Mind–body interventions

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Mind–Body Interventions is a term introduced formally in September 2000 by the United States National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), which is among twenty-seven organizations that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to denote one of five domains of medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered part of conventional medicine, and which are consequently considered to be within the purview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine.[1]

The Five Domains of Complementary and Alternative Medicine[edit]

The five domains of Complementary and Alternative Medicine designated by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) are:

  • Alternative Medical Systems or Complete Systems of Therapy and Practice
  • Mind-Body Interventions
  • Biologically Based Systems
  • Manipulative and Body Based Methods
  • Energy Therapies

Defining Mind-Body Interventions[edit]

The NCCIH defines Mind-Body Interventions as those practices that 'employ a variety of techniques designed to facilitate the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms', and include guided imagery, guided meditation and forms of meditative praxis, hypnosis and hypnotherapy, prayer, as well as art therapy, music therapy, and dance therapy.[2]

Mind-Body Interventions in Conventional Medicine[edit]

All Mind-Body Interventions focus on the interaction between the brain, body, and behavior and are practiced with intention to use the mind to alter physical function and promote overall health and well-being.[3][4]

However, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) does not consider Mind-Body Interventions as within the purview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine when there is sufficient scientific evidence for the benefit of such practices along with their professional application in conventional medicine. One such practice that the NCCIH defines as a Mind-Body Intervention because it utilizes the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms, but for which there is sufficient scientific evidence and mainstream application for it to fall outside the purview of Complementary and Alternative Medicine is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.[5]

Alternative Terms for Mind-Body Interventions[edit]

Since 2008, authors documenting research conducted on behalf of the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) have used terms 'Mind and Body Practices' and 'Mind-Body Medicine' interchangeably with 'Mind-Body Interventions' to denote both therapeutic as well as physical and mental rehabilitative practices that 'focus on the relationships between the brain, mind, body, and behavior, and their effect on health and disease.'[6] and have furthermore attested requisite professional competence among those administering such practices, stating that 'mind and body practices include a large and diverse group of procedures or techniques administered or taught by a trained practitioner or teacher'.[7]

List of Mind–body Interventions[edit]

The current list of example Mind-Body Interventions, Mind and Body Practices, or types of Mind-Body Medicine - provided by the NCCIH is as follows:[8][9]

Popularity of Mind-Body Interventions[edit]

Mind-Body Interventions are the most commonly used form of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States,[10][11][12][13][14] with Yoga and Meditation being the most popular forms.[15][16][17][18][19][20]

Evidence for the Efficacy of Mind-Body Interventions[edit]

There are documented benefits of Mind-Body Interventions derived from scientific research firstly into their use in contributing to the treatment a range of conditions including headaches, coronary artery disease and chronic pain; secondly in ameliorating disease and the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and localized physical pain in patients with cancer; thirdly in increasing the perceived capacity to cope with significant problems and challenges; and fourthly in improving the reported overall quality-of-life. In addition, there is evidence supporting the brain and central nervous system's influence on the immune system and the capacity for Mind-Body Interventions to enhance immune function outcomes, including defense against and recovery from infection and disease.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health Collection Development Manual. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 8 October 2003. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  2. ^ Straus, S. E., Expanding Horizons of Healthcare: Five Year Strategic Plan 2001–2005. 25 September 2000. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 01-5001. Online Version Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  3. ^ Elkins, G., Fisher, W., and Johnson, A., Mind–body therapies in integrative oncology. In Current treatment options in oncology, Vol. 11, Nos. 3-4, 2010, pp128-140.
  4. ^ Wieland, L.S., Manheimer E., Berman B.M., Development and classification of an operational definition of complementary and alternative medicine for the Cochrane Collaboration. Alternative therapies in health and medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2011, pp50-59.
  5. ^ US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health Collection Development Manual. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 8 October 2003. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  6. ^ Wahbeh, H., Haywood, A., Kaufman, K., and Zwickey, H., Mind-body medicine and immune system outcomes: a systematic review. The Open Complementary Medicine Journal, Vol. 1, 2009, pp25-34.
  7. ^ Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  8. ^ Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. Online Version. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  9. ^ Straus, S. E., Expanding Horizons of Healthcare: Five Year Strategic Plan 2001-2005. 25 September 2000. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 01-5001. Online Version Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  10. ^ Barnes, P. M., Powell-Griner, E., McFann, K., and Nahin, R. L., Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: Seminars in Integrative Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2002, pp54-71.
  11. ^ Barnes, P. M., Powell-Griner, E., McFann, K., and Nahin, R. L. (2004, June). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Seminars in Integrative Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp54-71.
  12. ^ Ni, H., Simile, C., and Hardy, A. M., Utilization of complementary and alternative medicine by United States adults: results from the 1999 national health interview survey. Medical care, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2002, pp353-358.
  13. ^ Su, D., and Li, L., (2011). Trends in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in the United States: 2002–2007. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2001, 296-310.
  14. ^ Barnes, P. M., Powell-Griner, E., McFann, K., and Nahin, R. L., Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Seminars in Integrative Medicine Vol. 2, No. 2, 2004, pp54-71. WB Saunders.
  15. ^ Ni, H., Simile, C., and Hardy, A. M., Utilization of complementary and alternative medicine by United States adults: results from the 1999 national health interview survey. Medical Care, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2002, pp353-358.
  16. ^ Barnes, P., Powell-Griner, E., McFann, K., and Nahin, R., CDC Advance Data Report 343. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults: United States, 2002. May 27, 2004.
  17. ^ Barnes, P.M., Bloom B., Nahin, R., CDC National Health Statistics Report 12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults and Children: United States, 2007 December 10, 2008.
  18. ^ Clarke, T.C., Black L.I., Stussman B.J., Barnes P.M., and Nahin, R.L., Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, 2002–2012. National Health Statistics Reports 79. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2015.
  19. ^ Black, L.I., Clarke T.C., Barnes, P.M., Stussman B.J., and Nahin, R.L., Use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4-17 years in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2007-2012. National Health Statistics Reports 78. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2015.
  20. ^ Nahin, R. L., Estimates of pain prevalence and severity in adults: United States, 2012. Journal of Pain, Vol. 6, No. 8, 2015, pp769-780.
  21. ^ Ernst, E., Pittler, M.H., Wider, B., and Boddy, K., Mind-body therapies: are the trial data getting stronger? Alternative Therapy in Health and Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2007, pp62–64.
  22. ^ Rutledge, J.C., Hyson, D.A., Garduno, D., Cort, D.A., Paumer, L., and Kappagoda, C. T., Lifestyle modification program in management of patients with coronary artery disease: the clinical experience in a tertiary care hospital. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1999, pp226–234.
  23. ^ Wahbeh H., Elsas, S. M., Oken, B.S., Mind-Body Interventions: applications in neurology. Neurology, Vol. 70, No. 24, 2008, pp2321–2328.
  24. ^ Rutledge, J.C., Hyson, D.A., Garduno, D., Cort, D. A, Paumer, L., and Kappagoda, C. T., Lifestyle modification program in management of patients with coronary artery disease: the clinical experience in a tertiary care hospital. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Vol. 19, No. 4, 1999, pp226–234.
  25. ^ Mundy, E.A,. DuHamel, K.N., Montgomery, G. H., The efficacy of behavioral interventions for cancer treatment-related side effects. Seminars in Clinincal Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2003, pp253–275.
  26. ^ Astin, J. A., Shapiro, S. L., Eisenberg, D. M., and Forys, K. L., Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2003, pp131-147.
  27. ^ Irwin, M. R., Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2008, pp129-139.
  28. ^ Ader, R. and Cohen, N., Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1975, pp333–340.