Erythranthe parishii

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Erythranthe parishii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Phrymaceae
Genus: Erythranthe
Species: E. parishii
Binomial name
Erythranthe parishii
(Greene) G.L.Nesom & N.S.Fraga

Erythranthe parishii is a species of monkeyflower known by the common name Parish's monkeyflower. It was formerly known as Mimulus parishii.[1][2][3][4]

It is native to the mountains and hills of the southern half of California, far western Nevada, and northern Baja California, where it grows in wet, sandy habitat such as streambanks.

The flowers primarily self-pollinate, but the species evolved from an out-crossing ancestor similar to E. lewisii.[5] The flower size greatly reduced as the species transitioned to self-pollination through changes in a number of genes that each have a small effect on the size.[5]


Erythranthe parishii is an annual herb growing up to 50 centimeters in maximum height with a stout, hairy stem.[6] The oppositely arranged oval or widely lance-shaped leaves are up to 7.5 centimeters long.

The narrow, tubular base of the flower is encapsulated in a ribbed calyx of sepals with pointed lobes. The five-lobed flower is almost white, often tinged with pink.


  1. ^ Barker, W.R.; Nesom, G.L.; Beardsley, P.M.; Fraga, N.S. (2012), "A taxonomic conspectus of Phrymaceae: A narrowed circumscriptions for Mimulus, new and resurrected genera, and new names and combinations" (PDF), Phytoneuron, 2012-39: 1–60 
  2. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Yen, Alan; Olmstead, R. G. (2003). "AFLP Phylogeny of Mimulus Section Erythranthe and the Evolution of Hummingbird Pollination". Evolution. 57 (6): 1397–1410. JSTOR 3448862. 
  3. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Olmstead, R. G. (2002). "Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma". American Journal of Botany. 89 (7): 1093–1102. JSTOR 4122195. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.7.1093. 
  4. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Schoenig, Steve E.; Whittall, Justen B.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2004). "Patterns of Evolution in Western North American Mimulus (Phrymaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 91 (3): 474–4890. JSTOR 4123743. 
  5. ^ a b Fishman, L.; Beardsley, P.M.; Stathos, A.; Williams, C.F.; Hill, J.P. (2015), "The genetic architecture of traits associated with the evolution of self-pollination in Mimulus", New Phytologist, 205 (2): 907–917, doi:10.1111/nph.13091 
  6. ^ Munz, P.A.; Keck, D.D. (1973), A California Flora, University of California Press, p. 614, ISBN 9780520024052 

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