Milkha Singh

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Milkha Singh
Milkha Singh.jpg
Singh in 2012
Personal information
Nickname(s)The Flying Sikh
NationalityIndian
Born(1929-11-20)20 November 1929
Govindpura, Punjab, British India
(present-day Punjab, Pakistan)
Died18 June 2021(2021-06-18) (aged 91)
Chandigarh, India
OccupationAthlete
EmployerRetired; formerly of the Indian Army and Government of Punjab, India
Spouse(s)
(m. 1963; died 2021)
Military career
Allegiance India
Service/branch Indian Army
Years of service1951–1964
RankCaptain of the Indian Army.svg Honorary Captain
AwardsPadma Shri riband Padma Shri
Sport
SportTrack and field
Event(s)Sprinting

Milkha Singh (20 November 1929 – 18 June 2021),[a][1] also known as The Flying Sikh, was an Indian track and field sprinter who was introduced to the sport while serving in the Indian Army. He is the only athlete to win gold at 400 metres at the Asian Games as well as the Commonwealth Games. He also won gold medals in the 1958 and 1962 Asian Games. He represented India in the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome and the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. He was awarded the Padma Shri, India's fourth-highest civilian honour, in recognition of his sporting achievements.

The race for which Singh was best remembered is his fourth-place finish in the 400 metres final at the 1960 Olympic Games, which he had entered as one of the favourites. He led the race till the 200m mark before easing off, allowing others to pass him. Various records were broken in the race, which required a photo-finish and saw American Otis Davis being declared the winner by one-hundredth of a second over German Carl Kaufmann. Singh's fourth-place time of 45.73 seconds was the Indian national record for almost 40 years.

From beginnings that saw him orphaned and displaced during the Partition of India, Singh has become a sporting icon in his country. In 2008, journalist Rohit Brijnath described Singh as "the finest athlete India has ever produced".[2]

Singh died of COVID-19 complications on 18 June 2021 at the age 91.[3][4]

Early life[edit]

Milkha Singh was born on 20 November 1929. He was born in a Rathore Rajput Sikh family.[5] His birthplace was Govindpura,[6] a village 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Muzaffargarh city in Punjab Province, British India (now Muzaffargarh District, Pakistan). He was one of 15 siblings, eight of whom died before the Partition of India. He was orphaned during the Partition when his parents, a brother and two sisters were killed in the violence that ensued. He witnessed these killings.[2][6][7][8]

Escaping the troubles in Punjab, where killings of Hindus and Sikhs were continuing,[7] by moving to Delhi, India, in 1947, Singh lived for a short time with the family of his married sister[6] and was briefly imprisoned at Tihar jail for travelling on a train without a ticket. His sister, Ishvar, sold some jewellery to obtain his release.[8][9] He spent some time at a refugee camp in Purana Qila and at a resettlement colony in Shahdara, both in Delhi.[6]

Singh became disenchanted with his life and considered becoming a dacoit[b] but was instead persuaded by one of his brothers, Malkhan, to attempt recruitment to the Indian Army. He successfully gained entrance on his fourth attempt, in 1951, and while stationed at the Electrical Mechanical Engineering Centre[10] in Secunderabad he was introduced to athletics. He had run the 10 km distance to and from school as a child and was selected by the army for special training in athletics after finishing sixth in a compulsory cross-country run for new recruits.[7][8] Singh has acknowledged how the army introduced him to sport, saying that "I came from a remote village, I didn't know what running was, or the Olympics".[2][7]

International career[edit]

Singh represented India in the 200m and 400m competitions of the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games.[11] His inexperience meant that he did not progress from the heat stages but a meeting with the eventual 400m champion at those Games, Charles Jenkins, both inspired him to greater things and provided him with information about training methods.[2]

In 1958, Singh set records for the 200m and 400m in the National Games of India, held at Cuttack,[10] and also won gold medals in the same events at the Asian Games. He then won a gold medal in the 400m (440 yards at this time) competition at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games with a time of 46.6 seconds.[9] This latter achievement made him the first gold medalist at the Commonwealth Games from independent India.[8] Before Vikas Gowda won the gold in 2014, Milkha was the only Indian male to have won an individual athletics gold medal at those Games.[12]

Singh was persuaded by Jawaharlal Nehru to set aside his memories of the Partition era to race successfully in 1960 against Abdul Khaliq in Pakistan, where a post-race comment by the then General Ayub Khan led to him acquiring the nickname of The Flying Sikh.[c] Some sources say that he set a world record of 45.8 seconds in France,[10] shortly before the Rome Olympics in the same year but the official report of the Games lists the record holder as Lou Jones, who ran 45.2 at Los Angeles in 1956.[13] At those Olympics, he was involved in a close-run final race in the 400m competition, where he was placed fourth.[7][8] Singh had beaten all the leading contenders other than Otis Davis, and a medal had been anticipated because of his good form. However, he made an error when leading the race at 250m, slowing down in the belief that his pace could not be sustained and looking round at his fellow competitors. Singh believes that these errors caused him to lose his medal opportunity and they are his "worst memory".[10] Davis, Carl Kaufmann and Malcolm Spence all passed him, and a photo-finish resulted. Davis and Kaufman were both timed at a world-record breaking 44.9 seconds, while Spence and Singh went under the pre-Games Olympic record of 45.9 seconds, set in 1952 by George Rhoden and Herb McKenley, with times of 45.5 and 45.6 seconds, respectively.[13][9] The Age noted in 2006 that "Milkha Singh is the only Indian to have broken an Olympic track record. Unfortunately he was the fourth man to do so in the same race"[14] but the official Olympic report notes that Davis had already equalled the Rhoden/McKenley Olympic record in the quarter-finals and surpassed it with a time of 45.5 seconds in the semi-finals.[13]

At the 1962 Asian Games, held in Jakarta, Singh won gold in the 400m[9] and in the 4 x 400m relay.[15] He attended the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo, where he was entered to compete in the 400m, the 4 x 100m relay and the 4 x 400m relay.[16] He did not take part in either the 400m[17] or the 4 x 100m relay[d] and the Indian team of Milkha Singh, Makhan Singh, Amrit Pal and Ajmer Singh were eliminated when they finished fourth in the heat stages of the 4 x 400m.[19]

There have been claims that Singh won 77 of his 80 races,[10] but these are spurious. The number of races in which he participated is not verified, nor is the number of victories, but he lost a 400m race at the 1964 National Games in Calcutta to Makhan Singh[20] and he did not finish first in any of his four races at the 1960 Olympic Games[13] or the aforementioned qualification races at the 1956 Olympics.

Singh's time in the 1960 Olympics 400m final, which was run on a cinder track, set a national record that stood until 1998 when Paramjit Singh exceeded it on a synthetic track and with fully automatic timing that recorded 45.70 seconds. Although Singh's Olympic result of 45.6 seconds had been hand-timed, an electronic system at those Games had determined his record to be 45.73.[21]

Later life[edit]

Singh was promoted from the rank of sepoy to junior commissioned officer in recognition of his successes in the 1958 Asian Games.[22][e] He subsequently became Director of Sports in Punjab Ministry of Education,[10] a post he retired from in 1998.[21]

Singh was awarded the Padma Shri, India's fourth-highest civilian award, following his success in 1958. In 2001, he turned down an offer of the Arjuna Award from the Indian government, arguing that it was intended to recognise young sports people and not those such as him. He also thought that the Award was being inappropriately given to people who had little notable involvement as active sports people at all. He said that "I have been clubbed with sportspersons who are nowhere near the level that I had achieved" and that the award had become devalued.[23][24] While sharing his experience in a college in Goa in 2014, he stated, "The awards nowadays are distributed like 'prasad' in a temple. Why should one be honoured when he or she has not achieved the benchmark for the award? I rejected the Arjuna I was offered after I received the Padma Shri. It was like being offered an SSC [secondary school] certificate after securing a Masters degree."[25]

All of Singh's medals have been donated to the nation. They were displayed at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi and later moved to a sports museum in Patiala,[10] where a pair of running shoes that he wore in Rome are also displayed.[26] In 2012, he donated the Adidas shoes that he had worn in the 1960 400m final to be sold in a charity auction organised by actor Rahul Bose.[27]

Singh was admitted to the intensive care unit at Fortis Hospital in Mohali on 24 May 2021 with pneumonia caused by COVID-19. His condition was, for a while, described as stable, but he died on 18 June 2021 at 11:30 pm in Chandigarh.[28] His wife, Nirmal Saini, had died a few days earlier on 13 June 2021, also due to COVID-19.[29] Singh was laid on his funeral pyre with a photo of his wife in his hands.[30]

Media and popular culture[edit]

Singh and his daughter, Sonia Sanwalka, co-wrote his autobiography, titled The Race of My Life. It was published in 2013.[31] The book inspired[32] Bhaag Milkha Bhaag, a 2013 biographical film of Singh's life.[33][34][35] The film is directed by Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra, and stars Farhan Akhtar in the title role, with Sonam Kapoor, Meesha Shafi and Divya Dutta in female lead roles. The film was widely acclaimed in India and won awards including the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment at the National Film Awards,[36] and 5 awards at the International Indian Film Academy Awards in 2014.[37] The film made over 100 crores.[38] Singh sold the movie rights for one rupee but inserted a clause stating that a share of the profits would be given to the Milkha Singh Charitable Trust.[7] The Trust was founded in 2003 with the aim of assisting poor and needy sportspeople.[39]

In September 2017, Singh's wax statue – created by sculptors of Madame Tussauds in London – was unveiled at Chandigarh. It depicts Singh in running posture during his victorious run at the 1958 Commonwealth Games.[40] The statue is placed at Madame Tussauds museum in New Delhi, India.[41]

Personal life[edit]

As of 2012, Singh lived in Chandigarh.[27] He met Nirmal Saini, a former captain of the Indian women's volleyball team in Ceylon in 1955; they married in 1963[6] and had three daughters and a son, the golfer Jeev Milkha Singh. In 1999, they adopted the seven-year-old son of Havildar Bikram Singh, who had died in the Battle of Tiger Hill.[10]

Records and honours[edit]

Awards[edit]

S. No Medal Event Category Source
1 Gold 1958 Asian Games 200 m [42]
2 Gold 1958 Asian Games 400 m [42]
3 Gold 1958 Commonwealth Games 440 yards [43]
4 Gold 1962 Asian Games 400 m [42]
5 Gold 1962 Asian Games 4X400 m relay [42]
6 Gold 1958 Cuttack National Games 200 m [42]
7 Gold 1958 Cuttack National Games 400 m [42]
8 Silver 1964 Calcutta National Games 400 m [44]

Honours[edit]

S. No. Honour Year Source
1 Padma Shri 1959 [45]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Singh, Milkha; Sanwalka, Sonia (2013). The Race of My Life: An Autobiography. Rupa Books. ISBN 978-8129129109.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There are different records for his birth date. Records in Pakistan note it as 20 November 1929. Other records note it as 17 October 1935 and 20 November 1932. The birth date on his passport is 20 November 1932.[citation needed] 20 November 1929 has been used as per sources published following his death.
  2. ^ Paan Singh Tomar, one of Singh's contemporaries in the Indian Army and as an athlete, did become infamous as a dacoit.[6]
  3. ^ On Singh's 1960 victory over Abdul Khaliq in Pakistan, Ayub Khan, then President of Pakistan, told Singh that "You didn't run today, you flew".[7]
  4. ^ The Indian 4 x 100m relay competitors at the 1964 Olympic Games were Anthony Coutinho, Makhan Singh, Kenneth Powell and Rajasekaran Pichaya in both the heats and semi-final, where they were eliminated from the competition.[18]
  5. ^ Promotion in recognition of bringing glory to the nation continues today. Some cricketers attain the rank of honorary colonel and in 2012 Singh was outspoken in his desire to see promotion for Vijay Kumar, who had won a silver medal at the 2012 London Olympics.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Milkha Singh passes away after long battle with Covid". The Times of India. 19 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d Brijnath, Rohit (30 July 2008). "The 'Flying Sikh' remembers". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Milkha Singh: India's 'Flying Sikh' dies from Covid". BBC News. 19 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  4. ^ "Milkha Singh, India's 'Flying Sikh', dies of COVID". Al Jazeera. 19 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  5. ^ "Exclusive Interview: Milkha Singh – The making of a legend". Sify. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f D'Souza, Dipti Nagpaul (23 June 2013). "Will over matter". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Koshie, Nihal (30 June 2013). "If Milkha Singh was born in present times, no one would be able to break his record in 100 yrs". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e Sharma, Aabhas (5 July 2013). "India's first celebrity athlete". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 10 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d Ezekiel, Gulu (30 July 2005). "The Flying Sikh's Exploits". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Masih, Archana (September 2000). "Milkha Singh … on the race of his life". Rediff. Archived from the original on 16 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  11. ^ "The XVI Olympiad Melbourne 1956 – The Official Report of the Organizing Committee" (PDF). Organizing Committee of the Games of the XVI Olympiad. pp. 287, 290. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  12. ^ "Vikas Gowda is first Indian man to clinch athletics gold in 56 years". India Today. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  13. ^ a b c d "The XVII Olympiad Rome 1960 – The Official Report of the Organizing Committee" (PDF). Organizing Committee of the Games of the XVII Olympiad. pp. 76–80. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  14. ^ Coulter, Michael (12 August 2006). "Great sporting Sikhs". The Age. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  15. ^ "Makhan Singh dead". The Hindu. 23 January 2002. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  16. ^ "The XVIII Olympiad Tokyo 1964 – The Official Report of the Organizing Committee" (PDF). Organizing Committee of the Games of the XVIII Olympiad. p. 596. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  17. ^ "The XVIII Olympiad Tokyo 1964 – The Official Report of the Organizing Committee" (PDF). Organizing Committee of the Games of the XVIII Olympiad. pp. 25–26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  18. ^ "The XVIII Olympiad Tokyo 1964 – The Official Report of the Organizing Committee" (PDF). Organizing Committee of the Games of the XVIII Olympiad. pp. 48, 50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  19. ^ "The XVIII Olympiad Tokyo 1964 – The Official Report of the Organizing Committee" (PDF). Organizing Committee of the Games of the XVIII Olympiad. p. 51. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  20. ^ Bhattal, Amardeep (21 January 2002). "Makhan Singh dead". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 16 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  21. ^ a b Pritam, Norris (6 November 1998). "38 Year Old Indian Record Falls". IAAF. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  22. ^ a b Kahol, Vikas (9 August 2012). "Milkha Singh backs promotion for silver medallist armyman". India Today. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  23. ^ "Milkha Singh not to accept Arjuna Award". The Tribune. 16 August 2001. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  24. ^ Jolly, Asit (16 August 2001). "'Flying Sikh' snubs award". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 February 2003. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  25. ^ Mokani, Paresh (26 August 2014). "Arjuna distributed like prasad in temple: Milkha Singh". The Times of India. Goa. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  26. ^ "Milkha Singh donates Olympic shoes for charity auction". The Times of India. Press Trust of India. 24 January 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  27. ^ a b "Milkha Singh gives his 1960 Olympics shoes for charity". Mid-Day. 23 January 2012. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  28. ^ Nitin Sharma (18 June 2021). "Milkha Singh no more; passes away aged 91 due to COVID-19 complications". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  29. ^ Sharma, Nitin (14 June 2021). "Nirmal Milkha Singh dies of Covid: 'She has been the biggest trophy for me'". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 14 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  30. ^ Gupta, Shalini (20 June 2021). "Milkha Singh cremated with full state honours in Chandigarh". Hindustan Times. Chandigarh. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  31. ^ "Milkha Singh: 'My God, my religion, my beloved'". Livemint. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  32. ^ "Farhan Akhtar looked like my duplicate in Bhaag Milkha Bhaag: Milkha Singh". The Indian Express. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  33. ^ "I don't know how much people know about Milkha Singh: Farhan Akhtar". Hindustan Times. 12 July 2013. Archived from the original on 14 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  34. ^ "Bhaag Milkha Bhaag Picks Up Well on Day One". Box Office India. 12 July 2013. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  35. ^ Ramnath, Nandini (1 July 2013). "When Milkha Singh ran for his life". Livemint/Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  36. ^ "Winners Honoured at 61st National Film Award Function". NDTV. 3 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  37. ^ "'Bhaag Milkha Bhaag' wins five awards at IIFA 2014". Economic Times. 27 April 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  38. ^ "Bhaag Milkha Bhaag makes Rs 100 crores, still top of box office". NDTV. 6 August 2013. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  39. ^ "The Race of My Life: An Autobiography". Rupa Publications. Archived from the original on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  40. ^ Sood, Kartik (27 September 2017). "Milkha immortalized in wax". The Times of India.
  41. ^ "Milkha Singh's dream comes true, Flying Sikh gets a Madame Tussauds wax statue". Hindustan Times. 26 September 2017. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  42. ^ a b c d e f "Milkha Singh: Rome history only a small page in Flying Sikh's folklore". Olympics.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  43. ^ "Milkha Singh | Biography & Facts". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 18 April 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  44. ^ Bhunga, Jagdeep (22 August 2013). "Miserable family of Makhan Singh de-motivate youth to go for sports". Spot News India. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  45. ^ "Milkha Singh – Keynote Speaker | Speaker Bureau USA". London Speaker Bureau. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.

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