|Group:||Group I (dsDNA)|
Mimiviridae is a family of viruses. Amoeba and other protists serve as natural hosts. The family is divided in 3 subfamilies. Viruses in this family belong to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus clade (NCLDV).
The first member of this family—the Mimivirus—was discovered in 2003.
- One subfamily (Mimivirus) is divided into three "lineages":
- A - Mimivirus group: includes Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus, Samba virus, Mamavirus, Lentille virus
- B - Moumouvirus group: includes Moumouvirus, Monve virus (aka Moumouvirus monve), Moumouvirus goulette, and Ochan virus
- C - Courdo11 virus group: includes Mont1, Courdo7, Courdo11, LBA111, Megavirus chilensis and Terra1.
- The majority of Mimiviridae appear to belong to this subfamily (Mimiviruses)..
- It is sometimes also referred to as Mimiviridae group I.
- The second subfamily (Cafeteriavirus or Mimiviridae group II) includes the Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV).
- The Klosneuvirinae have been proposed as a third subfamily and are divided into four "lineages": Klosneuvirus, Indivirus, Catovirus and Hokovirus.. They seem to be closely related to the Mimivirus subfamily rather than the Cafeteriavirus subfamily (and so might be summarized in Mimivirus group I as well).
Although only a couple of members of this family have been described in detail it seems likely there are many more awaiting description and assignment, For example Terra2, Aureococcus anophagefferens virus (AaV), Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01, and Pyramimonas orientalis virus.
Furthermore, it has been proposed to extend Mimiviridae family by an additional tentative group III (aka OLPG) that may consist of the following:
- Phaeocystis globosa virus (PgV) (represented by PgV-16T strain)
- "Organic Lake Phycodnavirus" 1 and 2 (hosts of Organic Lake virophage)
- "Yellowstone Lake Phycodnavirus" 4 (YSLGV4)
- Chrysochromulina ericina virus (CeV) (e. g. CeV 01)
- Aureococcus anophagefferens virus (AaV)
This group seems to be closely related to Mimiviridae rather than to Phycodnaviridae. The extended Mimiviridae family is sometimes referred to as Megaviridae although this has not been recognized by ICTV.
Viruses in Mimiviridae have icosahedral and round geometries, with between T=972 and T=1141, or T=1200 symmetry. The diameter is around 400 nm, with a length of 125 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 1200kb in length. The genome has 911 open reading frames.
|Genus||Structure||Symmetry||Capsid||Genomic arrangement||Genomic segmentation|
|Mimivirus||Icosahedral||T=972-1141 or T=1200 (H=19 +/- 1, K=19 +/- 1)||Linear||Monopartite|
Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Amoeba serve as the natural host.
|Genus||Host details||Tissue tropism||Entry details||Release details||Replication site||Assembly site||Transmission|
Within the genome of Lentille virus integrated genome of a virophage (Sputnik 2) and a transpoviron—a mobile genetic element—have been reported. Transpovirons are linear DNA elements of about 7 kilobases that encompass six to eight protein coding genes, two of which are homologous to virophage genes. Broad spectrum of mimiviridae virophage allows its isolation using a mimivirus reporter.
Mimiviruses have been associated with pneumonia but their significance if any is currently unknown. The only virus of this family isolated from a human to date is LBA 111. Mimivirus has also been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Mimiviridae|
- "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Schulz, Frederik; Yutin, Natalya; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Ortega, Davi R.; Lee, Tae Kwon; Vierheilig, Julia; Daims, Holger; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael (2017-04-07). "Giant viruses with an expanded complement of translation system components". Science. 356 (6333): 82–85. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.aal4657.
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- Christelle Desnues et al.: Provirophages and transpovirons as the diverse mobilome of giant viruses, in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(44), P. 18078–18083, 2012 Oct 30, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1208835109
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- Weijia Zhang et al.: Four novel algal virus genomes discovered from Yellowstone Lake metagenomes, in: Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 15131 (2015), especially Figure 6, doi: 10.1038/srep15131
- Matthias G. Fischer; Michael J. Allen; William H. Wilson; Curtis A. Suttle (2010). "Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (45): 19508–19513. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719508F. PMC . PMID 20974979. doi:10.1073/pnas.1007615107.
- F. Schulz et al.: , in: Science 356, 82-85, July 4th 2017, UCPMS ID: 1889607, doi: 10.1126/science.aal4657, PDF, especially Fig. 2
- Ghedin E, Claverie JM (2005) Mimivirus relatives in the Sargasso sea. Virol J. 2:62
- Monier A, Claverie JM, Ogata H (2008) Taxonomic distribution of large DNA viruses in the sea. Genome Biol. 9(7):R106.
- Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic, Natalya Yutin: Evolution of double-stranded DNA viruses of eukaryotes: From bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses, in: ResearchGate Literature Review February 2015, doi: 10.1111/nyas.12728, Figure 3
- Natalya Yutin et al.: Mimiviridae: clusters of orthologous genes, reconstruction of gene repertoire evolution and proposed expansion of the giant virus family, in: Virol J. 2013; 10: 106, doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-106
- Blog of Carolina Reyes, Kenneth Stedman: Are Phaeocystis globosa viruses (OLPG) and Organic Lake phycodnavirus a part of the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae?, on ResearchGate, Jan. 8, 2016
- Fumito Maruyama and Shoko Ueki: Evolution and Phylogeny of Large DNA Viruses, Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae Including Newly Characterized Heterosigma akashiwo Virus, in: Front. Microbiol., 30 November 2016, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01942
- Saadi H, Pagnier I, Colson P, Cherif JK, Beji M, Boughalmi M, Azza S, Armstrong N, Robert C, Fournous G, La Scola B, Raoult D (2013) First isolation of Mimivirus in a patient with pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis
- Yoosuf N, Pagnier I, Fournous G, Robert C, La Scola B, Raoult D, Colson P (2013) Complete genome sequence of Courdo11 virus, a member of the family Mimiviridae. Virus Genes
- Shah, N.; Hulsmeier, A. J.; Hochhold, N.; Neidhart, M.; Gay, S.; Hennet, T. (2013). "Exposure to Mimivirus Collagen Promotes Arthritis". Journal of Virology. 88 (2): 838–45. PMC . PMID 24173233. doi:10.1128/JVI.03141-13.