Milwaukee Deep

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Milwaukee Deep is located in Caribbean
Milwaukee Deep
Milwaukee Deep
Location of Milwaukee Deep north of Puerto Rico
Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS
Perspective view of the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Lesser Antilles are on the lower left side of the view and Florida is on the upper right. The purple sea floor at the center of the view is the Puerto Rico trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

Coordinates: 19°35′N 66°30′W / 19.583°N 66.500°W / 19.583; -66.500

Milwaukee Deep, also known as the Milwaukee Depth, is part of the Puerto Rico Trench.[1] Together with the surrounding area, known as Brownson Deep, the Milwaukee Deep forms an elongated depression that constitutes the floor of the trench. As there is no geomorphological distinction between the two, it has been proposed that the use of both names to refer to distinct areas should be reviewed.[2]

The floor of the Puerto Rico Trench constitutes the deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean. During the Five Deeps Expedition, explorer Victor Vescovo achieved the first manned descent to this location. Media outlets overwhelmingly referred to the area as the Brownson Deep,[3][4][5] while the name Milwaukee Deep was used by others.[6] However, likely due to the factors mentioned above, the expedition has not used any particular name to refer to the site of their Atlantic dive.[7] It is named for the USS Milwaukee which was itself named for the city of Milwaukee.

The Puerto Rico Trench has a maximum depth of no more than 8,376 metres (27,480 ft) directly measurement by Vescovo during his 2018 descent to the Atlantic Ocean deepest point.[7] Previously, however, the depth of the Milwaukee Deep (when being used to refer to the Atlantic's deepest point) had been reported by various sources as 8,710 metres (28,580 ft),[8] 8,740 metres (28,670 ft),[2] or 8,750 metres (28,710 ft).[1] It is just 76.0 miles (122.3 km) north of the coast of Puerto Rico at Punto Palmas Altas in Manatí.[9][10]

History[edit]

The ocean floor feature is named for the USS Milwaukee (CL-5), a U.S. Navy Omaha class cruiser, which discovered the Milwaukee Deep on February 14, 1939 with a reading of 28,680 feet (8,740 m).[11][12] On August 19, 1952, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife vessel Theodore N. Gill obtained a reading of 28,560 feet (8,710 m) at (19°36′N 68°19′W / 19.600°N 68.317°W / 19.600; -68.317), virtually identical with the Milwaukee's reading. By then, the existence of deep water to the Atlantic Ocean side of the Caribbean had been known for more than a century.

One of the area's earliest soundings was obtained June 12, 1852 by Lt. S. P. Lee, U.S. Navy brig Dolphin, with a reading of 22,950 feet (7,000 m) at (26°32′N 60°06′W / 26.533°N 60.100°W / 26.533; -60.100).[8]

Crewed descents[edit]

Deep Submersible Support Vessel DSSV Pressure Drop and DSV Limiting Factor at its stern

In 1964, the French submersible Archimede explored the Puerto Rico Trench to a depth of approximately 8,300 metres (27,200 ft) but did not reach its deepest point.[7]

On 21 December 2018 Victor Vescovo made the first manned descent to the deepest point of the trench in the Deep-Submergence Vehicle DSV Limiting Factor (a Triton 36000/2 model submersible) and measured a depth of 8,376 m (27,480 ft) by direct CTD pressure measurements.[7] This made the Limiting Factor the deepest diving operational submersible at the time.[7][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Vaughan, T. Wayland; et al. (1940). "Chart I. - Major Ocean Basins with Depths Exceeding 4000 meters (I-XLV)" (PDF). earthguide.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
  2. ^ a b Stewart, Heather Ann (October 2019). "The five deeps: The location and depth of the deepest place in each of the world's oceans". Earth-Science Reviews. 197:102896: 102896. Bibcode:2019ESRv..19702896S. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102896 – via ResearchGate.
  3. ^ "Exploring the Deepest Points on Planet Earth". hydro-international.com. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  4. ^ "The last of the great explorers, The last of the great explorers". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  5. ^ Raza, Azra (2019-11-10). "The last of the great explorers". 3 Quarks Daily. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  6. ^ "Victor Vescovo record-setting quest to reach the bottom of each ocean". Popular Science. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Atlantic Ocean". Five Deeps Expedition. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  8. ^ a b Lyman, J. (1954-03-18). "The Deepest Sounding in the North Atlantic". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 222 (1150): 334–336. Bibcode:1954RSPSA.222..334L. doi:10.1098/rspa.1954.0075. JSTOR 99222.
  9. ^ "Milwaukee Depth". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 12 October 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/383165/Milwaukee-Depth>.
  10. ^ Bulent Kastarlak (1958). "Low Cost Housing Development with Aided Self-Help Method in Bayamon, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico" (PDF). dspace.mit.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
  11. ^ Vaughn; et al. (1940). "Chapter II: The Earth and its Ocean Basins" (PDF). earthguide.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
  12. ^ Silverstone, Paul (2008). The Navy of World War II: 1922-1947.
  13. ^ "High‐resolution multibeam sonar bathymetry of the deepest place in each ocean". Royal Meteorological Society. 2021-05-05. Retrieved 2021-05-16.