Minamoto no Yoshitsune

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Yoshitsune by Kikuchi Yōsai
In this Japanese name, the family name is Minamoto.

Minamoto no Yoshitsune (源 義経?, 1159 – June 15, 1189) was a general of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura period. "It is evident that Yoshitsune had a genius for offensive warfare...and although Yoshitsune had no knowledge of naval warfare he had the advantage of an acute strategic insight and a quick eye for tactical chances."[1]:291,301,303

Yoshitsune was the ninth son of Minamoto no Yoshitomo, and the third and final son and child that Yoshitomo would father with Tokiwa Gozen.[2] Yoshitsune's older brother Minamoto no Yoritomo (the third son of Yoshitomo) founded the Kamakura shogunate. Yoshitsune's name in childhood was Ushiwakamaru (牛若丸). Yoshitsune Minamoto (源 義経) is a general of Japan's Heian period who is famously known to have led the expedition which toppled the Ise-Heishi. Despite performing his tasks admirably for his clan, his return home was not welcomed and Yoshitsune perished at the hands of his trusted allies.

Early life[edit]

The fight between Ushiwakamaru and the bandit chief Kumasaka Chohan in 1174. Yoshitsune was only 15 when he defeated the notorious bandit leader.

Yoshitsune was born just before the Heiji Rebellion of 1159 in which his father and two brothers were killed.[1] His life was spared when his mother, Tokiwa, agreed to become Kiyomori's mistress.[3][4] He was put under the care of Kurama Temple (鞍馬寺),[4]:61 nestled in the Hiei Mountains near the capital of Kyoto, while Yoritomo was banished to Izu Province.

In 1174, Yoshitsune was put under the protection of Fujiwara no Hidehira, head of the powerful regional Northern Fujiwara clan in Hiraizumi, Mutsu Province.[1]:325

Career[edit]

A skillful swordsman, he defeated the legendary warrior monk Benkei in a duel. From then on, Benkei became Yoshitsune's right-hand man, eventually dying with him at the Siege of Koromogawa.[4]:62

"Yoshitsune and Benkei Viewing Cherry Blossoms", by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka

In 1180, Yoshitsune heard that Yoritomo, now head of the Minamoto clan, had raised an army at the request of Prince Mochihito to fight against the Taira clan (also known as the Heike) which had usurped the power of the emperor. Yoshitsune shortly thereafter joined Yoritomo, along with Minamoto no Noriyori, all brothers who had never before met, in the last of three conflicts between the rival Minamoto and Taira samurai clans, known as the Genpei War.

Yoshitsune defeated and killed his rival cousin Minamoto no Yoshinaka at the Battle of Awazu[5] in Ōmi Province in March 1184 and then defeated the Taira at the Battle of Ichi-no-Tani in present-day Kobe. In 1185, Yoshitsune defeated the Taira again at the Battle of Yashima in Shikoku and destroyed them at the Battle of Dan-no-ura in present-day Yamaguchi Prefecture.[1]:289–305

Yoshitsune was subsequently named Governor of Iyo.[3]:139

Yoshitsune then joined Minamoto no Yukiie, under imperial orders, in opposing Yoritomo.[1]:316[3]:140–143

Yoshitsune's faithful mistress Shizuka Gozen was captured, carrying his unborn child. Fleeing to the temporary protection of Fujiwara no Hidehira in Mutsu again, Yoshitsune was betrayed, defeated at the Battle of Koromo River, and forced to commit seppuku along with his wife and daughter, by Hidehira's son Fujiwara no Yasuhira.[1]:325–327[3]:146–147,155 Yoshitsune is enshrined in the Shirahata Jinja, a Shinto shrine in the city of Fujisawa.

However the death of Yoshitsune has been very elusive. According to Ainu historical accounts of Yoshitsune's death it is said he did not commit seppuku and instead escaped to Hokkaido and acquired the name of Okikurumi/Oinakamui.[6] Moreover, in Hokkaido the Yoshitsune Shrine[7] is erected in the town of Biratori[8] also known in Ainu as Pira Utur(ピラウトゥル).

Another famous Japanese theory of Yoshitsune's whereabouts after evading death comes from the idea that Yoshitsune made his way past Hokkaido by sailing to the mainland continent of Asia and became Genghis Khan[9][10]

Koshigoe Letter[edit]

The "Koshigoe Letter" was written by Yoshitsune on 6 May 1185 as he waited in Koshigoe for approval from Yoritomo to enter Kamakura This letter was Yoshitsune's "final appeal" to Yoritomo of his loyalty. The letter is a "mixture of bravado and an almost masochistic indulgence in misfortune." An excerpt:[2]:85–86

So here I remain, vainly shedding crimson tears....I have not been permitted to refute the accusations of my slanderers or [even] to set foot in Kamakura, but have been obliged to languish idly these many days with no possibility of declaring the sincerity of my intentions. It is now so long since I have set eyes on His Lordship's compassionate countenance that the bond of our blood brotherhood seems to have vanished.

In literature[edit]

Yoshitsune has long been a popular figure in Japanese literature and culture due to his appearance as the main character in the third section of the Japanese literary classic Heike Monogatari (Tale of the Heike). The Japanese term for "sympathy for a tragic hero", Hōgan-biiki (判官贔屓 lit. Hōgan favor?), comes from Yoshitsune's title Hōgan, which he received from the Imperial Court.

Many of the literary pieces that Yoshitsune appears in are legend rather than historical fact. Legends pertaining to Yoshitsune first began to appear in the fourteenth century. In early works at that time, Yoshitsune was described as a sharp-witted military leader.[11] Then, romantic stories about his early childhood and last years of his life appeared as people began to know more about him. A variety of stories about different stages of his life was widely spread and well known to people in different ages.

The legends that deal with his public career show Yoshitsune as a great, virtuous warrior. He was often shown as kind to those around him and honorable, but he was also shown to be naive.[2]:67,105

A second type of legend that deals with Yoshitsune’s childhood show young Yoshitsune (or Ushiwaka) with heroic qualities. He is portrayed as a brave and skilled swordsman, despite being a young boy. He was also skilled in music and his studies, and was also said to be able to easily sway the hearts of young women. These legends also delve into fantasy more so than the legends about his later life.[11]

Legends which pertain to his time when his brother, Yoritomo, has turned against him, take away some of Yoshitsune’s heroic qualities. He is no longer portrayed as a great warrior, but he retains his knowledge and skills that are valuable in the emperor’s court.[11]

Yoshitsune's escape through the Ataka barrier is the subject of Noh play Ataka and the Kabuki play Kanjinchō.[2]:89–93

The Gikeiki, or "The Chronicle of Yoshitsune" is a later version of the legend of Yishitsune, Benkei and Shizuka.[2]:93–100

Traditional arts[edit]

Statue of Yoshitsune at Dannoura

In addition to The Tale of the Heike and Chronicle of Yoshitsune (Gikeiki), which relates events of Yoshitsune's life after the defeat of the Heike, a great many other works of literature and drama feature him, and together form the sekai ("world") of Yoshitsune, a concept akin to the notion of the literary cycle.

These include:

In the visual arts, Yoshitsune is commonly depicted as a bishōnen, though this is at odds with contemporary descriptions of his appearance.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Sansom, George (1958). A History of Japan to 1334. Stanford University Press. pp. 258–260, 291. ISBN 0804705232. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Morris, Ivan (1975). The Nobility of Failure. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 71–72. ISBN 9780030108112. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Sato, Hiroaki (1995). Legends of the Samurai. Overlook Duckworth. p. 30. ISBN 9781590207307. 
  4. ^ a b c Turnbull, Stephen (1977). The Samurai, A Military History. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 40–41. ISBN 0026205408. 
  5. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1998). The Samurai Sourcebook. Cassell & Co. p. 204. ISBN 1854095234. 
  6. ^ ja:源義経
  7. ^ ja:義経神社#cite ref-1
  8. ^ Biratori, Hokkaido
  9. ^ ja:義経=ジンギスカン説
  10. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GBfTjvZYnsc
  11. ^ a b c McCullough, Helen. Yoshitsune: A Fifteenth-Century Japanese Chronicle. California: Stanford University Press, 1966.

External links[edit]