Military of Kuwait

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Military of Kuwait
Service branches

(1915-1938)

(1938-1953)

Leadership
the Emir, Commander-in-chief Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Manpower
Military age 18
Available for
military service
900,745 (2010 est.), age 15–49
Fit for
military service
857,292 (2010 est.), age 15–49
Reaching military
age annually
22,000 (2005 est.)
Active personnel

excluding:

Kuwait Armed Forces
[10]

Reserve personnel 31,000[10]
Expenditures
Budget US$10 billion (2015)[11]
Industry
Foreign suppliers Egypt
France
Germany
Russia
United Kingdom
United States
Related articles
History

The Military of Kuwait consists of several joint defense forces. The governing bodies are the Kuwait Ministry of Defense,[1] the Kuwait Ministry of Interior,[3] the Kuwait National Guard[2] and the Kuwait Fire Service Directorate.[9] The Emir of Kuwait is the commander-in-chief of all defense forces and the Crown Prince is the deputy commander.

The early military organization which first dealt with security and the military following defense infantry and cavalry protecting the defensive wall of Kuwait was the Directorate of Public Security Force which already included the Kuwait Army as an independent force following the formation of the first cabinet on June 17, 1962 after the independence.[12][13] In 1953, the Kuwait Army split from the Directorate of Public Security Force giving formation to the newly established Ministry of Interior. The Ministry of Interior includes the Kuwait Coast Guard [5] and has several military commanders, designated by government protocol as assistant ministers undersecretaries, each reporting to the Minister of Interior who is designated by protocol as Deputy Prime Minister of Kuwait.

The Kuwait Ministry of Defense is the governing body of the Kuwait Armed Forces, which includes the Kuwait Army, the Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade, the Kuwaiti Navy, the Kuwaiti Air Force, the Kuwait Military Fire Service Directorate, the Kuwait Emiri Guard Brigade and the Kuwait Military Police Brigade.[1] Each armed force has its own combat commander who reports to Chief of General Staff of the Kuwait Armed Forces who later reports to the Minister of Defense.

The Kuwait National Guard however is an independent combat institution from the Ministry of Defense and Interior and acts independently at the discretion of its own leadership supporting the Military of Kuwait as needed and required.[2][14]

The Kuwait Fire Service Directorate is also an independent combat body part of the Military of Kuwait.[9]

Contents

Organization[edit]

The Kuwait Army is the primary land force of the Kuwait Armed Forces. The Army was established in 1949.

The Kuwait Air Force is the principal air component of the Kuwait Armed Forces.

The Kuwait Navy is the principal sea based component of the Kuwait Armed Forces.

The Kuwait Emiri Guard Brigade is an independent combat brigade in the Kuwait Armed Forces.

The Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade is an independent commando combat brigade in the Kuwait Armed Forces.

The Kuwait Commandos Marine Units are independent commando combat units part of the Kuwait Navy in the Kuwait Armed Forces.

The Kuwait Military Police is an independent combat brigade in the Kuwait Armed Forces.

The Kuwaiti National Guard, considered a combat institution, is an independent body from the Kuwait Armed Forces and Kuwait Ministry of Interior and is a main internal and border protection security force.[14]

The Kuwaiti Ministry of Interior is an independent corps from the Kuwait Armed Forces and Kuwait National Guard with internal, coastal and border security force consisting of combating and non combatant elements.[15]

The Kuwait Coast Guard is a sea based component of the Ministry of Interior.[5]

The Kuwait Fire Service Directorate are the public fire fighters.[9]

The Kuwait Military Fire Service Directorate are the military fire fighters of the Kuwait Armed Forces.

The Kuwait Armed Forces maintains a military base on Bubiyan Island, which was established in 1991.[16]

According to the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies, in 2007, the Kuwait Army had around 11,000 personnel, the Kuwait Air Force 2,500, and the Kuawit Navy 10 patrol and coastal craft, and there were 23,000 reservists for all services not including uniformed men and women of the Ministry of Interior and military of the Fire Service Directorate. There were 6,600 paramilitary Kuwait National Guard forces. It was considered that, although Kuwaiti’s Armed Forces remained small, training and military readiness were taken seriously, and were effective at the brigade and squadron level.:40 The combat operational doctrine is different amongst the various defense forces and is highly dependent of operational capabilities and general manning formations within sizes and equipment.[17]

Protocol designations of Defense and Interior Ministers[edit]

Both the Kuwait Minister of Defense and the Kuwait Minister of Interior are officially designated by protocol as Kuwait Deputy Prime Ministers excluding the leadership and Minister of the Kuwait National Guard, and report to the Prime Minister (as of 2014 Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah). The Prime Minister then reports to the Deputy Supreme Commander of the Military(as of 2014 Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the Crown Prince of Kuwait), who finally reports to the Supreme Commander of the Military of Kuwait, His Highness the Emir of Kuwait.

List of commanding generals prior to independence[edit]

Cavalry and Infantry Commanders of Al-Kout Fortress

Cavalry Commanders of Kuwait prior to the discovery of oil (1716-1928)[edit]

Name Image Rank Tenure Note
Sabah I Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1716-1762 1st Ruler of Kuwait
Was a lead Cavalry Commander amongst the Tribes of Arabia Chieftain in the Arabian Peninsula prior to the discovery of oil.
Abdullah I Sabah I Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1763-1813 2nd Ruler of Kuwait
Jaber II Al-Abdullah II Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1813-1859 3rd Ruler of Kuwait
Sabah II Al-Jaber II Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1859-1866 4th Ruler of Kuwait
Abdullah II Al-Sabah II Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1866-1893 5th Ruler of Kuwait
Muhammed Al-Sabah II Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1893-1896 6th Ruler of Kuwait
Mubarak Al-Sabah Mubarak Al-Sabah of Kuwait.jpg Cavalry Commander 1857-1896 7th Ruler of Kuwait
Jaber Abdullah II Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1878-1920 killed during the Battle of Jahra
Jaber II Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1878-1915 8th Ruler of Kuwait
Salem Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah Cavalry Commander 1882-1917 9th Ruler of Kuwait (1917-1921)
Led the cavalry and infantry during the Battle of Hamdh.
Led the infantry and cavalry from wihin and outside the Kuwait Red Fort during the Battle of Jahra.
Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah أحمد الجابر الصباح.jpg Cavalry Commander 1903-1921 10th Ruler of Kuwait (1921-1950). Founder of the Kuwait Public Security Force and early stages of the Military of Kuwait.[18]
Ahmed Al Jaber Air Base is named after him.

Battle General Commanders of Defense and Security Forces (1928-1938)[edit]

Name Rank Tenure Note
Ali Al-Salem Al-Sabah General Cavalry Commander 1920-1928 killed during the Battle of Al-Regeai. Ali Al Salem Air Base is named after him.
Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah General Cavalry Commander 1928-1938 pioneer in the early stages of the Military of Kuwait[19][20][21][22][23]

Directors of the Kuwait Public Security Force (1938-1953)[edit]

Name Rank Tenure Note
Ali Al-Khalifa Al-Sabah General Cavalry Commander 1938-1940
Abdullah Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah Field Marshal 1949-1961 Commander of the Directorate of Public Security Force which included the Kuwait Army until the two split in 1953. Founder of the Kuwaiti Army and Kuwaiti Air Force.
Abdullah Al-Mubarak Air Base is named after him.

Deputy Directors of the Kuwait Public Security Force (1938-1953)[edit]

Name Rank Tenure Note
Abdullah Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah Field Marshal 1938-1942
Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Lieutenant General 1953-1961 1st Chief of the General Staff of the Kuwait Armed Forces and deputy head of the Kuwaiti Army within the Kuwait Public Security Force. The Mubarak al-Abdullah Joint Command and Staff College is named after him.

List of generals and commanders post-independence[edit]

Chiefs of General Staff of Kuwait Armed Forces (1961- Present)[edit]

  • Lieutenant General Sheikh Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1961-1980)
  • Lieutenant General Abdullah Faraj Al-Ghanim (1980-1986)
  • Lieutenant General Mezyad Al-Saneh ( 1987-1991)
  • Lieutenant General Sheikh Jaber Al-Khaled Al-Sabah (1992-1993)
  • Lieutenant General Ali Al-Moumen (1993-2003)
  • Lieutenant General Fahed Ahmad Al-Amir (2003-2009)
  • Lieutenant General Sheikh Ahmad Al Khalid Al Sabah (2009-2012)[24][25]
  • Lieutenant General Sheikh Khaled Al Jarrah Al Sabah(2012-2013)[26][27]
  • Lieutenant General Abdelrahman Mohammed Al-Othman (2013-2014)
  • Lieutenant General Mohammed Khaled Al-Khadher (2014–present)

Commander of Kuwait National Guard (1967- present)[edit]

Main article: Kuwait National Guard

List of Ministers of Interior and Deputy Prime Ministers (1961-present)[edit]

List of Ministers of Defense and Deputy Prime Ministers (1961-present)[edit]

History[edit]

In 1950 Emir Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah ordered the capabilities of the Armed Forces to be developed to deal with external threats.[citation needed] Accordingly, Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah was appointed Commander General of the Kuwait Public Security Force, the newly designated Kuwait Army and the initial forming of the armed services.

In 1951 the Bren Gun entered into service with the Kuwait Public Security Department, followed in 1952 by the Daimler Armoured Car, both primarily with the Army (land force).

In 1953 the border and security force was named the Kuwait Army (principal land force) and split from the Kuwait Public Security Department, forming the Ministry of Interior; members of the previous forces became members either of the army or merged with police forces within the Interior Ministry. The Army was headed by Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah who had recently returned from military training in the United Kingdom and reported to Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah.

In 1953 Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah established the first Kuwait Flying Club. The flying club was part of the Civil Aviation Directorate and graduated the first batch of Kuwaiti pilots in 1954; these later attended advanced training in the United Kingdom.

In 1954, Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah was appointed Deputy Head Commander of the Kuwait Army, reporting to Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah. During that same year, Saleh Al-Mohammed Al-Sabah returned from the United Kingdom and was assigned as commanding officer of the Kuwait J1 Camp. Also in 1954 eight Auster aircraft entered into service with the Kuwait Flying Club for purposes of preliminary training.

In 1956, the Kuwait Army officially moved to the J1 Camp and was equipped with artillery for the first time. Also during the same year, a new training center was established for the Kuwaiti Army.

Demolition of Kuwait City Defensive Wall, and formation of the Kuwait Armed Forces[edit]

In 1957 the defensive wall of Kuwait was torn down for the expansion of Kuwait City, and the Public Security Force was reshaped and split into two entities. The Army, which had been part of the Public Security Force, became an independent unit, and police forces operating under the Public Security Force formed the Ministry of Interior. The Army was the first branch of what became the Armed Forces. In the same year the Army signed on the procurement of the Centurion tank, and two de Havilland DH.104 Dove monoplanes entered into service in the newly formed Air Force.

In 1958 Kuwaiti officers were sent to the Military Academies in Egypt and Iraq to train, and the Kuwait Army underwent its first alert following the coup of Abdul Karim Qasim. In 1959 the Kuwaiti Army set up its first mechanized combat brigade, the Kuwait 6th Mechanized Brigade, known later as the Kuwait 6th Liberation Mechanized Brigade, following the liberation of Kuwait during the Gulf War.

Operation Vantage 1961[edit]

HMS Victorious taking part in Operation Vantage in support of Kuwait in July 1961

After 62 years as a British protectorate, Kuwait declared independence in 1961. Iraq immediately claimed that Kuwait was actually an Iraqi province, and threatened to invade to implement the claim. Britain flew troops into the newly-independent country to forestall Iraq, an operation called Operation Vantage.[37]

In 1961, Field Marshal Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah, the Commander General of the Armed Forces, was absent and Brigadier General Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and his deputy Colonel Saleh Mohammed Al-Sabah stepped in to take part in Operation Vantage along with the Kuwait Armed Forces including the already active Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade as the Armed Forces were put on their second alert phase. Also during the same year, the Kuwait Flying Club was separated from the Civilian Aviation Directorate and the Kuwait Air Force was officially enacted. Also in 1961, the Universal Carrier was retired from the Kuwaiti Army. Over the following years and through combat experiences; Kuwait built a small effective military force including a principal land force (army), navy, air force, national guard, existing police force and fire service directorate.[37]

In 1962 the Kuwait Army enacted the Kuwait 35th Shaheed (Martyr) Armored Brigade and the Kuwait 15th Mubarak Armored Brigade which were considered the second and third functioning armored brigades in service. During that same year, the Kuwaiti Army held the first military parade in recognition of the independence of Kuwait, and the BAC Jet Provost entered into service with the Kuwaiti Air Force.

Establishment of the General Chief of Staff Headquarters (1963)[edit]

In 1963, an organizational Amiri Decree was issued, enacting officially the Kuwaiti Ministry of Defense along with the cancellation of the Command of the Kuwaiti Public Security Department and the establishment of the Chief of General Staff Headquarters of the Kuwait Armed Forces.

Similarly, an Amiri Decree was issued to appoint Major General Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah to the position of Chief of General Staff of the newly formed Kuwait Armed Forces. During the same year, the subsonic British Hawker Hunter jet aircraft and the de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou transport aircraft entered into service with the Kuwaiti Air Force.

In 1965 Brigadier General Saleh Al-Mohammed Al-Sabah was appointed as the first Deputy Chief of General Staff of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces.

Six Day War (1967) and War of Attrition (1967-1970)[edit]

In 1966, the headquarters of the Kuwait Military Hospital was opened. In 1967, the Chief of General Staff Major General Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah appointed his deputy Brigadier General Saleh Mohammed Al-Sabah as acting commander of a hand-picked brigade from the Kuwait Armed Forces, mainly the Kuwait Army. In 1967 several Arab nations were at war with the State of Israel in the Six Day War. Kuwait did not openly participate, but a contingent from the army took part in fighting in the central sector; Kuwaiti participation was too small to have any significant impact.[37] The assembled Yarmouk Brigade participated on the Egyptian Front, the first Kuwaiti military unit to fight outside the territory of Kuwait.

On June 6, 1967 the Kuwait National Guard was established under the leadership of and guidance of Sheikh Salem Al-Ali Al-Sabah.[14][28] On July 1, the War of Attrition against the State of Israel commenced while the Yarmouk brigade was engaged on the Egyptian Front. In 1968, Kuwaiti military authorities established the Kuwait Military Academy.

In 1969, the Kuwait Armed Forces placed the English Electric Lightning supersonic jet fighter aircraft and the Bell 206 and Bell 204/205 (mainly the 205) helicopters into service with the Kuwaiti Air Force.

In 1970, the Kuwait Armed Forces suffered seventeen fatalities in fighting against Israeli forces in Egypt. One man was killed in April and sixteen more were killed in June. During the same year, the Kuwait Air Force placed BAC Strikemaster light attack jets into service and the following year took delivery of Lockheed C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.

In 1972, the Kuwait Army introduced the Vickers MBT main battle tank series, and the Kuwait Armed Forces trained Egyptian pilots and technicians through the Kuwait Air Force on the English Electric Lightning.

Double-fronted wars: 1973 Sanita border skirmish and October War[edit]

In 1973, the Kuwait Armed Forces entered into their third alert phase with the beginning of the Kuwait-Iraq 1973 Sanita border skirmish which led to a significant change in the operational capabilities of the Armed Forces.

Also in 1973, the leadership of the Armed Forces found itself battling on two fronts. While components of the Armed Forces were readying to fight against Iraq following the skirmish on the Kuwaiti border, Kuwait sent a token force to participate on the West Bank of the Jordan River[37] alongside the Iraqi Armed Forces on the Egyptian and Syrian fronts during the 1973 October War against the State of Israel (also known as the Yom Kippur war), being especially heavily engaged on the Syrian front. As in 1967, Kuwaiti participation was too small to have any significant impact.[37] During 1973 the Kuwait Armed Forces officially enacted the Kuwait Naval Armed Service; mainly the Kuwait Navy.

In 1973 the leadership of the armed forces led a double fronted war with and against the same Arab belligerent for the defense of Kuwait. The leadership led the Kuwait Armed Forces brigades through their combat commanders engaged on both Syrian and Egyptian fronts during the war against Israel with and along side the Iraqi Armed Forces while simultaneously leading and engaging the remainder of the Kuwaiti brigades on the Kuwaiti borders during the 1973 Sanita War against Iraq.

One year later in 1974 and as a result of unpredictable conflicting crises, defense authorities enacted a new plan to expand the Kuwait Armed Forces even further. During the same year, Kuwait Armed Forces introduced the Aérospatiale Gazelle and Puma series helicopters to the Kuwait Air Force.

Kuwaiti Embassy protection and general support to Halt the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990)[edit]

With the breaking of the Lebanese Civil War in 1975; units of the Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade were sent to Lebanon to protect mainly the Kuwaiti Embassy in Beirut.[38] During that time, the Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade contributed extensive efforts in maintaining stability and supporting the peace efforts along with backing the general operation of the Lebanese Armed Forces. During the war, the Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade also played a vital and pivotal role supporting the general humanitarian operations and the Multinational Force in Lebanon which included Her Majesty's 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards, American contingents of United States Marine Corps and the United States Navy SEALs, French and Foreign paratroopers regiments, companies, units of the 11th Parachute Brigade along with the 1st Foreign Regiment, the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment, the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment of the French Foreign Legion; the same regiments, companies and units which would later contribute and participate to the Liberation of Kuwait during the Gulf War along with the 6th Foreign Engineer Regiment in 1990 following the Invasion of Kuwait.[39] The Multinational Force in Lebanon also included Italian paratroopers from the Folgore Brigade, infantry units from the Bersaglieri regiments and Marines of the San Marco Battalion.

In parallel and at the level of diplomacy; Kuwait participated in bringing the Lebanese Civil War to a halt (1975-1990).[40] A mission for this purpose was led by Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, then Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kuwait.[40]

During 1975, Kuwait defense authorities enacted the establishment of the first Kuwait naval base. During the same year, Kuwait Armed Forces signed on the delivery of the MIM-23 Hawk surface-to-air missile system and merged the Air Defense component to the Kuwait Air Force. The de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou was retired from service.

In 1976, the Kuwait Armed Forces took delivery of Dassault Mirage F1s to be operated by the Kuwait Air Force. During the same year, the Kuwait Air Force retired the Bell 206 and Bell 204/205 from service.

In 1977, the Kuwait Armed Forces initiates its first training drill with the United States Armed Forces. During the same year, defense Authorities enacted the Ahmed Al Jaber Air Base, officially opened in 1979, and Ali Al Salem Air Base, officially opened in 1980.[1] During the year of 1977, the Kuwait Armed Forces retired several equipment operated by the Air Force and Army and gained one new operating equipment. The English Electric Lightning and Hawker Hunter were retired by the Air Force and Douglas A-4 Skyhawks were introduced; while the Vickers MBT was retired by the Army.

Creation of the Kuwait Naval Force (1978)[edit]

In 1978, the Kuwait Navy was created and designated as the sea-based component of the Kuwait Armed Forces. During the same period, the Kuwait Army entered into service the M113 armored personnel carrier, the 9K52 Luna-M short range artillery rocket system and the M109 howitzer.

Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)[edit]

In 1980, the Iran-Iraq War broke out and the Kuwait Armed Forces entered into their fourth alert phase. During the same year, the Kuwait Armed Forces signed on the procurement of naval warships for the Kuwait Navy.

First joint Kuwait-Saudi air drills (1983)[edit]

In 1983, the Kuwait Armed Forces carried out the first air joint training with the Royal Saudi Air Force using Douglas A-4 Skyhawks.

In 1984, the Kuwait Armed Forces enter the short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system 9K33 Osa in service to be operated by the Kuwait Air Force. During the same year, the ordered naval warships arrived and were directly commissioned by the Kuwait Naval Force.

Creation of the Kuwait Army (1988)[edit]

In 1988, the Kuwait Army was designated as the land component of the Kuwait Armed Forces. The Kuwait Armed Forces were removed from their alert phase with the ending of the Iran-Iraq War. The eight-year fourth alert phase was the longest in the Armed Forces' history. With the ending of the Iran-Iraq War, the Kuwait Army adopted the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicle.

In 1989, the Kuwait Armed Forces signed on the delivery of F/A-18 Hornets and launched the opening of the new Kuwaiti Military Hospital.

Douglas A-4 Skyhawk aircraft of the Kuwaiti Air Force are serviced on a flight line in preparation for a mission during Operation Desert Storm on 13 Feb 1991

Iraqi invasion and aftermath (1990)[edit]

On 2 August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait. The million-strong Iraqi army brushed aside resistance by the 20,000-strong Kuwait Armed Forces with heavy casualties; by the end of the day, Kuwait had been fully conquered.[41]:26–27[42] There were some instances of especially heroic resistance, particularly by combat aircraft pilots. Kuwaiti Forces, principally the Kuwait 35th Shaheed (Martyr) Armored Brigade of the Kuwait Army, engaged in the Battle of the Bridges near Al Jahra under Colonel Salem Masoud Al-Sorour, and the Kuwait Emiri Guards were engaged in the Battle of Dasman Palace where the Emir's half-brother Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah was killed. Kuwaiti sources have given extremely heroic reports of this engagement; others have expressed doubt.[41]:36

Iraqi forces seized all the heavy military equipment of the Kuwaiti military and used it against the coalition forces. This included the entire navy, which was sunk by coalition forces. Tanks and armoured personnel carriers were also seized, and also destroyed. While the Iraqis were required to return seized equipment after their defeat, most of it was damaged beyond repair. Only the air force escaped complete destruction, as many of its aircraft had escaped to Saudi Arabia.[37]

Gulf War and Operation Desert Storm (1990-1991)[edit]

Kuwaiti M-84 MBTs.
Ground troop movements 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm

In the same year Kuwait was part of a U.S.-led military coalition formed in response to the invasion which expelled Iraq from Kuwait in what became known as the Gulf War or First Persian Gulf War. Operation Desert Storm was launched by the coalition. Douglas A-4 Skyhawks of the Kuwait Air Force destroyed several Iraqi Naval ships trying to infiltrate into Bubiyan Island.[citation needed]The Kuwait Armed Forces commissioned and entered into service the M-84 battle tank during the attack on Iraqi forces in Saudi Arabia.

In September 1990, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment, the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment, the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment, and the 6th Foreign Engineer Regiment were sent to the Persian Gulf as a part of Opération Daguet. The Legion force, comprising 27 different nationalities,[43] was attached to the French 6th Light Armoured Brigade, whose mission was to protect the Coalition's left flank.During the Gulf War, DINOPS operated in support of the U.S. Army's 82nd Airborne Division, and provided the EOD services to the division. After the cease fire took hold they conducted a joint mine clearing operation along side an Royal Australian Navy Clearance Diver Team Unit.

After the four-week air campaign, coalition forces launched the ground offensive. They quickly penetrated deep into Iraq, with the Legion taking the Al Salman Airport, meeting little resistance. The war ended after a hundred hours of fighting on the ground, which resulted in very light casualties for the Legion.


Aftermath[edit]

U.S. President George H.W. Bush condemned the invasion, and led efforts to drive out the Iraqi forces. Authorized by the United Nations Security Council, an American-led coalition of 34 nations led by Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. fought the Gulf War to liberate Kuwait. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a U.S.-led United Nations (UN) coalition began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that completely removed Iraqi forces from Kuwait in four days. After liberation, the UN, under Security Council Resolution 687, demarcated the Iraq-Kuwait boundary on the basis of the 1932 and the 1963 agreements between the two states. In November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait, which had been further spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 773 (1992) and 833 (1993).[44]

There was an exodus of Palestinian from Kuwait during and after the Gulf War. During the Iraqi occupation more than 200,000 Palestinians fled Kuwait due to harassment, intimidation by Iraqi security forces,[45] and being dismissed from their employment due to Iraqi influence.[45] After the Gulf War, the Kuwaiti authorities forcibly pressured nearly 200,000 Palestinians to leave Kuwait in 1991.[45] This was in response to the alignment of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and the PLO with Iraqi dictator and invader of Kuwait Saddam Hussein. The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanians naturalized citizens.[46]

After the liberation, Kuwait became a close military partner of the United States, Britain and France.[41]

Kuwait entered into a ten-year defense cooperation agreement with the United States in September 1991, and later with the United Kingdom and France. The defense cooperation with the United States, the United Kingdom and France is done at the training level in the foreign country and at the joint military exercise level on Kuwaiti soil.

The agreement with the United States also includes port access, military equipment storage, and joint training and exercises. The agreement did not officially provide for the stationing of United States service personnel in Kuwait, as the 1,500 US personnel remaining after the Gulf War were scheduled to leave within a few months.

In 1992, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces initiated joint structuring of its various Armed Forces. In the same year, F/A-18 Hornet aircraft were delivered and entered official service with the Kuwaiti Air Force.

October 1994 crisis with Iraq[edit]

In 1994, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces entered their fifth alert phase with the beginning of the Iraq disarmament crisis in October, and the Kuwait Air Force signed on the delivery of Starburst missile systems.

In 1995, the Desert Warrior tracked armoured vehicle and the BM-30 Smerch System entered into service with the Kuwait Army.

In 1996, the M1A2 Abrams main battle tank and the BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle entered Kuwaiti service. During the same year, the Mubarak al-Abdullah Joint Command and Staff College (Arabic: كلية مبارك العبدالله للقيادة و الأركان المشتركة - دولة الكويت‎), named in memory of Lieutenant General Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1934-1987), opened.

Operation Desert Strike (1996)[edit]

Following Operation Desert Strike in 1996, Kuwait agreed to a United States Battalion Task Force to be permanently stationed in Kuwait.[47] These US Army Intrinsic Action (later called Operation Desert Spring on 1 October 1999) rotations and US Marine Corps EAGER MACE rotations conducted combined training with the Kuwait Land Forces and other coalition partners. In addition, US Special Operations Forces conducted Iris Gold rotations to train and assist other Kuwaiti military units.

In 1997, the Kuwait Armed Forces entered into service the MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile (SAM) system with the Kuwait Air Force.[citation needed]

Operation Desert Fox (1998)[edit]

In 1998, the Kuwait Armed Forces made an organizational change in command between the Chief of General Staff and his various assistants through the chains of command. During the same year, the Kuwait Armed Forces enter into their sixth alert phase with the December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) between the United States, the United Kingdom and Iraq.

50th anniversary of the Kuwait Armed Forces (1999)[edit]

In 1999, the 50th Anniversary of the Kuwait Armed Forces, newly ordered armored Naval warships were received and directly commissioned by the Kuwaiti Navy and Coast Guard.

Global War on Terror (2001- present)[edit]

After the War on Terror began with military campaigns following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, Kuwait was declared one of fifteen major non-NATO allies of the United States by US President George W Bush.[48]

During the Iraq War, the Military of Kuwait played an important role supporting the logistical operations of the United States Armed Forces engaged in military operations in Iraq.[citation needed]

2015 Intervention in Yemen[edit]

The Military of Kuwait went on alert as a result of the 2015 military intervention in Yemen by a coalition of forces of Arab countries including Kuwait, which contributed aircraft of the Kuwaiti Air Force.[49] The military, National Guard, Kuwait Police, and Fire Service Directorate activated defense plans to strengthen internal security measures.[50] Defense measures also included intensifying security around oil installations in Kuwait and abroad.[50]

Ranks of the Military of Kuwait[edit]

Unlike most countries that have different ranks in the different armed forces, ranks of the Kuwait National Guard, the Kuwait Armed Forces and the Kuwait Police are the same and follow the same insignia with different colorings only, designating different corps. The ranks insignias were based on the British Army insignia.[51][52]

Order of battle[edit]

Kuwait Naval Force[edit]

The Kuwait Navy Force is the main sea deterring force with naval warships sailors. The navy includes the Kuwait Marine Corps and units of the Kuwait Commando Marine Units.

Kuwait Air Force[edit]

According to Jane's World's Air Forces the operational doctrine of the Kuwaiti Air Force is to provide air support to ground forces as part of a coalition, rather than alone. It is made up of 2,500 people organized into two fighter/ground attack squadrons, two fixed-wing transport squadrons, two helicopter squadrons, a utility squadron and a training/attack helicopter squadron. Although comparatively small in size, it is well equipped and trained, with Kuwaiti pilots averaging 210 flying hours per year. It does not constitute any offensive threat, but can support ground forces in defensive operations.[53]

Kuwait Army[edit]

The Kuwait army consists of 11,000 active duty personnel organized into three armored brigades, two mechanized infantry brigades, a mechanized reconnaissance brigade, an artillery brigade, a combat engineering brigade, a reserve brigade, air defense command. Its main bases are in Kuwait City (HQ), Al Jabah and Mina Abdullah. The brigades are small by western standards, roughly the equivalent of small regiments or large battalions. They are "cadre forces", kept up to 80 percent of full strength, with the balance made up of reserves in case of war.[53] Although the threat from Iraq was replaced by the War on Terror, the army’s force structure has remained largely static since 2000.

Kuwait Emiri Guard Brigade[edit]

The Emiri Guard is an independent combat brigade in the Kuwait Armed Forces.

Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade[edit]

The 25th Commando brigade is an independent commando combat brigade part of the Kuwait Armed Forces.

Kuwait Commando Marine Units[edit]

The Kuwait Commando Marine Units are independent commando combat units part of the Kuwait Navy in the Kuwait Armed Forces.

Kuwait Military Police Brigade[edit]

The Kuwaiti Military Police is an independent combat brigade in the Kuwait Armed Forces.

Kuwait National Guard[edit]

The Kuwait National Guard, considered a combat institution, is an independent body from the Kuwait Armed Forces and is a main internal and border combating security force.[14]

Kuwait Ministry of Interior[edit]

The Kuwaiti Ministry of Interior is the governing body of the Kuwait Police, considered an institution, is an independent corps from the Kuwait Armed Forces and is an internal, coastal and border security force with combating and non combatant elements.[15]

Kuwait Coast Guard[edit]

The Kuwait Coast Guard is a sea based component of the Kuwait Police.[5]

Kuwait Military Fire Service Directorate[edit]

The Kuwait military fire service are the military fire fighters of the Kuwait Armed Forces.

Kuwait Fire Service Directorate[edit]

The Kuwait Fire Service Directorate are the public fire fighters with military ranks.[9]

Relationship with the United States Armed Forces[edit]

An analysis of the U.S.-Kuwaiti strategic relationship after the Iraqi invasion was published in 2007 by the U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute.

Forces[edit]

The situation as of 2014 is that the United States of America had at least 50,000 troops stationed in Kuwait as part of a defence agreement. The largest part is the US Army Central Command (ARCENT), part of the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM).

Active US Forces facilities:

Inactive US Forces facilities:

Equipment[edit]

The United States has provided military and defence technical assistance to Kuwait from both Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and commercial sources, with all transactions made by direct cash sale. The US Office of Military Cooperation in Kuwait is attached to the American Embassy and manages the FMS program. US military sales to Kuwait total US$5.5 billion since 2004. Principal US military systems purchased by the Kuwait Defence Forces as of 2014 are the Patriot missile system, F-18 Hornet fighters, and the M1A2 Main Battle Tank.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Official Website of Kuwait Ministry of Defense, (Section Arabic Read).
  2. ^ a b c d "- KUWAIT NATIONAL GUARD - الحرس الوطني الكويتي -". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c "Ministry of Interior - Kuwait::Home". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d Sectors, General Administrations and Departments of the Kuwait Ministry of Interior, قطــاعــــات الــوزارة (in Arabic)
  5. ^ a b c d Official Website Sector of the General Department of the Coast Guard, Kuwait Ministry of Interior (in Arabic).
  6. ^ Official Website Sector of Community Police, Kuwait Ministry of Interior (in Arabic).
  7. ^ Official Website Sector of General Department of Drug Control (in Arabic).
  8. ^ Official Website Sector of General Department of Traffic, Kuwait Ministry of Interior (in Arabic).
  9. ^ a b c d e "الإدارة العامة للإطفاء". kwtfire.gov.kw. 
  10. ^ a b "Kuwait Military Strength". 2014-03-27. 
  11. ^ Military Expenditure Database. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
  12. ^ "Nine ministers headed Interior Ministry since Kuwait's independence". KUNA. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 
  13. ^ "History". Kuwait Airport. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d Kuwait National Guard Mission Statement and History (Arabic Read). Retrieved March 3, 2015.
  15. ^ a b Official website of Kuwait Ministry of Interior (in Arabic).
  16. ^ "Kuwait Geography and Population". Visit Kuwait. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  17. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H, and Al-Rodhan, .Khalid R (2006). The Gulf Military Forces in an Era of Asymmetric War - Kuwait (PDF). Washington DC, USA: CSIS - Center for Strategic and International Studies. 
  18. ^ Kuwait National Guard Archives, Award Medal Ceremony in presence of British Officials on February 1944 for His Highness Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah from the British Raj (British Government of India) near the Kuwait Public Security Force Directorate.
  19. ^ Kuwait National Guard Archives, Early Defense Cavaly & Infantry led by Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah. (Arabic Read). Retrieved March 3, 2015.
  20. ^ Biography and accomplishments of Abdullah Jaber Al-Abdullah II Al-Sabah (featured at United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Award Ceremony)
  21. ^ Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
  22. ^ His Highness the Emir sponsors Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  23. ^ Salem Al-Ali Al-Sabah and Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah with King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia. Kuwait National Guard Archives. Retrieved March 4th, 2015.
  24. ^ "Joint Military". Wikileaks. 14 January 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  25. ^ "Mideast's 1st Gastric Laparoscopic Plication successfully performed in Kuwait". KUNA. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  26. ^ "Lt. Gen. (ret.) Sheikh Khalid Al-Jarrah Al-Sabah". Kuwait Government. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "Seven Al-Sabah family members in new Kuwait cabinet". Middle East Online. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Profile & Accomplishments of Kuwait National Guard Commander; His Highness Sheikh Salem Al-Ali Al-Sabah (Section Arabic Read)
  29. ^ "Kuwaiti interior minister resigns over custody death". BBC. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  30. ^ "Kuwait Names New Oil and Finance Ministers, 7 Ruling Family Members". Naharnet. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  31. ^ Habib Toumi (14 February 2012). "Kuwait announces new cabinet". Gulf News. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  32. ^ "Decree Number 18 for the Year 2012 to Appoint a Cabinet". The Diwan. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  33. ^ "4 August 2013 - Decree number 212 for year 2013 of the formation of the Cabinet". Kuwaiti Government. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  34. ^ "Kuwait's new cabinet". Global Post. AFP. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  35. ^ "11 December 2012 - Decree number 296 for year 2012 of the formation of the Cabinet". Kuwaiti Government. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  36. ^ Omar Hasan (4 August 2013). "Kuwait forms cabinet with new oil, finance ministers". Fox News (Kuwait City). AFP. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f Tucker, Spencer C and Roberts, Priscilla (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc. p. 596. ISBN 978-1-85109-841-5. (printed). ISBN 978-1-85109-842-2 (ebook). 
  38. ^ "All guts and glory - The tough job of the special forces commando - Kuwait Times". Kuwait Times. 
  39. ^ Jordan, David (2005). The History of the French Foreign Legion: From 1831 to the Present Day. Globe Pequot. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-59228-768-0. 
  40. ^ a b Honoring Kuwait 2014, Kuwait News Agency (KUNA), Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah...A Humanitarian Leader. Section on "His Highness the Amir...His Biography & His Journey", Page 42-43; Retrieved December 17, 2014.
  41. ^ a b c Terrill, W. Andrew (2007). KUWAITI NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE U.S.-KUWAITI STRATEGIC RELATIONSHIP AFTER SADDAM (PDF). Carlisle, PA 17013-5244, USA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College. p. 116. ISBN 1-58487-305-1. 
  42. ^ Srivastava, L.S., Joshi, V.P. (2005). International Relations From 1914 To Present Day. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. ISBN 978-81-85842-70-7. 
  43. ^ Kent, Arthur; Brokaw, Tom (13 November 1990). "French Foreign Legion Prepares for Persian Gulf War" (Video News Report). NBC Nightly News (NBCUniversal Media, LLC.). Retrieved 7 December 2014. Glen Slick is an American bearing arms for President Mitterrand, not President Bush. He's one of 27 nationalities here with the French Foreign Legion. 
  44. ^ ODS Team. "ODS HOME PAGE" (PDF). Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  45. ^ a b c Shafeeq Ghabra (May 8, 1991). "The PLO in Kuwait". 
  46. ^ Yann Le Troquer and Rozenn Hommery al-Oudat (1999). "From Kuwait to Jordan: The Palestinians' Third Exodus". Journal of Palestine Studies. pp. 37–51. 
  47. ^ Military Global Security[dead link]
  48. ^ Pike, John. "U.S. Designates Kuwait a Major Non-NATO Ally of U.S". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  49. ^ "Saudi and Arab allies bomb Houthi positions in Yemen". March 26, 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  50. ^ a b Kuwait on alert due to Yemen conflict- Armed Forces called to duty- Oil facilities on alert retrieved 28 March 2015
  51. ^ Richard F. Nyrop (1 January 2008). Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States. Wildside Press LLC. pp. 197–. ISBN 978-1-4344-6210-7. 
  52. ^ "Kuwaiti Army Land Forces / القوة البرية الكويتية". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  53. ^ a b Kuwait Security Breakdown

References and links[edit]