Top to bottom, left to right: The Xscape and Theatre seen from Campbell Park, former railway works and new housing in Wolverton, Milton Keynes Central railway station, the Central Milton Keynes skyline, The Church of Christ the Cornerstone and Bletchley's high street "Queensway"
|Area||62.5 km2 (24.1 sq mi)|
|Population||229,941 (2011 Urban Area)|
|• Density||3,679/km2 (9,530/sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|• London||50 mi (80 km)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Post town||MILTON KEYNES|
|Postcode district||MK1–15, MK17, MK19|
|EU Parliament||South East England|
Milton Keynes (// (listen) KEENZ), locally abbreviated to MK, is a large town[note 1] in Buckinghamshire, England, about 50 miles (80 km) north-west of London.[a] It is the principal settlement of the Borough of Milton Keynes, a unitary authority. It was formally designated as a new town on 23 January 1967, with the design brief to become a city of 250,000 people. Its population is anticipated to reach 300,000 by 2025.
At designation, its 89 km2 (34 sq mi) area incorporated the existing towns of Bletchley, Wolverton, and Stony Stratford, along with another fifteen villages and farmland in between. It took its name from the existing village of Milton Keynes, a few miles east of its modern centre.
The river Great Ouse forms its northern boundary; a tributary, the river Ouzel meanders through its linear parks and balancing lakes. Its extensive treescape is another important design element. Approximately 25% of the urban area is parkland or woodland and includes an SSI. Its central business district lies on higher ground, with wide views to Central Bedfordshire, South Northamptonshire and Aylesbury Vale. Milton Keynes has one of the more successful economies in the UK, ranked highly on a number of criteria.
- 1 History
- 2 Urban design
- 3 Culture
- 4 Education
- 5 Government and infrastructure
- 6 Communications and media
- 7 Business
- 8 Sport
- 9 Centre
- 10 Other amenities
- 11 Original towns and villages
- 12 Economy, demography, geography and politics
- 13 Transport
- 14 Notable people
- 15 Twin towns
- 16 Climate
- 17 Notes
- 18 References
- 19 External links
Birth of a "New City"
Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several London boroughs had been constructed in Bletchley. Further studies in the 1960s identified north Buckinghamshire as a possible site for a large new town, a new city,[b] encompassing the existing towns of Bletchley, Stony Stratford and Wolverton. The New Town (informally and in planning documents, "New City") was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of 21,883 acres (8,855.7 ha) The name "Milton Keynes" was taken from the existing village of Milton Keynes on the site.
On 23 January 1967, when the formal new town designation order was made, the area to be developed was largely farmland and undeveloped villages. The site was deliberately located equidistant from London, Birmingham, Leicester, Oxford and Cambridge, with the intention that it would be self-sustaining and eventually become a major regional centre in its own right. Planning control was taken from elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes Development Corporation (MKDC). Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has exposed a rich history of human settlement since Neolithic times and has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of North Buckinghamshire.
The Corporation's strongly modernist designs were regularly featured in the magazines Architectural Design and the Architects' Journal. MKDC was determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns, and revisit the Garden City ideals. They set in place the characteristic grid roads that run between districts ('grid squares'), as well as the intensive planting, lakes and parkland that are so evident today. While still on the drawing board, planners noticed that the main streets near the proposed city centre would almost frame the rising sun on Midsummer's Day. Greenwich Observatory was consulted to obtain the exact angle required at the latitude of Central Milton Keynes,[c] and they managed to persuade the engineers to shift the grid of roads a few degrees in response. CMK was not intended to be a traditional town centre but a central business and shopping district to supplement Local Centres in most of the grid squares. This non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English New Towns tradition and envisaged a wide range of industry and diversity of housing styles and tenures across the city. The largest and almost the last of the British New Towns, Milton Keynes has 'stood the test of time far better than most, and has proved flexible and adaptable'. The radical grid plan was inspired by the work of Californian urban theorist Melvin M. Webber, described by the founding architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker, as the "father of the city". Webber thought that telecommunications meant that the old idea of a city as a concentric cluster was out of date and that cities which enabled people to travel around them readily would be the thing of the future achieving "community without propinquity" for residents.
The Government wound up MKDC in 1992, 25 years after the new town was founded, transferring control to the Commission for New Towns (CNT) and then finally to English Partnerships, with the planning function returning to local council control (since 1974 and the Local Government Act 1972, the Borough of Milton Keynes). From 2004–2011 a Government quango, the Milton Keynes Partnership, had development control powers to accelerate the growth of Milton Keynes.
The area that was to become Milton Keynes encompassed a landscape that has a rich historic legacy. The area to be developed was largely farmland and undeveloped villages, but with evidence of permanent settlement dating back to the Bronze Age. Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of south-central England. There is evidence of Stone Age, late Bronze Age/early Iron Age, Romano-British, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, Medieval and Industrial revolution settlements.
Bletchley Park, the site of World War II British code-breaking and Colossus, the world's first programmable electronic digital computer, is a major component of MK's modern history. It is now a flourishing heritage attraction, receiving hundreds of thousands of visitors annually.
When the boundary of Milton Keynes was defined in 1967, some 40,000 people lived in three towns and fifteen villages or hamlets in the "designated area".
- The concepts that heavily influenced the design of the town are described in detail in article urban planning – see 'cells' under Planning and aesthetics (referring to grid squares). See also article single-use zoning.
Since the radical plan form and large scale of Milton Keynes attracted international attention, early phases of development include work by celebrated architects, including Sir Richard MacCormac, Lord Norman Foster, Henning Larsen, Ralph Erskine, John Winter, and Martin Richardson. Led by Lord Campbell of Eskan (Chairman) and Fred Roche (General Manager), the Corporation attracted talented young architects led by the young and charismatic Derek Walker. In the modernist Miesian tradition is the Shopping Building designed by Stuart Mosscrop and Christopher Woodward, a grade II listed building, which the Twentieth Century Society inter alia regards as the 'most distinguished' twentieth century retail building in Britain. The contextual tradition that ran alongside it is exemplified by the Corporation's infill scheme at Cofferidge Close, Stony Stratford, designed by Wayland Tunley, which carefully inserts into a historic stretch of High Street a modern retail facility, offices and car park. The Development Corporation also led an ambitious Public art programme.
The urban design has not been universally praised, however. In 1980, the then president of the Royal Town Planning Institute, Francis Tibbalds, described Central Milton Keynes as "bland, rigid, sterile, and totally boring."
Grid roads and grid squares
Professor David Lock, CBE
The Milton Keynes Development Corporation planned the major road layout according to street hierarchy principles, using a grid pattern of approximately 1 km (0.62 mi) intervals, rather than on the more conventional radial pattern found in older settlements. Major distributor roads run between communities, rather than through them: these distributor roads are known locally as grid roads and the spaces between them – the districts – are known as grid squares. This spacing was chosen so that people would always be within six minutes walking distance of a grid-road bus-stop. Consequently, each grid square is a semi-autonomous community, making a unique collective of 100 clearly identifiable neighbourhoods within the overall urban environment.[d] The grid squares have a variety of development styles, ranging from conventional urban development and industrial parks to original rural and modern urban and suburban developments. Most grid squares have Local Centres, intended as local retail hubs and many have community facilities as well. Originally intended under the master plan to sit alongside the Grid Roads, the Local Centres were mostly in fact built embedded in the communities.
Although the 1970 Master Plan assumed cross-road junctions, roundabout junctions were built at intersections because this type of junction is more efficient at dealing with small to medium volumes. Some major roads are dual carriageway, the others are single carriageway. Along one side of each single carriageway grid road, there is usually a (grassed) reservation to permit dualling or additional transport infrastructure at a later date.[e] As of 2018[update], this has been limited to some dualling. The edges of each grid square are landscaped and densely planted – some additionally have noise attenuation mounds – to minimise traffic noise from the adjacent grid road. Traffic movements are fast, with relatively little congestion since there are alternative routes to any particular destination other than during peak periods. The national speed limit applies on the grid roads, although lower speed limits have been introduced on some stretches to reduce accident rates. Pedestrians rarely need to cross grid roads at grade, as underpasses and bridges were specified at frequent places along each stretch of all of the grid roads. However, the new districts to be added by the expansion plans for Milton Keynes are departing from this model, with less separation and using 'at grade' crossings. This approach, which contradicts the original design ethos, has been a cause for conflict between residents and the Council who are often regarded as failing to preserve the unique development style of the city.
There is a separate network (approximately 270 kilometres or 170 miles total length) of cycle and pedestrian routes – the redways – that runs through the grid-squares and often runs alongside the grid-road network. This was designed to segregate slow moving cycle and pedestrian traffic from fast moving motor traffic. In practice, it is mainly used for leisure cycling rather than commuting, perhaps because the cycle routes are shared with pedestrians, cross the grid-roads via bridge or underpass rather than at grade, and because some take meandering scenic routes rather than straight lines. It is so called because it is generally surfaced with red tarmac. The national Sustrans national cycle network routes 6 and 51 take advantage of this system.
The original design guidance declared that commercial building heights in the centre should not exceed six stories, with a limit of three stories for houses (elsewhere), paraphrased locally as "no building taller than the tallest tree". However, the Milton Keynes Partnership, in its expansion plans for Milton Keynes, believed that Central Milton Keynes (and elsewhere) needed "landmark buildings" and subsequently lifted the height restriction for the area. As a result, high rise buildings have been built in the central business district.[f] More recent local plans have protected the existing boulevard framework and set higher standards for architectural excellence.[g]
The flood plains of the Great Ouse and of its tributaries (the Ouzel and some brooks) have been protected as linear parks that run right through Milton Keynes; these were identified as important landscape and flood-management assets from the outset. At 1,650 ha (4,100 acres) – a third larger than Richmond Park and ten times larger than London's Hyde Park – the landscape architects realised that the Royal Parks model would not be appropriate or affordable and drew on their National Park experience. As Bendixson and Platt (1992) write: "They divided the Ouzel Valley into 'strings, beads and settings'. The strings are well-maintained routes, be they for walking, bicycling or riding; the beads are sports centres, lakeside cafes and other activity areas; the settings are self-managed land-uses such as woods, riding paddocks, a golf-course[h] and a farm". The Grand Union Canal is another green route (and demonstrates the level geography of the area – there is just one minor lock in its entire 10-mile (16 km) meandering route through from the southern boundary near Fenny Stratford to the "Iron Trunk" Aqueduct over the Ouse at Wolverton at its northern boundary). The initial park system was planned by landscape architect Peter Youngman, who also developed landscape precepts for all development areas: groups of grid squares were to be planted with different selections of trees and shrubs to give them distinct identities. However, the detailed planning and landscape design of parks and of the grid roads was evolved under the leadership of Neil Higson, who from 1977 took over as Chief Landscape Architect and made the original grand but not entirely practical landscape plan more subtle.
"City in the forest"
The original Development Corporation design concept aimed for a "forest city" and its foresters planted millions of trees from its own nursery in Newlands in the following years. As of 2018[update], the urban area has 22 million trees and shrubs. Following the winding up of the Development Corporation, the lavish landscapes of the Grid Roads and of the major parks were transferred to The Milton Keynes Parks Trust, a charity which is independent from the municipal authority and which was intended to resist pressures to build on the parks over time. The Parks Trust is endowed with a portfolio of commercial properties, the income of which pay for the upkeep of the green spaces.
In Wavendon, the Stables – founded by jazz artists Cleo Laine and John Dankworth – provides a venue for jazz, blues, folk, rock, classical, pop and world music. It presents around 400 concerts and over 200 educational events each year and also hosts the National Youth Music Camps summer camp for young musicians. In 2010, it founded the biennial IF Milton Keynes International Festival, producing events in unusual spaces and places across Milton Keynes.
Arts and literature
The municipal public art gallery, MK Gallery presents free exhibitions of international contemporary art.
The adjacent 1,400 seat Milton Keynes Theatre opened in 1999. The theatre has an unusual feature: the ceiling can be lowered closing off the third tier (gallery) to create a more intimate space for smaller-scale productions. There is a further professional performance space in Stantonbury.
There are three museums:
- Bletchley Park complex which houses the museum of wartime cryptography,
- National Museum of Computing (beside Bletchley Park, separately entrance), which includes a working replica of the Colossus computer
- Milton Keynes Museum, which includes the Stacey Hill Collection of rural life that existed before the foundation of MK. the British Telecom collection, and the original Concrete Cows.
Milton Keynes Arts Centre offers a year-round exhibitions, family workshops and courses. Situated in of Linford Manor's exterior buildings, barns, Almshouses, Pavilions), the Arts Centre offers an historical setting.
The Westbury Arts Centre in Shenley Wood is based in a 16th-century grade II listed Farmhouse building. Westbury Arts has been providing spaces for professional working artists to create work since 1994. The oldest part of the house was built in the sixteenth century and has been greatly extended over the years. It
The Open University's headquarters are in the Walton Hall district; though because this is a distance learning institution, the only students resident on campus are approximately 200 full-time postgraduates. Cranfield University, an all-postgraduate institution, is in nearby Cranfield, Bedfordshire. Milton Keynes College provides further education up to foundation degree level. University Campus Milton Keynes, a campus of the University of Bedfordshire, provides some tertiary education facilities locally. Milton Keynes is currently the UK's largest population centre without its own university proper, a shortfall that the Council aims to rectify. In January 2019, the Council and its partner, Cranfield University, invited proposals to design a campus near the Central station for a new university.
Like most parts of the UK, the state secondary schools in Milton Keynes are comprehensives, although schools in the rest of Buckinghamshire still use the tripartite system. Private schools are also available.
Milton Keynes City Discovery Centre at Bradwell Abbey holds an extensive archive about the planning and development of Milton Keynes and has an associated research library. The Centre also offers an education programme (with a focus on urban geography and local history) to schools, universities and professionals.
Government and infrastructure
Milton Keynes University Hospital, in the Eaglestone district, is an NHS general hospital with an Accident and Emergency unit. It is associated for medical teaching purposes with the University of Buckingham medical school. There are two small private hospitals: BMI Healthcare's Saxon Clinic and Ramsay Health Care's Blakelands Hospital.
UK government offices
Communications and media
Milton Keynes has two commercial radio stations, Heart Four Counties, and MKFM. BBC Three Counties Radio is the local BBC Radio station. CRMK (Community Radio Milton Keynes) is a voluntary station broadcasting on the Internet.
Milton Keynes has consistently benefited from above-average economic growth, ranked as one of the UK's five fastest growing. It is ranked fifth in the UK for business startups (per 10,000 population)
Milton Keynes is home to several national and international companies, notably Argos, Domino's Pizza, Marshall Amplification, Mercedes-Benz, Suzuki, Volkswagen AG, Red Bull Racing, Network Rail, and Yamaha Kemble.
Milton Keynes has professional teams in football (Milton Keynes Dons F.C. at Stadium:mk), in ice hockey (Milton Keynes Lightning at Planet Ice Milton Keynes), and in Formula One (Red Bull Racing).
As a key element of the planners' vision, Milton Keynes has a purpose built centre, with a very large "covered high street" shopping centre, a theatre, municipal art gallery, a multiplex cinema, hotels, central business district, an ecumenical church, Borough Council offices and central railway station.
- Near the central station, in a space beside the former Milton Keynes central bus station, there a purpose-built covered "urban skateboarding" arena.
- There is a high security prison, HMP Woodhill, on the western boundary.
- Willen Lake hosts watersports on the south basin, and the north basin is a bird sanctuary.
- The Blue Lagoon Local Nature Reserve is in Bletchley.
Original towns and villages
Milton Keynes consists of many pre-existing towns and villages, as well as new infill developments. The designated area outside the four main towns (Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Stony Stratford, Wolverton) was largely rural farmland but included many picturesque North Buckinghamshire villages and hamlets: Bradwell village and its Abbey, Broughton, Caldecotte, Fenny Stratford, Great Linford, Loughton, Milton Keynes Village, New Bradwell, Shenley Brook End, Shenley Church End, Simpson, Stantonbury, Tattenhoe, Tongwell, Walton, Water Eaton, Wavendon, Willen, Great and Little Woolstone, Woughton on the Green. These historical settlements were made the focal points of their respective grid square. Every other district has an historical antecedent, if only in original farms or even field names.
Bletchley was first recorded in the 12th century as Blechelai. Its station was an important junction (the London and North Western Railway with the Oxford-Cambridge Varsity Line), leading to the substantial urban growth in the town in the Victorian period. It expanded to absorb the villages of Water Eaton and Fenny Stratford.
Bletchley Park was home to the Government Code and Cypher School during the Second World War. The famous Enigma code was cracked here, and the building housed what was arguably the world's first programmable computer, Colossus. The house is now a museum of war memorabilia, cryptography and computing. The National Museum of Computing is on an adjacent site and has a rebuilt Colossus.
Bradwell is a traditional rural village with earthworks of a Norman motte and bailey and parish church. There is a YHA hostel beside the church. A working windmill is sited on a hill outside the village.
Bradwell Abbey, a former Benedictine Priory and Scheduled Ancient Monument, was of major economic importance in this area of North Buckinghamshire before its dissolution in 1524. Nowadays there is only a small medieval chapel and a manor house occupying the site.
New Bradwell, to the north of Bradwell and east of Wolverton, was built specifically for railway workers. The level bed of the old Wolverton to Newport Pagnell Line near here has been converted to a redway, making it a favoured route for cycling.
Great Linford appears in the Domesday Book as Linforde, and features a church dedicated to Saint Andrew, dating from 1215. Today, the outer buildings of the 17th century manor house form an arts centre.
Milton Keynes Village is the original village to which the New Town owes its name. The original village is still evident, with a pleasant thatched pub, village hall, church and traditional housing. The area around the village has reverted to its 11th century name of Middleton (Middeltone). The oldest surviving domestic building in the area (c. 1300 CE), "perhaps the manor house", is here.
Stony Stratford began as a settlement on Watling Street during the Roman occupation, beside the ford over the Great Ouse. There has been a market here since since 1194 (by charter of King Richard I). The former Rose and Crown Inn on the high street is reputedly the last place the Princes in the Tower were seen alive.
The tiny Parish Church (1680) at Willen was designed by the architect and physicist Robert Hooke. Nearby, there is a Buddhist Temple and a Peace Pagoda, which was built in 1980 and was the first in the western world.
The original Wolverton was a medieval settlement just north and west of today's town. The ridge and furrow pattern of agriculture can still be seen in the nearby fields. The 12th century (rebuilt in 1819) 'Church of the Holy Trinity' still stands next to the Norman motte and bailey site. Modern Wolverton was a 19th-century New Town built to house the workers at the Wolverton railway works, which built engines and carriages for the London and North Western Railway.
Economy, demography, geography and politics
At the 2011 census, the population of the Milton Keynes urban area, including the adjacent Newport Pagnell and Woburn Sands, was 229,941. The population of the Borough in total was 248,800, compared with a population of around 53,000 for the same area in 1961.
With 99.4% SMEs, just 0.6% of businesses locally employ more than 250 people. Of the remaining enterprises, 81.5% employ fewer than 10 people. The 'professional, scientific and technical sector' contributes the largest number of business units, 16.7%. The retail sector is the largest contributor of employment. Milton Keynes has one of the highest business start-ups in England Although Education, Health and Public Administration are important contributors to employment, the contribution is significantly less than in England or the South East as a whole.
The population is significantly younger than is typical for the UK's 63 primary urban areas: 25.3% of the Borough population is aged under 18 (5th place) and 13.4% are aged 65+ (57th out of 63). Contributing to its vitality, 18.5% of residents were born outside the UK (11th).
Modern parishes, community councils and districts
Milton Keynes has six railway stations. Milton Keynes Central is served by inter-city services. Wolverton, Milton Keynes Central and Bletchley stations are on the West Coast Main Line and are served by local commuter services. Fenny Stratford and Bow Brickhill are on the Marston Vale Line. Woburn Sands railway station, also on the Marston Vale line, is in the small town of Woburn Sands just inside the urban area.
The M1 motorway runs along the east flank of MK and serves it from junctions 13, 14 and 15. The A5 road runs right through it as a grade separated dual carriageway. Other main roads are the A509 to Wellingborough and Kettering, and the A421 and A422, both running west towards Buckingham and east towards Bedford. Proximity to the M1 has led to construction of a number of distribution centres, including Magna Park at the A421/A5130 junction.
Many long-distance coaches stop at the Milton Keynes coachway, (beside M1 Junction 14), some 3.3 miles (5.3 km) from the centre (or 4 mi or 6.4 km from Milton Keynes Central railway station). There is also a park and ride car park on the site. Regional coaches stop at Milton Keynes Central.
The nearest international airport is London Luton Airport, accessible by Stagecoach route 99 from MK Central station. There is a direct rail connection to Birmingham International station for Birmingham Airport. In addition, Cranfield Airport, an airfield, is 6 miles (10 km) from the centre. (Although Milton Keynes is allocated an International Air Transport Association airport code of KYN, it does not have an airport. Proposals in 1971 for a third London airport at (relatively) nearby Cublington were rejected).
Closest cities and towns
- Dele Alli, professional footballer.
- Christopher B-Lynch, (visiting) Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Cranfield University, responsible for inventing the eponymously named B-Lynch suture which is used to treat post-partum haemorrhage due to uterine atony worked at Milton Keynes General Hospital.
- Andrew Baggaley, English table tennis champion.
- Sam Baldock, professional footballer.
- Errol Barnett, an anchor and correspondent for CNN is from Milton Keynes. He lived in Crownhill and attended Holmwood First School and Two Mile Ash Middle School before moving to the US.
- Emily Bergl, an actress known for her roles in Desperate Housewives and Shameless. Bergl was born in Milton Keynes, to an Irish mother and an English architect father.
- Chris Clarke, English sprinter.
- Adam Ficek, drummer of London band Babyshambles.
- Lee Hasdell, professional Mixed martial artist and Kickboxer.
- James Hildreth, professional cricketer.
- Liam Kelly, professional footballer.
- Jim Marshall (1923–2012), founder and CEO of Marshall Amplification was living in and ran his business from Milton Keynes when he died.
- Gordon Moakes, the bassist for the London-based rock band Bloc Party.
- Clare Nasir, the meteorologist, TV and radio personality, was born in Milton Keynes in 1970.
- Craig Pickering, English sprinter.
- Sarah Pinborough, English horror writer.
- Ian Poulter, PGA & European Tour golf professional. Member of the 2010 and 2012 European Ryder Cup Teams.
- Mark Randall, professional footballer.
- Greg Rutherford, long jump gold medallist for Team GB at the 2012 Olympic Games.
- Sakima, singer
- Alan P. F. Sell (1935–2016), academic and theologian lived in the town in his later years and died there.
- Ed Slater, professional rugby player.
- Jack Trevor Story, novelist, was a long-term resident of Milton Keynes.
- Sam Tomkins, professional rugby league player.
- Alan Turing (1912–1954), played a significant role in the creation of the modern computer. He lodged at the Crown Inn, Shenley Brook End, while working at Bletchley Park.
- Nat Wei, Baron Wei, member of the House of Lords.
- Kevin Whately, professional actor.
- Dan Wheldon (1978–2011), Indy car driver.
- Pete Winkelman, Chairman of Milton Keynes Dons Football Club, owner of Linford Manor recording studios, long term resident.
- Capdown, the ska punk band, came from and formed in Milton Keynes in 1997.
- Fellsilent, the metal band, come from and formed in Milton Keynes in 2003.
- Tesseract, the djent band formed as a full live act in Milton Keynes in 2007. Tesseract's guitarist, songwriter and producer Acle Kahney is also a former member of Fellsilent.
- Hacktivist, the Grime, djent band formed in 2011.
- RavenEye, the rock band, formed in Milton Keynes in 2014.
Milton Keynes experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) as is typical of almost all of the United Kingdom. Recorded temperature extremes range from 34.6 °C (94.3 °F) during July 2006, to as low as −20.6 °C (−5.1 °F) on 20 December 2010. on 25 February 1947. In 2010, the temperature fell to −16.3 °C (2.7 °F)
|Climate data for Woburn 1981–2010 (Weather station 3 mi (5 km) to the SE of Central Milton Keynes)|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.0
|Average low °C (°F)||1.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||54.2
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||52.0||69.4||105.5||147.4||183.4||179.9||197.1||189.0||137.0||105.6||61.7||43.5||1,471.6|
|Source: Met Office|
- From Milton Keynes Bowl to Marble Arch via Watling Street is 45 miles (72 km). By rail from Milton Keynes Central to Euston is 49 miles 65 chains (49.81 mi; 80.17 km). From Central Milton Keynes to Charing Cross via the M1 motorway is 55 miles (89 km).
- The Plan for Milton Keynes begins (in the Foreword by Lord ("Jock") Campbell of Eskan): "This plan for building the new city of Milton Keynes ..."
- As seen uphill along Midsummer Boulevard from Midsummer Roundabout near the Central Station
- Bendixson & Platt report the Corporation as concerned at this outcome, which was an unanticipated emergent behaviour and tried to increase permeability through the grid thereafter.
- An additional ten-metre wide strip was originally specified to satisfy Buckinghamshire County Council's belief in a future fixed-track public transport system. In 1977 MKDC decided to cease to specify it.
- Large-scale buildings include Jurys Inn (10 stories) The Pinnacle:MK on Midsummer Boulevard (9 stories) and the Vizion development on Avebury Boulevard (12 stories).
- The more recent Network Rail National Centre has been built at the western limit of Silbury Boulevard near the Central station; this building complex occupies a large land area but only rises to the equivalent of six storeys.
- which did not happen here
- A competing paper, MK News, closed in October 2016.
- population over 10,000.
- population over 100,000. St Albans, a cathedral city of 57,000, is closer.
- "2011 Census – Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- According to a nearby historic milestone.
- "Engineer's Line References". RailwayCodes.org. 28 July 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Central Milton Keynes to Charing Cross". Google Maps. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- ""North Buckinghamshire (Milton Keynes) New Town (Designation) Order", London Gazette, 24 January 1967, page 827". London Gazette. Retrieved 14 January 2014..
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. 4.
- "Milton Keynes at 50: Success town has 'nothing to be ashamed of'". BBC. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. 8.
- "Facts and Figures". Milton Keynes Parks Trust. Retrieved 20 February 2019. "The Parks Trust looks after over 6,000 acres of parkland and green space". The urban area measures approximate 30,000 acres.
- "Milton Keynes". Centre for Cities. Retrieved 9 February 2019. (2017 data).
- Maslen, T. J. (1843). Suggestions for the improvement of Our Towns and Houses. London: Smith, Elder. (Quoted in Walter L Crease, The search for Environment, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1966, p319).
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 265.
- The South East Study 1961–1981 HMSO London, 1964: "A big change in the economic balance within the south east is needed to modify the dominance of London and to get a more even distribution of growth". Retrieved 27 November 2006
- "Bletchley Pioneers, Planning, & Progress". Clutch.open.ac.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Early days of overspill". Clutch.open.ac.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Need for more planned towns in the South-East.The Times. 2 December 1964 Accessed 21 September 2006
- South East Study 1961–1981 HMSO 1964, cited in The Plan for Milton Keynes. (Llewellyn-Davies et al, 1970, page 3)
- Urgent action to meet London housing needs. The Times, 4 February 1965. Retrieved 21 September 2006
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. xi.
- Area of New Town Increased by 6,000 acres (2,400 ha). The Times. 14 January 1966. Retrieved 21 September 2006
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. 3.
- Llewellyn-Davies; Forestier-Walker; Bor (December 1968). Milton Keynes: Interim Report to Milton Keynes Development Corporation. Milton Keynes Development Corporation.
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. xii.
- Croft, R. A.; Mynard, Dennis C.; Gelling, Margaret, The Changing Landscape of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire Archaeological Society Monograph Series
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 107.
- Staff of MKDC on the cover of Architectural Digest and related AD and AJ images – Pinterest pins.
- AJ archive: Milton Keynes planning study (1969) – The Architects' Journal, reprint 23 January 2017
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 1, 47.
- Clapson 2014, p. 3.
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. xii.
- Milton Keynes: A Living Landscape, Fred Roche Foundation, 2018
- Barkham, Patrick (3 May 2016). "The struggle for the soul of Milton Keynes". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. 33.
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. 14.
- Jeff Bishop Milton Keynes – the Best of Both Worlds? Public and professional views of a new city. University of Bristol School for Advanced Urban Studies 1981. Retrieved 13 February 2007
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 46.
- Walker The Architecture and Planning of Milton Keynes, Architectural Press, London 1981. Retrieved 13 February 2007
- M Webber (1963) 'Order in Diversity: Community Without Propinquity, in L Wingo (ed.) 'Cities and Spaces Hopkins, Baltimore. Retrieved 13 February 2007
- "MILTON KEYNES PARTNERSHIP COMMITTEE ROLE AND REMIT". Milton Keynes Council. 7 September 2005. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "This is not a city: Milton Keynes". The Open University. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Needham, S (2002). "Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire: Bronze Age gold hoard of two torcs and three bracelets in a pot" (PDF). Treasure Annual Report 2000. Department of Culture, Media and Sport. pp. 13–15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "The Milton Keynes Hoard". British Museum. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
- "Archaeology in the Milton Keynes District: Stone Age". Milton Keynes Heritage Association. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- "Archaeology in the Milton Keynes District: Bronze Age". Milton Keynes Heritage Association. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- "Object 2234: "Gold stater ('Gallo-Belgic A' type) Roman, mid-2nd century BC Probably made in northern France or Belgium; found at Fenny Stratford near Milton Keynes, England"". British Museum. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- "Archaeology in the Milton Keynes District: archaeological sites and artefacts found at Bancroft and Blue Bridge, part of the old farmland of Stacey Hill Farm, now Milton Keynes Museum". Milton Keynes Heritage Association. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- Mynard, Dennis; Hunt, Julian (1994). Milton Keynes, a pictorial history. ISBN 978-0-85033-940-6.
- Domesday Book, Buckinghamshire
- "Newport hundred: Introduction". Victoria History of the Counties of England. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- Copeland 2006, Introduction p. 2.
- "Bletchley Park welcomes 2015's 200,000th visitor". Bletchley Park. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Melvin, Jeremy (12 August 2014). "Richard MacCormac (1938–2014)". Architectural Review.
- Hatherley, Owen (2010). A guide to the new ruins of Great Britain (PDF). New York: Verso. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-84467-700-9.
- Building of the month: Heelands Housing, Milton Keynes – Twentieth Century Society, January 2008
- A Milton Keynes housing estate designed by Ralph Erskine in the 1970s should be designated a conservation area, a heritage body has urged – Greg Pitcher, The Architects' Journal, 12 March 2018
- Billings, Henrietta (February 2013). "Obituary: John Winter (1930–2012)". Twentieth Century Society. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Jef Bishop Milton Keynes – the Best of Both Worlds? Public and professional views of a new city. University of Bristol School for Advanced Urban Studies. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
- 1979: Milton Keynes shopping building – The Twentieth Century Society
- "Shopping building, Milton Keynes: Grade II listed". English Heritage.
- "Public Art in MK". Milton Keynes Council. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes: Who forgot the urban design" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Kitchen, Roger; Hill, Marion (2007). 'The story of the original CMK' … told by the people who shaped the original Central Milton Keynes (interviews). Milton Keynes: Living Archive. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-904847-34-5. Retrieved 26 January 2009. (Professor Lock is visiting professor of town planning at Reading University. He was the chief town planner for CMK.) (Ten miles is about 16km and 18,000 acres is about 7,300 hectares),
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. 16.
- Walker, Derek (1982). The Architecture and Planning of Milton Keynes. London: Architectural Press. pp.  , 8. ISBN 978-0-85139-735-1. cited in Clapson, Mark (2004). A Social History of Milton Keynes: Middle England/Edge City. London: Frank Cass. pp.  , 40. ISBN 978-0-7146-8417-8.
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 175–178.
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 175.
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. 36.
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 177.
- Edwards, Michael (2001). "City design: what went wrong at Milton Keynes?". Journal of Urban Design 6(1): 73-82: 8. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.488.4255.
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 170, 171.
- "Love Milton Keynes? Love Urban Eden".
- "Milton Keynes Redways". Destination Milton Keynes. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 178.
- "National cycle route 6". Sustrans. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "National cycle route 51". Sustrans. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes high-rise plan revealed". BBC. 5 May 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Jurys Inn, Milton Keynes (McAleer & Rushe, Design and build)". www.mcaleer-rushe.co.uk. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "The Pinnacle, Milton Keynes – Building #6483". www.skyscrapernews.com. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Vizion, Milton Keynes – Building #5201". www.skyscrapernews.com. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "The CMK Business Neighbourhood Plan". Central Milton Keynes town council. October 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Network Rail opens The Quadrant:MK". Railway Gazette. 11 June 2012.
- Llewellyn-Davies et al. 1970, p. 27.
- Bendixson et al.
- Peter Youngman, Architect of the modern British landscape – The Guardian, 17 June 2005, retrieved 23 January 2017
- Bendixson et al.
- Pevsner, Nikolaus; Williamson, Dr Elizabeth (11 March 1994). Buckinghamshire (Pevsner Architectural Guides). Yale University Press.
- Millions of trees in Milton Keynes to be spruced up in 2019 – Paige Browne, Milton Keynes Citizen, 23 December 2018
- Jeffries, Stuart (20 January 2017). "50 reasons to love Milton Keynes (what, only 50?)". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
- "The Parks Trust model". theparkstrust.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012.
- "National Bowl at Milton Keynes, UK – seeking expressions of interest from developers and partners". www.psam.uk.com. PanStadia & Arena Management. 6 August 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "World Class Music and Entertainment". The Stables. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "National Youth Music Camps". The Stables. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- IF: Milton Keynes International Festival.
- "Milton Keynes Gallery". Destination MK. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes Theatre & Art Gallery Complex". Architects' Journal Building Library. 1999. Retrieved 8 February 2019. Includes photographs, drawings and working details.
- Barron, Michael (28 September 2009). Auditorium Acoustics and Architectural Design. Spon Press. ISBN 9780419245100.
- "Stantonbury Theatre". Destination MK. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Bletchley Park". Destination MK. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "National Museum of Computing". Destination MK. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "MK Museum". Destination MK. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes Arts Centre". Destination MK. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Westbury Arts Centre". Destination MK. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes Choirs, choral societies and vocal ensembles". Gerontius. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "Trails, Guides, Walks & Maps: : Arts & Cultural Venues Map (PDF link)<". Milton Keynes Council. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Project Two: MK:U A new University for Milton Keynes". MK2050 Futures Commission. October 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Fulcher, Merlin (31 January 2019). "Competition: MK:U, Milton Keynes". The Architects' Journal. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "An extremely select spot". The Independent. 27 June 1996. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Explainer: The history of grammar schools". ITV News. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "Independent schools in Milton Keynes - ISC". www.isc.co.uk. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "MK City Discovery Centre". Destination Milton Keynes. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes Council". BBC. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- Private university gets 500 applications for £35,000-a-year medical degree – Richard Adams, The Guardian, 8 January 2015
- "BMI The Saxon Clinic". National Health Service. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Private hospitals in Milton Keynes". www.blakelandshospital.co.uk. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Get a document legalised 'Births, deaths, marriages and ce' at GOV.UK
- MacAskill, Ewen, Julian Borger, Nick Hopkins, Nick Davies and James Ball. "Mastering the internet: how GCHQ set out to spy on the world wide web." The Guardian. Friday 21 June 2013. Retrieved on 21 June 2013.
- "Heart Four Counties". Amazingly Brilliant Pty Ltd. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "MKFM The beat of MK". Amazingly Brilliant Pty Ltd. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "BBC Three Counties Radio". Amazingly Brilliant Pty Ltd. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Radio for Milton Keynes". CRMK. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "ITV Map ANGLIA micro V9". ITV media. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes Citizen". Audit Bureau of Circulation. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "Trinity Mirror closes newspapers in Milton Keynes, Luton and Northampton as Local World purge continues". Press Gazette. 19 October 2016.
- Fast Growth Cities (PDF) (Report). Centre for Cities.
- "Argos Head Office". J Sainsbury plc. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Head Office". Domino's Pizza UK. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Contact us". Marshall Amplification. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Contact us". Mercedes Benz UK. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Contact us". Suzuki UK. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Contact us". Volkswagen Group UK. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Contact us". Red Bull Racing Group UK. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "NETWORK RAIL'S NEW NATIONAL CENTRE OPENS FOR BUSINESS IN MILTON KEYNES". Network Rail. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Selected Headquarters in Milton Keynes" (PDF). Invest MK. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "How many employees work at the Milton Keynes office?". Santander Group. Retrieved 13 February 2019. (The answer is "about 3,000").
- Burns, Judith (13 June 2017). "Open University overhaul risks job cuts". BBC. Retrieved 13 February 2019. "The University ... employs 4,400 academics and support staff" (90% of whom are based in Milton Keynes),
- "Sports and activities". Destination Milton Keynes. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 129–154.
- "Shopping". Destination Milton Keynes. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes Theatre & Art Gallery Complex". Architects' Journal Building Library. Retrieved 8 February 2019.. Includes photographs, drawings and working details
- "Culture". Destination Milton Keynes. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Entertainment". Destination Milton Keynes. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Where to stay". Destination Milton Keynes. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "The Church of Christ the Cornerstone". Baptist Union / Church of England / Methodist Church / Roman Catholic Church / United Reformed Church. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes Civic Offices". Milton Keynes City Discovery Centre. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Milton Keynes Central opened". Railway Magazine. Vol. 128 no. 974. June 1982. p. 258. ISSN 0033-8923.
- "Best practice don't repel the borders". Local Government Chronicle. 19 April 2006. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- "Woodhill prison visiting information". Justice.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "WakeMK relaunches with new management". Destination MK. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Willen Lake North". The Parks Trust. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Blue Lagoon Bletchley". Milton Keynes Natural History Society. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Milton Keynes Heritage (map) – English Partnerships, 2004.
- 'Parishes : Bletchley with Fenny Stratford and Water Eaton', Victoria History of the Counties of England: A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4 (1927), pp. 274–283. URL: Date accessed: 17 August 2009.
- Morrison, pp. 102–103.
- Erskine 2011, p. 170.
- Copeland 2006, Copeland, Jack, Introduction p. 2.
- "Parishes : Bradwell". A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4. Victoria History of the Counties of England. 1927. p. 283–288. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Youth Hostel". Historic England. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "Bradwell Windmill". Milton Keynes Museum. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Historic England. "Details from image database (45807)". Images of England. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- "Houses of Benedictine monks: The priory of Bradwell". A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 1. Victoria History of the Counties of England. 1905. p. 350–352. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- "Bradwell Abbey: a Benedictine priory, chapel and fishpond". Historic England. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Woodfield 1986, p. 19–24.
- "rom Railway line to Railway Walk". Milton Keynes Heritage Association. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Parishes : Great Linford". A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4. Victoria History of the Counties of England. 1927. p. 387–392. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Parishes : Milton Keynes". A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4. Victoria History of the Counties of England. 1927. p. 401–405. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Woodfield 1986, p. 84.
- "Parishes : Stony Stratford". A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4. Victoria History of the Counties of England. 1927. p. 476–482. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- R. H. Britnell, 'The Origins of Stony Stratford', Records of Buckinghamshire, XX (1977), pp. 451–3
- Bendixson & Platt 1992, p. 74.
- "Willen Church". Westminster School. 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Woodfield 1986, p. 165.
- "Peace Pagoda". Milton Keynes Parks Trust. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Parishes : Wolverton". A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4. Victoria History of the Counties of England. 1927. p. 505–509. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Buckinghamshire Historical Service plaque on site
- "Census 2011". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Vision of Britain: historic census populations for modern Milton Keynes UA. Accessed 11 October 2006.
- Milton Keynes: Local Economic Assessment Refresh, March 2013 (PDF), Chapter 3. Milton Keynes Council, March 2013
- "Magna Park, Milton Keynes". Gazeley.com. Gazeley Limited. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- "Services to and from Milton Keynes Coachway, Park & Ride" (PDF). National Express Coaches. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Milton Keynes Airport – World-airport-codes.com accessed 9 June 2012
- "THIRD LONDON AIRPORT (ROSKILL COMMISSION REPORT)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 4 March 1971.
- "Google maps". Retrieved 19 February 2019. (Regional scale)
- "Google maps". Retrieved 19 February 2019. (National scale)
- Osborne, Chris. "MK Dons' Dele Alli has the makings of next Steven Gerrard". BBC Sport.
- "Awards & Honours – Professor Christopher B-Lynch (GORSL)". cblynch.co.uk.
- El-Hamamy, E.; b-Lynch, C. (2005). "A worldwide review of the uses of the uterine compression suture techniques as alternative to hysterectomy in the management of severe post-partum haemorrhage". Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 25 (2): 143–149. doi:10.1080/01443610500040752. PMID 15814393.
- "Andrew Baggaley Biography". Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Sam Baldock Biography". Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Errol Barnett profile at CNN.com". Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- Close-up – Movies, Dakota Fanning, Colorado – chicagotribune.com
- "Chris Clarke set for Worlds final – Update GB finish 7th". Milton Keynes Citizen. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Adam Ficek profile". BBC. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- Lewis, Peter (April 2004), "A Total Fighter", Fighters – Kickboxing news, p. 45
- "James Hildreth – profile". Somerset County Cricket Club. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Liam Kelly". 11v11,com. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- James, Huw (5 April 2012). "Death Is Announced of Jim Marshall". Heart FM. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- McLean, Craig (7 January 2007). "21st-century boy". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "TV's Clare says Wrap Up for Winter". NHS Milton Keynes. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Campbell backs Pickering to come good again in 2012". Milton Keynes Citizen. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Sarah Pinborough Interview". omegasapple.com. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Poulter's back in the swing at Woburn". Milton Keynes Citizen. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "MK Dons: Mark Randall signs longer deal". Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "Greg Rutherford – Long Jumper". Bucks Sport. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Buck, Courtney (19 November 2014). "The 405 meets Sakima". The 405. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
- "Join Ancestry". www.ancestry.co.uk.
- "A tribute to the Revd Professor Alan Sell". The United Reformed Church.
- Pearey, Alan (10 January 2019). "Gloucester's Ed Slater – a life less ordinary". Rugby World. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Independent Obituary – Jack Trevor Story". jacktrevorstory.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Hudson, Elizabeth (3 February 2012). "Sam Tomkins targets more trophies with Wigan". BBC. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Douglas, Ian (5 August 2011). "Google backs Bletchley Park restoration project". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "A place called home". BBC. Retrieved 19 February 2019. (born Watford, grew up in Milton Keynes)
- "Kevin WHATELY". Companies House. Retrieved 19 February 2019. lives in Woburn Sands
- "Stars race to honour Dan Wheldon in Milton Keynes". BBC. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Jackson, Jamie (30 March 2008). "From Wimbledon to Winkelman, a crazy new journey". The Observer. London. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- "The Capdown Fansite". Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Fell Silent Milton Keynes Metal Heros". miltonkeynes.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Crescendo: Combined rational and renewable energy strategies in cities, for existing and new dwellings and optimal quality of life". Cordis.europe.eu. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "2006 Maximum". Metoffice.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- Booth, George (2007). "1947 minimum". Weather. 62 (3): 61–68. doi:10.1002/wea.66.
- Rogers, Simon (21 December 2010). "2010 minimum". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- "Climate station map". Met Office. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Woburn 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- Bendixson, Terence; Platt, John (1992). Milton Keynes: Image and reality. Cambridge: Granta Editions. ISBN 978-0906782729.
- Copeland, B. Jack, ed. (2006). Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-284055-4.
- Clapson, Mark (2014). The Plan for Milton Keynes with a foreword by Mark Clapson. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 9780415645003.
- Erskine, Ralph (2011). Breaking German Naval Enigma on Both Sides of the Atlantic. in Erskine & Smith 2011, pp. 165–83
- Erskine, Ralph; Smith, Michael, eds. (2011). The Bletchley Park Codebreakers. Biteback Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84954-078-0. Updated and extended version of Action This Day: From Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer Bantam Press 2001
- Llewelyn-Davies; Weeks; Forestier-Walker; Bor (1970). The Plan for Milton Keynes, Volume 1. Wavendon: Milton Keynes Development Corporation. ISBN 978-0-903379-00-7.
- Morrison, Kathryn. "'A Maudlin and Monstrous Pile': The Mansion at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire" (PDF). English Heritage. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- Woodfield, Paul (1986). A guide to the historic buildings of Milton Keynes. Milton Keynes: Milton Keynes Development Corporation. ISBN 978-0903379052.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Milton Keynes.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Milton Keynes.|