Miloš Obrenović

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Miloš Obrenović
MilosObrenovic 1848.jpg
Prince of Serbia
Reign December 23, 1858 – September 26, 1860
Predecessor Alexander Karađorđević
Successor Mihailo III (Obrenović)
Prince of Serbia
Reign November 6, 1817 – June 25, 1839
Predecessor Himself (As Grand Vožd of Serbia)
Successor Milan II
Grand Vožd of Serbia
Reign April 23, 1815 - November 6, 1817
Predecessor Karađorđe
Successor Himself (as Prince of Serbia)
Born (1780-03-18)March 18, 1780
Gornja Dobrinja near Požega
Died September 25, 1860(1860-09-25) (aged 80)
Belgrade
Consort Ljubica Vukomanović
House Obrenović
Father Teodor Mihailović
Mother Višnja Urošević
Styles of
Miloš Obrenović, Prince of Serbia
Royal Monogram of Prince Miloš Obrenović I of Serbia.svg
Reference style His Serene Highness
Spoken style Your Serene Highness
Alternative style Sir

Miloš Obrenović (pronounced [mîloʃ obrěːnoʋit͡ɕ]; Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обреновић; 7 March 1780–26 September 1860) was Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans.

Early life[edit]

Miloš Teodorović ([teodǒːroʋit͡ɕ]) was the son of Teodor "Teša" Mihailović (died 1802) from Dobrinja, and Višnja (died 18 June 1817).[1] This was the second marriage of his mother Višnja, from which also sprung Jovan (1787–1850) and Jevrem (1790–1856).[1] From Višnja's first marriage, with Obren Martinović (died 1780) from Brusnica, Miloš had half-brothers Jakov (died 1811) and Milan (died 1810), and half-sister Stana.[1] After the death of Obren, Višnja moved from Brusnica and married Teodor in Dobrinja.[1] After the death of his brother Milan, a famed revolutionary with great reputation among the people, Miloš adopted the surname Obrenović. In official documents, his name was sometimes written Miloš Teodorović Obrenović.[2]

First Serbian Uprising[edit]

Miloš fought in the First Serbian Uprising until its very end in 1813. His half-brother Milan also took part in the Uprising, rising to become the vojvoda (commander, duke) of the Rudnik district, until his death in 1810. After Milan's death, Miloš adopted the surname of his brother, Obrenović. After the rebellion collapsed, Miloš was among the few of its leaders that remained in Serbia to face the vengeful returning Ottoman Turks.

Second Serbian Uprising[edit]

Takovo, proclamation of Uprising.

In April 1815, he organized and led the Second Serbian Uprising. After defeating the Turks, and Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the Turks agreed to the terms of the agreement from 1815. After the killing of Karađorđe Petrović, in 1817, Obrenović became the leader of the Serbs. As a result of the agreement, Serbia gained some autonomy, but remained under Ottoman sovereignty. Miloš Obrenović was left in power as its absolute ruler. Between the end of 1828 and the autumn of 1830 Prince Miloš created a so-called "legislative commission" to translate the Code Napoléon into Serbian and codify the laws and customs of the country. After discussing the commission, Miloš invited two distinguished legal specialists to come from Austrian-occupied Serbia to prepare a more suitable criminal and civil code of laws for Serbia. They were Vasilije Lazarević, Bürgermeister, or mayor, of Zemun, and Jovan Hadžić, lawyer, poet, and member of the municipal senate of Novi Sad. In January he advised a great national assembly that he had obtained an imperial edict from the Sultan ending all direct obligations of Serbian peasants to their former Turkish lords, guaranteeing Ottoman recognition of Serbian autonomy in most matters of internal administration, and offering Serbia the prospect of territorial aggrandizement, as well as the express right to institute schools, courts, and a governmental administration of her own. Sultan's decrees of 1830 and 1833 expanded the same rights to a larger territory, and made Serbia a sovereign principality with Miloš Obrenović as hereditary prince. A Metropolitanate of Serbia was established in Belgrade, and made Autonomous part of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Russia's status as the guarantor of Serbia's autonomy was also recognized.

Reign[edit]

The supporters of Karadjordjevics often rebelled against Miloš's government. Following one such rebellion, he agreed to adopt a constitution in 1835. The move was opposed by neighboring Austria, the ruling Ottoman Empire and Russia. It is believed that the three great empires saw the constitution as a danger to their own autocratic systems of government. Metternich's Austria particularly ridiculed the fact that Serbia had its own flag and foreign ministry. Miloš abolished the constitution at the demand of Russia and Turkey.

Miloš abdicated in 1839 in favor of his sons—Milan, who died a few weeks later, and Mihailo, who then became prince. Mihailo was deposed in 1842, and the family was out of power until 1858, when it returned with Miloš restored as prince for the last two years of his life.

Legacy[edit]

Miloš Obrenović was given the epithet the Great. He was proclaimed Father of the Fatherland by the National Assembly.[3]

Marriage and children[edit]

In 1805, Miloš married Ljubica Vukomanović (September 1785 – Vienna, 26 May 1843). The couple had eight children whose names are known. It is speculated that Ljubica had other pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, stillbirths, or children who died shortly after birth, with some sources giving a number as high as 17 pregnancies.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d А. Ивић. "Родословне таблице: Број 16. и 17. Обреновићи". 
  2. ^ Serbia (1877). Зборник закона и уредаба. p. 51. 
  3. ^ Milutin D. Nešić (1920). Knez Mihailo. Štamparija braće grujić i prometnog D.D. С државнога балкона у згради Народне Скупштине (Велика пивара) читаше се прокламација народу српском, да је повраћен па престо отац отаџбине Велики Милош. Ко је видео како је та одлука за час угасила оне упаљене ... 
Miloš Obrenović
Born: 18 March [7 March o.s.] 1780 Died: 26 September 1860
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Karađorđe
Grand Vožd of Serbia
1815 – 1817
Title abolished
proclaimed Prince of Serbia
New title Prince of Serbia
1817–1839
Succeeded by
Milan Obrenović II
Preceded by
Aleksandar Karađorđević
Prince of Serbia
1858–1860
Succeeded by
Mihailo Obrenović III