Budapest Metro

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Budapest Metro
BKV metro.svg
Osen2012 204.jpg
Metro 4, M4, Line 4 (Budapest Metro), Kálvin tér.jpg
Top: Örs vezér tere terminus of Red Line 2
Bottom: Green Line 4, a driverless metro line
with real-time PIDS system at Kálvin square,
a transfer station to Blue Line 3
Native name Budapesti metró
Owner Capital City of Budapest
Locale Budapest, Hungary
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 4
Number of stations 52
Daily ridership 1.27 million (2009)[1]
Annual ridership 463.6 million (2011)[2]
Website BKK Public Transport
Began operation 1896; 120 years ago (1896)
Operator(s) Centre for Budapest Transport
Budapest Transport Ltd. (BKV)
System length 38.2 km (23.7 mi)[3][4]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
(standard gauge)
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)[5]

The Budapest Metro (Hungarian: Budapesti metró) is a rapid transit system in the Hungarian capital Budapest. It opened in 1896 and is the oldest electrified underground railway in mainland Europe.[6]


An old image of the first metro line on Andrássy Avenue
A train in 1896

Construction on the first metro line began in 1894.[citation needed]

This original metro line followed a northeast-southwest route along Andrássy Avenue from Vörösmarty Square, in the centre of the city, to the City Park and Zoo (Széchenyi fürdõ), a distance of 3.7 kilometres (2.3 mi).[citation needed]

The line was originally scheduled for completion in 1955, but construction was put on hold for financial and political reasons from 1954 to 1963. Line 2 was built with help of soviet specialists and finally opened with seven stations on April 4, 1970. It follows an east-west route, connecting the major Keleti (Eastern) and Déli (Southern) railway stations. It has a joint station with the original line at Deák Ferenc Square.[citation needed]

The first line underwent a thorough between 1970 and 1973, which included replacement of its rolling stock and a switch from left-hand drive to right-hand drive for the sake of consistency.[citation needed]

Planning for Line 3 began in 1963 and construction started in 1970 with help of soviet specialists.[citation needed]

Concurrently with the opening of Line 3, the metro adopted a colour-coding scheme for easier identification. The first line was given the colour yellow, the second line red, and the third, blue. Additionally, green is used to mark the suburban railways (HÉV) in and around Budapest.[citation needed]

In the 1980s and 1990s, Line 1 underwent major reconstruction.[citation needed]

Lines and developments[edit]

Architizer A+Award 2014 winner Szent Gellért tér station on Green Line 4

The metro consists of four lines (M1–M4), each denoted by a different colour. M1 Földalatti runs from Mexikói út south-west towards the river. The M2 (red) line travels east-west through the city, crossing the Duna. The M3 runs in a broadly north-south alignment, interchanging with the three other lines. The M4 (green) line commences at Keleti pályaudvar and travels south-west, crossing the river, to terminate at Kelenföld vasútállomás.[6]

Line Color Route Length Stations Opened
BKV metro.svgBKV m 1 jms.svg Yellow Vörösmarty térMexikói út 4.4 km (3 mi)[1][7] 11 1896
BKV metro.svgBKV m 2 jms.svg Red Déli pályaudvarÖrs vezér tere 10.3 km (6 mi)[1][8][9] 11 1970
BKV metro.svgBKV m 3 jms.svg Blue Újpest-KözpontKőbánya-Kispest 16.5 km (10 mi)[10] 20 1976
BKV metro.svgBKV m 4 jms.svg Green Kelenföld vasútállomásKeleti pályaudvar 7.4 km (5 mi)[4] 10 2014
TOTAL 38.6 km (24 mi)[Note 1] 52
Heroes' Square World Heritage Site station on Yellow Line 1, opened in 1896.
Határ út station on Blue Line 3 (opened in 1980)

General information[edit]

Tickets and transfer system[edit]

The implementation of latest generation automated fare collection and e-ticket system with NFC compatibility and reusable contactless smart cards for making electronic payments in online and offline systems in Budapest is started in 2014, the project is implemented and operated by the operator of Hong Kong Octopus card jointly with one of the leading European companies of e-ticket and automated fare collection, Scheidt & Bachmann.[11] The deployment of 300 new digital contactless ticket vending machine mainly at the metro stations, will be finished by the end of 2014 in harmonization with the e-ticket system.[12]

Hours of operation[edit]

Lines run from approximately 4:30AM until 11:30PM every day, though times vary slightly between lines.[13]

Current Fleet[edit]

The Budapest Metro is completely electrified and standard gauge in operation. Three different types of rolling stock are currently in service:[citation needed]

Lines Train-type Image Description
Line 1 Ganz Works Budapešť 0728.jpg 3-car articulated-units locally built by Ganz Works. The sets are specifically designed for the unusual loading gauge determined by the shallow tunnel.
Line 2 AM5-M2 BudapestAlstom.jpg Alstom Metropolis, 5-car sets. A trainset is structured as A-B-C-B-A, where the A-B cars are motor cars forming a single electronic unit and coupled semi-permanently, with a C-type trailer car in between the two A-B units.
Line 3 81-717.2/714.2 Koebanya-kispest.JPG Soviet-made motor cars forming sets of 6. The first and last cars, equipped with control cabs, are of the type 81-717. The four middle motor cars are of the cabless type 81-714. This type also appears in many metros in the former Eastern Bloc.
81-717.2K/714.2K 81-717.2K, Metrovagonmash.jpg Reconstruction of existing 81-717/714 rolling stock. First set delivered in May 2016.
Ev3 Soviet-made motor cars forming sets of 6. Although all have a driver's cab, only the designated head cars are equipped with the automatic train control system AVR.
Line 4 AM4-M4 M4 Rákóczi tér 08.jpg Alstom Metropolis, 4 unit car sets structured as A-B-B-A, where the A-B cars are motor cars forming a single electronic unit and coupled semi-permanently.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The total length listed here does not match the total given in the Infobox due to difference in how the line lengths are calculated, and the references used. In general, it is assumed that the figure given in the Infobox is the more accurate figure for the system's total route length.


  1. ^ a b c Mátyás Jangel (September 2010). "Közszolgáltatási szerződés, utasjogok, a szolgáltatástervezés és ellenőrzés folyamata a kötöttpályás helyi- és elővárosi közforgalmú közlekedésben" [Public service contract, passenger rights, service planning and monitoring process of local and suburban public transport rail] (pdf) (in Hungarian). BKV Zrt. Közlekedési Igazgatóság [Directorate of Public Office. Transport]. pp. 10 (and 3). Retrieved 2015-04-19.  Metro usage per day – Line 1: 120,000; Line 2: 405,000; Line 3: 630,000. (Line 4 began operations in 2014, with a 110,000 ridership estimated by Centre for Budapest Transport (BKK) based on the latest year.)
  2. ^ "Annual Report 2011" (pdf). BKV Zrt. 2011. p. 4. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  3. ^ "Annual Report 2011" (pdf). BKV Zrt. 2011. p. 48. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  4. ^ a b "New Surface Transport Network Following Start of Metro Line 4 on 29 March 2014". 28 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-30. 
  5. ^ Budapest Line 4[dead link]
  6. ^ a b Robert Schwandl. "Budapest". Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  7. ^ "Az M1 Millenniumi Földalatti..." (pdf) (in Hungarian). Budapesti Közlekedési Központ. 2012. p. 6. Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  8. ^ "2-es metróvonal jellemzői" (in Hungarian). Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  9. ^ Árpád Bodnár: A budapesti metró két évtizede ("Two decades of the Budapest Metro"), Városi Közlekedés, Year XXXI, Vol. 3, pp. 119-121, Budapest, 1991
  10. ^ András Koós - Tamás Szirmay - Jenő Tiborcz: A budapesti 3-as metróvonal új szakasza ("The new section of Budapest Metro Line 3"), Városi Közlekedés, Year XXXI, Vol. 1, pp. 126-127, Budapest, 1991.
  11. ^ "Budapest signed the Contract Agreement for the Automated Fare Collection system". BKK Zrt. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "Purchase your ticket easier". BKK Zrt. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  13. ^ Timetables

External links[edit]