Armed Forces of Montenegro
|Armed Forces of Montenegro|
|Montenegrin: Vojska Crne Gore / Војска Црне Горе|
|Current form||2006 (reconstituted)|
|Service branches||Montenegrin Ground Army|
Montenegrin Air Force
|Minister of Defence||Olivera Injac|
|Chief of the General Staff||Milutin Đurović|
|Conscription||Abolished in 2006|
|Active personnel||2,368 (2020)|
|Percent of GDP||2.68% (2019)|
|Domestic suppliers||TARA Aerospace and Defence Products AD|
|Foreign suppliers|| European Union|
|History||Military history of Montenegro|
|Ranks||Military ranks of Montenegro|
The military currently maintains a force of 2,400 active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained the entire naval force.
In June 2017, Montenegro joined NATO as the twenty-ninth member.
Ministry of Defence
- Bar Naval Base
- Pero Ćetković Base
- Pristan Base
- Milovan Šaranović Army Base
- Nikšić Army Base
- V. K. Volođa Army Base
- Breza Army Base
- Masline Army Base
- Аndrijevica Army Base
Units and structure
- General Staff, in Podgorica
- 1st Infantry Battalion, in Danilovgrad
- Air Force, at Podgorica Airbase
- Navy, in Bar
- Patrol Boat P105
- Patrol Boat P106
- Coastal Surveillance Company
- Training Ship "Jadran"
- Auxiliary Boats Detachment
- Support Company, in Danilovgrad
- Combat Support Battalion, in Podgorica
- Special Forces Company
- Marine Detachment
- Military Police Company
- Honorary Guard Company
- Support Battalion, in Danilovgrad
- Engineer Company
- Maintenance Company
- Mixed Logistic Company
- Warehouse Platoon
- Logistic Platoon
- 2nd Infantry Battalion (Reserve), in Pljevlja
- 3rd Infantry Battalion (Reserve), in Andrijevica
- Mixed Artillery Battalion (Reserve), in Nikšić
- Training Center, in Danilovgrad
- Medical Center, in Podgorica
- Signal and Electronic Warfare Company, in Podgorica
Ranks and insignia
The Military before 1918
After military successes in the wars 1876–1878 during which the Principality of Montenegro was enlarged by a large territory, from the Tara River in the north to the Adriatic Sea in the south (liberated towns Podgorica, Nikšić, Kolašin, Andrijevica, Bar and Ulcinj), reorganization in Montenegrin army was conducted in 1880. Each kapetanija (municipality) formed its reserve battalion. There were 42 battalions in total. Since 1881, regular military exercises were conducted.
Supreme Commander of the Montenegrin army was the monarch, Prince / King Nikola I. Operational command, organization and financial support of the Montenegrin army was entrusted to the Ministry of Defence, the department of the Government of the Principality / Kingdom of Montenegro.
General Staff of the Montenegrin army was part of the Ministry of Defence.
In 1882 first 14 Montenegrins were sent to officer schools abroad, particularly in Italy and Russia. In 1886, 10 of them completed their education and they become first trained officers in Montenegrin warrior history. These Montenegrin officers held courses in Podgorica, Nikšić and Cetinje.
In September 1895, the first permanent Infantry NCO school in Podgorica was opened, and the first NCOs got desečar rank. At the end of 1896, artillery officer school in Cetinje was established – the first Montenegrin officer school.
In 1906 Montenegrin army received the first systematized regulations, and the Law on Organization of the Army was adopted in 1910. Infantry and artillery, were established, followed by two specialized branches (reconnaissance and pioneering), and additional branches (medics, military workshop, the military court staff, gendarmerie and logistics).
In 1913 the Montenegrin gendarmerie became a special Military Police unit.
Since the establishment of the internal Montenegrin telecommunications system in 1869, vital for the flow of military-defence information, it was under the jurisdiction of Ministry of the military.
Until 1912, the territory of the Kingdom of Montenegro was divided into four divisional areas:
- 1.Cetinje divisional area
- 2.Podgorica divisional area
- 3.Nikšić divisional area
- 4.Kolašin divisional area
After wars 1912th–1913th established additional two divisions field:
By 1912, the Montenegrin Army had 11 brigade areas, 52 districts and 322 battalion troop areas. Divisions were composed of 2–3 Infantry Brigade.
Each divisional command had three artillery batteries. On the eve of the First Balkan War Kingdom of Montenegro lined up 55,000 soldiers.
After the establishment of the Kingdom of Montenegro in 1910, Montenegro was involved in three wars with the first one being the First Balkan War, in alliance with Serbia, Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria against the Ottoman Empire. The Second Balkan War was fought between Montenegro, Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire against Bulgaria, with Bulgaria consequently losing significant territory in the north, Thrace, and Macedonia.
The Military of Montenegro before 1918, was much larger than today's military. During World War I, Montenegro mobilised 50,000 troops. The Commander-in-Chief was King Nikola I of Montenegro, while the General of Staff was Božidar Janković. Units included:
- Pljevlja Division
- Herzegovina Detachment
- Lovćen Detachment
- Old Serbia' Detachment
The 'Old Serbia' Detachment was commanded by Brigadier Radomir Vešović. The detachment was made up of 13 battalions. It had around 6,000 soldiers and secured the Albanian border.
Most soldiers of the Montenegrin army had no uniforms. At mobilization, the soldiers were issued with a rifle and a badge to put on the cap. Both soldiers and officers in the reserve wore national costume. The badges in the caps had different designs depending on the rank of the wearer.
Ranks and Badges
All Montenegrins between 18 and 62 years were conscripts. Recruitment was done three times a year, and the recruits are in peacetime had to have at least 25 years.
- Officer ranks were: potporučnik, poručnik, kapetan, komandir, brigadir, divizijar
- NCO ranks were: desečar, donarednik, narednik
- Ceremonial ranks were: serdar, vojvoda
Montenegro participates in peace operations under the NATO and UN auspices as military troops and observers. Minister of Defense said that 85 soldiers are trained for international missions. Montenegrin soldiers are trained by the German Bundeswehr.
|Current Mission||Organization||Country||Nr. of personnel|
|RS||NATO||Afghanistan||25 Members (Military troops and medical team)|
|NATO EFP||NATO||Latvia||Special forces team|
|UNMIL||UN||Liberia||Officers as military observers|
|UNFICYP||UN||Cyprus||Officers as military observers|
|MINURSO||UN||Western Sahara||Officers as military observers|
|EU-NAVFOR||EU||Somalia||12 Members (APVD team)|
|EUTM Mali||EU||Mali||Officers training|
|Glock 17||Austria||9×19mm||Standard Gun of Montenegrin Military.|
|Zastava CZ 99|| Yugoslavia
|9×19mm||Standard Gun of Montenegrin Military|
|Heckler & Koch MP5||Germany||9×19mm Parabellum||Used by Special Forces.|
|Zastava M59/66||Yugoslavia||7.62×39mm||Ceremonial rifle|
|MPT-76||Turkey||7.62×51mm NATO||30||15 x rifles in NATO calibre 7.62x51 mm and 15 x rifles in 5.56×45 mm NATO ammunition according to a protocol signed by representatives of the Turkish and Montenegrin defence ministries in Ankara on 1 October.|
(as of 2015)
|Standard rifle of Montenegrin Military|
|Steyr AUG||Austria||5.56×45mm NATO||Used by Special Forces|
|Heckler & Koch HK416||Germany||5.56×45mm NATO||Used by Special Forces.|
|Tara TM4||Montenegro||5.56×45mm NATO||Testing|
|Zastava M70/M70A|| Yugoslavia
|Heckler & Koch PSG1||Germany||7.62×51mm NATO||PSG 1 and MSG 90 in service.|
|Zastava M93 Black Arrow|| Yugoslavia
|Zastava M76|| Yugoslavia
|Zastava M91|| Yugoslavia
|Zastava M84|| Yugoslavia
|Zastava M72|| Yugoslavia
|BGA 30mm||Serbia||30mm||In service|
|Heckler & Koch AG36||Germany||40mm||In service|
|M79 "Osa"||Yugoslavia||90mm rocket||In service, planned to buy new MANPATS|
|M80 "Zolja"||Yugoslavia||64mm rocket||In service, planned to buy new MANPATS|
|9M14 Malyutka|| Soviet Union
|64mm rocket||In service|
|M57 mortar||Yugoslavia||60mm||43||In service|
|M69 mortar||Yugoslavia||82mm||44||14 active, (30 in reserve)|
|M74/M75 mortar||Yugoslavia||120mm||32||In service.|
|D-30J 122 mm||Soviet Union||122 mm||12||In service.|
|M-94 Plamen-S||Yugoslavia||128 mm||18||In service.|
|Armoured personnel carrier|
|BOV VP М86||Yugoslavia||6||In service.|
|Achleitner RCV Survivor|| Austria
|4||In service with special forces, planned to buy another 26 vehicles. Achleitner modification on a MAN truck chassis.|
|LAPV Enok||Germany||6||Donated by Germany in 2018.|
|Oshkosh L-ATV||United States||67||Montenegro signed a government-to-government agreement with the US for the procurement of 67 vehicles. Deliveries will commence in 2020.|
|Humvee||United States||(0)20||Upcoming donation from USA.|
|Otokar Cobra||Turkey||1||Nuclear, Biological,Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle.|
|BOV 1 POLO M-83||Yugoslavia||9||In service, armed with 6 AT-3 missiles.|
|Off-road utility vehicle|
|Achleitner MMV Survivor|| Austria
|16||In service, planned to buy another 20 vehicles. Achleitner modification on a Toyota SUV chassis.|
|Toyota Hilux||Japan||In service|
|Toyota Land Cruiser||Japan||In service, ambulance vehicle.|
|Mercedes-Benz G-Class||Germany||In service|
|Pinzgauer 710||Austria||In service|
|Lada Niva 1.5
Lada Niva 1.7
|BMC 185-09||Turkey||Tactical wheeled vehicle. Upcoming donation from Turkey.|
|BMC 235-16||Turkey||Tactical wheeled vehicle. Upcoming donation from Turkey.|
|Iveco Trakker||Italy||In service, Dump truck.|
|Iveco EuroCargo||Italy||In service, dump truck.|
|IMK ULT-160||Yugoslavia||Wheeled bulldozer|
|CAT 434F||United States||Backhoe loader|
|Mercedes-Benz Unimog||Germany||Multi-purpose utility vehicle|
|Kotor class||Yugoslavia||– P-33 Kotor
- P-34 Novi Sad
|2 in reserve|
|Fast attack craft|
|Končar class||Yugoslavia||– RTOP-405 Jordan Nikolov Orce
– RTOP-406 Ante Banina
|Under reconstruction. The ship RTOP-405 rentered service in 2019. under name P-105 "Durmitor"|
|Transport and support|
|PO class||Yugoslavia||– PO91||1||1 in reserve|
|Salvage tug||Yugoslavia||– PR-41 (Orada)
|2 in active service|
|Jadran||Germany||Used as a training ship||1||1 in active service|
|Motor sailboat||Yugoslavia||– Bojana
|2 in active service|
|Diving boat||Yugoslavia||-Ronilačka baraksa 81
-Ronilačka barkasa 85
|2 in active service|
|Motor boat Polycat||Netherlands||1||1 in active service|
|Motor boat||Yugoslavia||– ČM 33||1||1 in active service|
|Valiant 620PT||United Kingdom||Used by Marine Platoon||2||2 in active service|
|Jadranka||Yugoslavia||VIP Yacht||1||Offered for sale|
|Floating Crane||Yugoslavia||LDI 18||1||1 in active service|
|Cessna 421 Golden Eagle||United States||Cessna 421B Golden Eagle||1||One for transport, medical evacuation and training.|
|Transport and utility helicopters|
|SOKO Gazelle|| France
|13||Produced under license in Yugoslavia. Planned replacement with new helicopters in the next 5 years, one of the possible helicopter is Bell 505 Jet Ranger X.|
|Bell 412|| United States
|One EP variant and two EPI variants. Medical evacuation, search and rescue, aerial firefighting, patrol.|
|Bell 505||Canada||Bell 505 Jet Ranger X||2||Two for pilot training|
|9K32 Strela-2M|| Soviet Union
|Portable low-altitude SAM||Planned to buy new MANPADS.|
|Bofors 40 mm||Sweden||Autocannon 40mm L/70,
works with GIRAFFE Radar
|Planned for modernization|
|GIRAFFE Radar||Sweden||Early warning radar, works
with Bofors 40mm L/70
|Planned for modernization|
- "Spremaju se za Avganistan". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011.
- David Noack: Subsidiary Troops (German: Hilfstruppen), german-foreign-policy.com, 17.03.2008.
- "Kasarna Danilovgrad: Svečanost za vojnike koji idu u Avganistan". Archived from the original on 8 March 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Crnogorci brane "Esbjerg" od pirata".
- http://www.gov.me/files/1256832119.pdf Page 15
- "PIŠTOLJ – GLOCK 17". www.vojska.me.
- "Specijalci bez greške i na 40 °C". www.rtcg.me (in Montenegrin). 23 July 2015.
- "AUTOMAT HECKLER AND KOCH – MP5". www.vojska.me.
- DFNS. "Turkey gifts MPT rifles to Montenegro". DFNS.net Land. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
- "Schriftliche Fragen an die Bundesregierung im Monat Januar 2015; Frage Nr. 195" (PDF) (in German).
- "HECKLER AND KOCH – HK 416". www.vojska.me.
- "POLUAUTOMATSKA SNAJPERSKA PUŠKA PSG 1". www.vojska.me.
- "HECKLER AND KOCH MSG 90". www.vojska.me.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (14 February 2017). The Military Balance 2017. 117 (1 ed.). London, United Kingdom: Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 978-1857439007.
- "Mašan – czarnogórski samochód opancerzony". www.altair.com (in Polish). 30 August 2018.
- "2.5 TOYOTA RCV SURVIVOR I 4x4". www.vojska.me.
- Bozinovski, Igor (13 September 2018). "Germany gifts light armoured vehicles to Montenegro". www.janes.com. Skopje: IHS Jane's.
- Bozinovski, Igor (8 October 2019). "Montenegro equips NATO-declared forces with JLTVs". Jane's 360. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
- Montenegro army land ground armed forces military equipment armored vehicle intelligence pictures – Army Recognition
- Bozinovski, Igor (5 February 2018). "Montenegro orders three Bell 412 helicopters". IHS Jane's 360. Skopje. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- Zuvela, Maja; Sekularac, Ivana; Potter, Mark (30 January 2018). "Montenegro inks deal to buy three helicopters from Bell Helicopter". Reuters. Sarajevo. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military of Montenegro.|
- Official Website (Montenegrin)
- Montenegro in NATO (Montenegrin)
- "Europe’s Newest State Trims the Army" (DefenseNews.com)[permanent dead link]
- "Appointment of the Acting Chief of the General Staff of the Army of Montenegro" (Website of the President of Montenegro)
- Montenegrin Armed Forces / Vojska Crne Gore – VCG
- Perspective of the Military of Montenegro, in English
- Montenegrin Armed Forces before 1918 / Vojska Crne Gore prije 1918
- Debate on NATO in Montenegro
- Milo Đukanović appoints himself as Minister of Defense
- / Forum article about Montenegrin military (in Serbian)