, Youssef M. Ibrahim, Special To The New York (1991-02-05). "WAR IN THE GULF: Egypt; Egypt Appears More Likely To Join in Ground Combat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  117. ^ "Egyptians Abandoned By Gulf War Allies". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  118. ^ http://www.tim-thompson.com/gwobjfg.html, accessed February 2009
  119. ^ http://www.gamla.org.il/english/article/1999/aug/jpost.htm
  120. ^ "Mon, 16 Sep 1996: Egypt Practices Invasion of Sinai". www.prismnet.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  121. ^ "Countries Compared by Military > Service age and obligation. International Statistics at NationMaster.com". www.nationmaster.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  122. ^ http://www.mako.co.il/news-specials/egypt/Article-64af2c4c648dd21004.htm
  123. ^ "Egypt". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  124. ^ "The Egyptian Threat and the Prospects for War in the Middle East". NATIV. November 2006. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  125. ^ Global Diversity: Winning Customers and Engaging Employees Within World Markets. Intercultural Press. 2006. ISBN 9781904838098. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  126. ^ "Egypt to launch first spy satellite". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 
  127. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (28 January 2011). "Egyptian Military Chiefs Cut Pentagon Visit Short". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
  128. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth; Mark Landler contributed reporting, "Calling for Restraint, Pentagon Faces Test of Influence With Ally". The New York Times. 29 January 2011 (30 January 2011, p. A1, New York edition). Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  129. ^ Murdock, Heather (11 February 2011). "Crowds rejoice as Egypt's Mubarak steps down, hands power to military". The Washington Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  130. ^ http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/50239/Egypt/Politics-/Morsi-retires-Egypts-top-army-leaders;-amends--Con.aspx
  131. ^ "Mohamed Morsi ousted in Egypt's second revolution in two years". The Guardian. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  132. ^ "Mohamed Morsi ousted in Egypt's second revolution in two years". The Atlantic. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  133. ^ "Anti-Mursi 'Rebel' campaign receives more than 22 million signatures". Al Arabiya. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  134. ^ a b "Millions flood Egypt's streets to demand Mursi quit". Reuters. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  135. ^ "Egypt protests: President Morsi removed by army, reportedly put under house arrest". The Associated Press and Reuters=3 July 2013. 3 July 2013. 
  136. ^ Kirkpatrick, David; Mayy El Sheikh (20 August 2013). "An Egypt Arrest, and a Brotherhood on the Run". New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  137. ^ "Scenesetter: President Mubarak's visit to Washington". US Department of State. 19 May 2009. 
  138. ^ David Costello (1 February 2011). "Nation locked in a deadly stalemate". The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  139. ^ "Egypt May Not Need Fighter Jets, But The U.S. Keeps Sending Them Anyway."
  140. ^ a b c Cambanis, Thanassis (11 September 2010). "Succession Gives Army a Stiff Test in Egypt". New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  141. ^ "The Egyptian Military's Huge Historical Role". news.nationalgeographic.com. 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  142. ^ "The Egyptian military in politics and the economy: Recent history and current transition status - CMI Publications". www.cmi.no. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  143. ^ "The Egyptian Military and the 2011 Revolution". www.jadaliyya.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  144. ^ KIRKPATRICK, DAVID D.; MAYY EL SHEIKH (23 December 2012). "Egypt Opposition Gears Up After Constitution Passes". New York Times. Retrieved 26 September 2013. the constitution's principal defects were not about religion. The biggest problem, he said, is that it protects the Egyptian military from legal and parliamentary oversight, engraving its autonomy in the constitution. Leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood had said privately for months that they were willing to provide the military such constitutional protections in order to ease the transition of power from the generals who assumed control from Mr. Mubarak. 
  145. ^ "Egypt: New Constitution Mixed on Support of Rights". November 30, 2012. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 26 September 2013. But the latest draft, unlike the earlier version, defers to objections from the country's military leadership and removes the clear prohibition on trials of civilians before military courts. 
  146. ^ "Egyptian military has 60-year record of running politics". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  147. ^ Goldberg, Ellis (2014-06-02). "A new political dilemma for Egypt’s ruling military". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  148. ^ "Articles: The Egyptian Army in Politics". www.americanthinker.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  149. ^ "Egyptian Army Considered Economic Stakes in Coup - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  150. ^ "MEI Editor's Blog: The Egyptian Army in Politics, 2: 1952 and All That". mideasti.blogspot.ch. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  151. ^ "Profile: Interim Egyptian President Adly Mansour - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  152. ^ "Egypt in crisis: July 4 as it happened". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  153. ^ 385d8288-6f16-4344-b998-83752175563b. "IISS". www.iiss.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  154. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (2014-03-26). "Abdel Fatah al-Sisi resigns from Egypt military to run for presidency". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  155. ^ "Egypt's El-Sisi bids military farewell, says he will run for presidency". Ahram Online. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  156. ^ "Former army chief scores landslide victory in Egypt presidential polls". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  157. ^ Bradley, Matt; Ismail, Amina. "With New Vows, Egypt Leader Takes Office". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  158. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (2014-06-08). "Egypt's Sisi sworn in as president". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  159. ^ "Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi is sworn in as Egypt's new president | PBS NewsHour". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  160. ^ Egypt: Who Calls the Shots?(relevance?) Joshua Hammer| nybooks.com| 18 August 2011| (free online article not complete, does not include quoted portion).
  161. ^ Army Economy between dramatize and the dismantling of the state 12 April 2012| (Arabic Article).
  162. ^ a b "World Air Forces 2015" (PDF). Flightglobal Insight. 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015. 
  163. ^ "2015 Military Aircraft Strength by Country". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  164. ^ Pike, John. "Egyptian Air Force". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  165. ^ "Egyptian Armed Forces Hospitals". 
  166. ^ See also Order of Battle at http://www.orbat.com/site/cwa_open/toc.htm, accessed August 2009
  167. ^ John Keegan, World Armies, Second Edition, MacMillan, 1983, ISBN 978-0-333-34079-0
  168. ^ John Keegan, World Armies, Second Edition, MacMillan, 1983, p. 165, ISBN 978-0-333-34079-0.
  169. ^ "Army - Egypt". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-20. 
  170. ^ "Notes on Compulsory Army Service in Egypt | The Baheyeldin Dynasty". baheyeldin.com. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  171. ^ "Egypt - Conscription and Reserves". www.country-data.com. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  172. ^ al-Afandi, Aziz. "Conscripts with connections get easy military service in Egypt". alaraby. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  173. ^ Egypt Land Forces military equipment and vehicles Egyptian Army. "Egypt Land Forces military equipment and vehicles Egyptian Army". 
  174. ^ Pike, John. "Egyptian Air Force". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  175. ^ Pike, John. "Egyptian Air Force". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  176. ^ "[Air Forces] The Egyptian Air Force". warthunder.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  177. ^ "F-16 Air Forces - Egypt". www.f-16.net. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  178. ^ "AH-64D Apache". Military Edge: The Most Comprehensive Tool on the Web for QME. 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  179. ^ "Arab Aviation > Air Power > Egyptian Air Force". www.arabaviation.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  180. ^ "Lockheed C-130 Hercules". www.militaryaviation.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  181. ^ Desk, News. "Egypt interested in buying 24 MiG-35s from Russia | Defense Update:". defense-update.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  182. ^ "EGYPT / RUSSIA / FRANCE - Cairo eyes Rafale, Su-35, or both - Intelligence Online". www.intelligenceonline.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  183. ^ ""Алмаз-Антей": российская зенитная ракетная система "Антей-2500" поствлена в Египет". ТАСС. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  184. ^ "Алмаз-Антей : российская зенитная ракетная система Антей-2500 поствлена в Египет". Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  185. ^ ""Алмаз-Антей": российская зенитная ракетная система "Антей-2500" поствлена в Египет". Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  186. ^ Pike, John. "Air Defense Force (ADF) - Egypt". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  187. ^ "Egypt - Air Defense Force". www.country-data.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  188. ^ "Air Defense: Egypt Sticks With Russia". www.strategypage.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  189. ^ Pike, John. "Navy - Egypt". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  190. ^ "2015 Egypt Military Strength". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  191. ^ Pike, John. "Egyptian Naval Commandos (Al-Quaat Al Khaasat)". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  192. ^ "State Information Services Sisi: Forming rapid deployment force boosts Egyptian army". www.us.sis.gov.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  193. ^ "A New Era for Egypt's Military". www.washingtoninstitute.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  194. ^ Military.com. "Egypt's Task Force 777 in Training". Military.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  195. ^ "Task Force 777". www.specwarnet.net. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  196. ^ "Egyptian Army - Armored Vehicle Intelligence". Army Recognition. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  197. ^ "Egypt - Army". www.country-data.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  198. ^ a b "T-62 - Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery". www.militaryfactory.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  199. ^ "M60A3 Main Battle Tank". Army Technology. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  200. ^ "T54/T55 Main Battle Tank". fas.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  201. ^ "The Egyptian Infantry Fighting Vehicle - TankNutDave.com". TankNutDave.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  202. ^ "BTR-50 - Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery". www.militaryfactory.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  203. ^ "Egyptian BTR-50 upgrade close to completion". Raqeb. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  204. ^ "Fahd 4x4 Armoured Personnel Carrier". Army Technology. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  205. ^ "Egypt Military Strength". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  206. ^ "M113 APC (1961)". Tanks Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  207. ^ Pike, John. "Army Equipment- Egypt". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  208. ^ Pike, John. "Egyptian Air Force". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  209. ^ "Egypt Air Force - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System". www.photius.com. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  210. ^ Lake, Darren (11 January 2001). "Egyptian Navy orders four Ambassador MK III PCFGs". Janes Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 2001-08-15. 
  211. ^ "A force to be reckoned with (Egyptian Air Force)". www.freerepublic.com. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  212. ^ Global Firepower. "Navy Ship Strength by Country". 
  213. ^ "Egypt - Navy". www.country-data.com. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  214. ^ http://investor.raytheon.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=84193&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=986692
  215. ^ Pike, John. "Air Defense Force (ADF) - Egypt". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  216. ^ "Egypt - Air Defense Force". www.country-data.com. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  217. ^ "HAWK TMD". fas.org. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  218. ^ Kopp, Dr C. "Almaz S-75 Dvina/Desna/Volkhov Air Defence System / SA-2Guideline / Зенитный Ракетный Комплекс С-75 Двина/Десна/Волхов". www.ausairpower.net. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  219. ^ Sputnik. "Sistema antiaéreo Pechora-2M: Un arma eficaz como el Kalashnikov. Vedomosti". mundo.sputniknews.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  220. ^ "V-750 SA-2 GUIDELINE - Russia / Soviet Nuclear Forces". fas.org. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  221. ^ "SA-6 (Gainful) / 2K12 Kub - Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery". www.militaryfactory.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  222. ^ "Crotale SAM - Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery". www.militaryfactory.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  223. ^ "Raytheon: Investors: News Release". investor.raytheon.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  224. ^ "Modernizing the USMCs TPS-59 Radars". Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  225. ^ "MIM-104 Patriot - Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery". www.militaryfactory.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  226. ^ "M730 Chaparral - Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery". www.militaryfactory.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  227. ^ "Sentinel (USA) - AN/MPQ-64 - Military Periscope". www.militaryperiscope.com. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  228. ^ ""Алмаз-Антей": российская зенитная ракетная система "Антей-2500" поствлена в Египет". ТАСС. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  229. ^ "Алмаз-Антей : российская зенитная ракетная система Антей-2500 поствлена в Египет". Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  230. ^ ""Алмаз-Антей": российская зенитная ракетная система "Антей-2500" поствлена в Египет". Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  231. ^ "Egypt, Russia Negotiating Missile Sale". Defense News. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  232. ^ "Egypt's Other Revolution: Modernizing the Military-Industrial Complex". www.jadaliyya.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  233. ^ Pike, John. "Defense Industry - Egypt". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  234. ^ "Products". www.aoi.com.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  235. ^ "Arab Organization for Industrialization (AOI)Special Weapons Agencies - Egypt". fas.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  236. ^ Paul, Jim (1983-01-01). "The Egyptian Arms Industry". MERIP Reports (112): 26–28. doi:10.2307/3010849. 
  237. ^ "US and Egypt Prepare to Resume Co-Production of M1A1 Abrams". Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  238. ^ "Ramses II - Tanks Encyclopedia". Tanks Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  239. ^ "SA-7 GRAIL (9K32M Strela-2)". fas.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  240. ^ Pike, John. "Abu Zaabal Company for Engineering Industries (Factory 100)". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  241. ^ "K-8(E) :: Advanced Trainer Aircraft". aoi.org.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  242. ^ "Military". aoi.org.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  243. ^ "Fahd Armored Personnel Carrier | Military-Today.com". www.military-today.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  244. ^ "Egypt: MILITARY FACTORIES". fas.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  245. ^ Alberts, Kristin. "The Helwan 920: Cheap Knock-Off or Beretta-Quality?". Guns.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  246. ^ "Gun Review: POHF's Egyptian MISR 7.62x39MM". Tactical Life Gun Magazine: Gun News and Gun Reviews. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  247. ^ "Converting Your Post-Ban AK-47 to be 922(r) Exempt". The Shooter's Log. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  248. ^ "Arms Industries of the Middle East | Middle East Research and Information Project". www.merip.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  249. ^ a b "Profile for Egypt | NTI". NTI: Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  250. ^ "Nuclear Weapons Program - Egypt". fas.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  251. ^ "Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries | New Nuclear Build Countries". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  252. ^ Terrill, W. Andrew (1991-04-01). "The chemical warfare legacy of the Yemen war". Comparative Strategy 10 (2): 109–119. doi:10.1080/01495939108402836. ISSN 0149-5933. 
  253. ^ "Chemical Weapons Program – Egypt". Fas.org. Retrieved 2014-02-03. 
  254. ^ "Profile for Egypt | NTI". NTI: Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  255. ^ Pike, John. "Nuclear Weapons Program - Egypt". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  256. ^ Julian Perry Robinson, The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: Volume II: CB Weapons Today (Stockholm, SIPRI, 1973), p. 241.
  257. ^ "Profile for Egypt | NTI". NTI: Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  258. ^ "Egyptian Ballistic Missile Center". www.armscontrolwonk.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  259. ^ "UAR Egypt's former missile development program". www.b14643.de. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  260. ^ "Egypt Archives - Missile Threat". Missile Threat. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  261. ^ Investigations. "What do we know about Egypt's arsenal?". NBC News. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  262. ^ "Vector - Missile Threat". Missile Threat. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  263. ^ "Badr 2000 - Missile Threat". Missile Threat. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  264. ^ "Egypt's Missile Efforts Succeed with Help from North Korea". www.wisconsinproject.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  265. ^ "US Confirms Egypt Has Tested N. Korean Missiles". www.rense.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  266. ^ "Scud B-100 (Project T) - Missile Threat". Missile Threat. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  267. ^ Desk, iHLS News. "China and North Korea May Have Sold Missiles to Egypt - i-HLS Israel Homeland Security". i-HLS Israel Homeland Security. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  268. ^ "Ballistic Missile Capabilities in the Middle East". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  269. ^ "Military expenditure (% of central government expenditure) | Data | Table". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  270. ^ "BMI Research Research Reports". www.marketresearch.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  271. ^ "Military Budget in Egypt – Egyptian Military Spending". militarybudget.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  272. ^ Pike, John. "Egypt - Military Budget". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  273. ^ "2015 Defense Budget by Country". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  274. ^ "SIPRI Publications". milexdata.sipri.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  275. ^ a b "Egypt Military Expenditure (Yearly, NSA, Percent of GDP)". ycharts.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  276. ^ "Egypt military budget allocations to reach LE31 bn in 2013/14: Source - Economy - Business - Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  277. ^ a b "Egypt". www.deagel.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  278. ^ "US poised to lift curbs on $1.5bn aid to Egypt | The National". www.thenational.ae. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  279. ^ "Egypt’s junta keeps budget secret". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  280. ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  281. ^ "The Egyptian Armed Forces and the Remaking of an Economic Empire". Carnegie Middle East Center. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  282. ^ "Armed Forces Day 2016 - Egypt". www.calendardate.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  283. ^ "Armed Forces Day | Egyptian holiday". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  284. ^ "Armed Forces Day". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  285. ^ "CCCPA :: Egypt and Peacekeeping". www.cairopeacekeeping.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  286. ^ "Troop and police contributors. United Nations Peacekeeping". www.un.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  287. ^ "Egypt to send more than 1,325 peacekeepers to Congo". af.reuters.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  288. ^ "United Nations Peacekeeping Forces - History". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  289. ^ "Training for Peace Operations as Conducted in Egypt - African Capabilities for Training for Peace Operations". www.issafrica.org. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  290. ^ "Peace Operations in Africa". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  291. ^ "Egypt expands its participation at the UN peacekeeping operations in Africa". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  292. ^ "Peace Around The World- Peacekeeping Forces". paw.ypteam.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  293. ^ "Egyptian army makes leadership changes". Middle East Monitor - The Latest from the Middle East. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  294. ^ "Egypt: Land of the Generals". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  295. ^ "Who's Who in Egypt's New Cabinet - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  296. ^ "Egypt's New Military Brass". www.washingtoninstitute.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  297. ^ "Egypt: Abdul Fattah al-Sisi profile - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  298. ^ "Sedki Sobhi sworn in as Egypt's new military chief - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  299. ^ "وزير الدفاع". www.mod.gov.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  300. ^ "State Information Services Mahmoud Hegazy appointed as new army chief-of-staff". www.sis.gov.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  301. ^ "قائد القوات البحرية". www.mod.gov.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  302. ^ "قائد القوات الجوية". www.mod.gov.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  303. ^ "قائد قوات الدفاع الجوى". www.mod.gov.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  304. ^ "Egyptian Military Overview". prezi.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  305. ^ a b "The SCAF: An Overview of its Actions". The Cairo Review of Global Affairs. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  306. ^ a b c Carlstrom, Gregg. "Profile: Who are Egypt's military rulers?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  307. ^ "رئيس أركان حرب القوات المسلحة". www.mod.gov.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  308. ^ "The Leaders of the Egyptian Military Council". Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  309. ^ "The diaries of former military leaders". Cairo Post. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  310. ^ "Army sends planes carrying equipment to extinguish Siwa fire, nearby villages evacuated | Egypt Independent". www.egyptindependent.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  311. ^ "Head of military engineering authority is replaced". Mada Masr. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  312. ^ "Who's Who in Egypt's New Cabinet - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  313. ^ Beaumont, Peter (2012-05-03). "Egypt's ruling generals deny killing protesters". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  314. ^ "SCAF: Intelligence points to plan to burn Parliament building - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  315. ^ a b "Egypt Uniforms and Insignia - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System". www.photius.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  316. ^ "Flags of the World". www.crwflags.com. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  317. ^ Ayman. "Egypt Issues New Army Uniforms to Combat Impersonations". www.copticsolidarity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  318. ^ "Egypt - Camopedia". camopedia.org. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  319. ^ Pike, John. "National Service Products Organization (NSPO)". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  320. ^ "The National Service's projects' organization". Egyptian Ministry of Defence. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness 1948–91, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 2002, and Pollack's book reviewed in International Security, Vol. 28, No.2.
  • Hazem Kandil, Soldiers, Spies and Statesmen: Egypt's Road to Revolt
  • Norvell deAtkine, 'Why Arabs Lose Wars,' Middle East Quarterly, 6(4).
  • Egyptian Wars in Modern History (in Arabic), by Maj Gen Abed al-Menahim Khalil
  • In Between the Catastrophe: Memoirs of Egyptian Military Commanders from 1967 to 1972 (in Arabic), by Dr Mohammed al-Jawadi
  • The Three-Years War (in Arabic), by Maj Gen Mohammed Fawzy
  • The Crossing of the Suez, by Lt Gen Saad el-Shazly
  • H.Frisch, Guns and butter in the Egyptian Army, p. 6. Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Summer 2001).

External links[edit]