Mindfulness

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This article is an overview of mindfulness. For other uses, see Mindfulness (disambiguation). For other uses of "sati", see Sati.

Mindfulness is "the intentional, accepting and non-judgemental focus of one's attention on the emotions, thoughts and sensations occurring in the present moment",[1] which can be trained by meditational practices[1] derived from Buddhist anapanasati.[2]

The term "mindfulness" is derived from the Pali-term sati,[3] "mindfulness", which is an essential element of Buddhist practice, including vipassana, satipaṭṭhāna and anapanasati. It has been popularized in the West by Jon Kabat-Zinn with his mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program.[4] Mindfulness is also an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote well-being.[5]

Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people who are experiencing a variety of psychological conditions.[6] Mindfulness practice is being employed in psychology to alleviate a variety of mental and physical conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and in the prevention of relapse in depression and drug addiction.[7] It has gained worldwide popularity as a distinctive method to handle emotions.

Clinical studies have documented the physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness in general, and MBSR in particular. Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adapted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.

Mindfulness meditation[edit]

Mindfulness meditation is practiced sitting with eyes closed, cross-legged on a cushion, or on a chair, with the back straight.[web 1] Attention is put on the movement of the abdomen when breathing in and out,[2] or on the awareness of the breath as it goes in and out the nostrils.[8] As thoughts come up, one returns to focusing on breathing. One passively notices one's mind has wandered, but in an accepting, non-judgmental way. Meditators start with short periods of 10 minutes or so a day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing.[9] Eventually awareness of the breath can be extended into awareness of thoughts, feelings and actions.[8]

Research on the neural perspective of how mindfulness meditation works suggests that it exerts its effects in components of attention regulation, body awareness, emotional regulation and change in perspective of self.[10] Neuroimaging techniques suggest that mindfulness practices such as mindfulness meditation are associated with “changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network and default mode network structures."[11] These neuroplastic findings will lead to future and more in-depth research on treatment of mental health disorders.

A famous exercise, introduced by Kabat-Zinn in his MBSR-program, is the mindful tasting of a raisin,[12] in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully.[13][note 1]

Translations and definitions[edit]

Buddhism[edit]

Mindfulness meditation can be defined in many ways and can be used for a variety of different therapies. When defining mindfulness meditation, it is important to draw upon Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology.[14] It is also important to study the way that mindfulness meditation can be used. In the past, psychological research of mindfulness meditation has primarily been focused on the effects of mindfulness training, usually as a part of a clinical study, and less so on understanding the meaning and expression of mindfulness itself. When studied in the context of other established theoretical treatments of attention and awareness in daily life, it is proven that the practice of mindfulness meditation is more effective than its counterparts. Understanding the true meaning behind mindfulness and the correct ways of expressing and feeling true mindfulness are imperative to its success.[15]

Sati and smṛti[edit]

The Buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. The Abhidhammattha-sangaha, a key abhidharma text from the Theravada tradition, defines sati as follows:

The word sati derives from a root meaning 'to remember,' but as a mental factor it signifies presence of mind, attentiveness to the present, rather than the faculty of memory regarding the past. It has the characteristic of not wobbling, i.e. not floating away from the object. Its function is absence of confusion or non-forgetfulness. It is manifested as guardianship, or as the state of confronting an objective field. Its proximate cause is strong perception (thirasaññā) or the four foundations of mindfulness.[16]

Sati means not only, "moment to moment awareness of present events," but also, "remembering to be aware of something or to do something at a designated time in the future".[note 2] In fact, "the primary connotation of this Sanskrit term [smrti] (and its corresponding Pali term sati) is recollection".[note 2]

Translation[edit]

The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids (1843–1922) first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in sammā-sati "Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind".[17] Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered sammā-sati as "Correct meditation",[18] Davids explained,

sati is literally 'memory' but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 'mindful and thoughtful' (sato sampajâno); and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist."[19]

Alternate translations[edit]

John D. Dunne asserts that the translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish "retention" as the preferred alternative.[20] Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of "sati" as "memory".[21][note 3] The terms sati/smriti have also been translated as:

  • Attention (Jack Kornfield)
  • Awareness
  • Concentrated attention (Mahasi Sayadaw)
  • Inspection (Herbert Guenther)
  • Mindful attention
  • Self-recollection (Jack Kornfield)
  • Recollecting mindfulness (Alexander Berzin)
  • Recollection (Erik Pema Kunsang, Buddhadasa Bhikkhu)
  • Secondary consciousness (Buddhadasa Bhikkhu)[citation needed]
  • Retention
  • Presence (Symran) Dav Panesar[citation needed]

Psychology[edit]

Trait, state and practice[edit]

According to Brown, Ryan, and Creswell, definitions of mindfulness are typically selectively interpreted based on who is studying it and how it is applied. Some have viewed mindfulness as a mental state, while others have viewed it as a set of skills and techniques.[22][23] A distinction can also be made between the state of mindfulness and the trait of mindfulness.[24]

According to David S. Black, whereas "mindfulness" originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and "a capacity attainable only by certain people",[25] scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness.[26][note 4] Black mentions three possible domains:[26]

  1. A trait, a dispositional characteristic (a relatively long lasting trait),[26] a person's tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states;[27]
  2. A state, an outcome (a state of awareness resulting from mindfulness training),[26] being in a state of present-moment awareness;[27]
  3. A practice (mindfulness meditation practice itself)[note 5]
Trait-like constructs[edit]

According to Brown, mindfulness is

A quality of consciousness manifest in, but not isomorphic with, the activities through which it is enhanced."[22][23]

Seven mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs:[28]

  • Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
  • Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI)
  • Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS)
  • Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS)
  • Mindfulness Questionnaire (MQ)
  • Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R)
  • Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS)
State-like phenomenon[edit]

According to Bishop et al., mindfulness is

A kind of nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness in which each thought, feeling, or sensation that arises in the attentional field is acknowledged and accepted as it is".[29]

The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) measures mindfulness as a state-like phenomenon, that is evoked and maintained by regular practice.[28]

Mindfulness-practice[edit]

Mindfulness as a practice is described as:

  • "Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices[30]
  • "Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally"[31]
  • "Bringing one’s complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis"[31]

According to Steven F. Hick, mindfulness practice involves both formal and informal meditation practices, and nonmeditation-based exercises.[32] Formal mindfulness, or meditation, is the practice of sustaining attention on body, breath or sensations, or whatever arises in each moment.[32] Informal mindfulness is the application of mindful attention in everyday life.[32] Nonmeditation-based exercises are specifically used in Dialectical Behavior Therapy and in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. [32]

Two-component model[edit]

In a paper that described a consensus among clinical psychologists on an operational and testable definition, Bishop, Lau, et al. (2004)[33] proposed a two-component model of mindfulness:

The first component involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment. The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward one’s experiences in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance.[33]:232

In this two-component model, self-regulated attention (the first component) "involves bringing awareness to current experience - observing and attending to the changing fields of "objects" (thoughts, feelings, sensations), from moment to moment - by regulating the focus of attention". Orientation to experience (the second component) involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state (i.e. relaxation), but rather to just notice each object that arises in the stream of consciousness.[33]:233

Other usages[edit]

The English term mindfulness already existed before it came to be used in a (western) Buddhist context. It was first recorded as myndfulness in 1530 (John Palsgrave translates French pensée), as mindfulnesse in 1561, and mindfulness in 1817. Morphologically earlier terms include mindful (first recorded in 1340), mindfully (1382), and the obsolete mindiness (ca. 1200).[34]

According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, mindfulness may also refer to "a state of being aware".[web 2] Synonyms for this "state of being aware" are wakefulness,[35][36] attention,[web 3] alertness,[web 4] prudence,[web 4] conscientiousness,[web 4] awareness,[web 2] consciousness,[web 2] observation.[web 2]

Historical development[edit]

Buddhism[edit]

Mindfulness is founded on modern[note 6] vipassana, the training of sati, which means "moment to moment awareness of present events", but also "remembering to be aware of something".[37] It leads to insight into the true nature of reality,[38][not in citation given] namely the three marks of existence, the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self. With this insight, the practitioner becomes a socalled Sotāpanna, a "stream-enterer", the first stage on the path to liberation.[39][40]

According to the great scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids, the doctrine of mindfulness is "perhaps the most important" after the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.[41]

Kabat-Zinn himself refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with the other eminent Transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman:[42]

[The collective experience[note 7] of sages, yogis, and Zen masters] offers a view of the world which is complementary to the predominantly reductionist and materialistic one currently dominating Western thought and institutions. But this view is neither particularly "Eastern" nor mystical. Thoreau saw the same problem with our ordinary mind state in New England in 1846 and wrote with great passion about its unfortunate consequences.[42]

The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were already influenced by western ideas early on. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church,[43][not in citation given] which collaborated with Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) and his Brahmo Samaj.[43] He found that Unitarianism came closest to true Christianity,[43] and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians.[44] This influence worked through on Vivekananda, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west.[45] Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention,[46] which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the Buddhist sutras through English translations from the Pali Text Society.[47] It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the Theosophical Society.[47][48] Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings of D.T. Suzuki, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes.[47][47]

Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR[edit]

In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program at the University of Massachusetts to treat the chronically ill.[49] This program sparked the application of mindfulness ideas and practices in Medicine[50]:230–1 for the treatment of a variety of conditions in both healthy and unhealthy people. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.

Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern World, particularly from Buddhist traditions. One of MBSR's techniques - the "body scan" - was derived from a meditation practice ("sweeping") of the Burmese U Ba Khin tradition, as taught by S. N. Goenka in his Vipassana retreats, which he began in 1976. Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern World, particularly from Buddhist traditions. It has since been widely adapted in secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts.[note 8][note 9]

Popularisation - "Mindfulness Movement"[edit]

Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology.[9] Mindfulness may be seen as a mode of being,[51] and can be practiced outside a formal setting.[52]

Buddhism[edit]

Sati is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path.

Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a 'power' (Pali: bala) which contributes to the attainment of nirvana. This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion (Pali: moha) have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.

Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassana[edit]

Anapanasati is mindfulness of breathing. "Sati" means mindfulness; "ānāpāna" refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The Anapanasati Sutta gives an exposition on this practice.[note 10]

Satipaṭṭhāna is the establishment of mindfulness in one's day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one's body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: paññā, Sanskrit: prajñā).[note 11][not in citation given]

Vipassanā is insight into the true nature of reality,[38][not in citation given] namely the three marks of existence, namely the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self. With this insight, the practitioner becomes a so-called Sotāpanna, a "stream-enterer", the first stage on the path to liberation.[39][40][note 12]

In the Theravadin context, Vipassanā is commonly used as one of two poles for the categorization of types of Buddhist practice, the other being samatha (Pāli; Sanskrit: śamatha).[53] According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation.

Vipassanā-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Theravāda Buddhism meditation practices,[54] which employs vipassanā and ānāpāna meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta.

Samprajaña, apramāda and atappa[edit]

In Buddhist practice, "mindfulness" also includes samprajaña, meaning "clear comprehension" and apramāda meaning "vigilance".[55][note 13] All three terms are sometimes (confusingly) translated as "mindfulness", but they all have specific shades of meaning.

In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan Wallace, Bodhi has described Ven. Nyanaponika Thera's views on "right mindfulness" and sampajañña as follows:

He held that in the proper practice of right mindfulness, sati has to be integrated with sampajañña, clear comprehension, and it is only when these two work together that right mindfulness can fulfill its intended purpose.[56][note 14]

"Bare attention"[edit]

Georges Dreyfus has expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as "bare attention" or "nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness", stressing that mindfulness in Buddhist context means also "remembering", which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information.[57][note 15] Robert H. Sharf notes that Buddhist practice is aimed at the attainment of "correct view", not just "bare attention".[web 5][note 16] Jay Garfield, quoting Shantideva and other sources, stresses that mindfulness is constituted by the union of two functions, calling to mind and vigilantly retaining in mind. He demonstrates that there is a direct connection between the practice of mindfulness and the cultivation of morality – at least in the context of Buddhism from which modern interpretations of mindfulness are stemming.[58]

Therapy programs[edit]

Mindfulness-based stress reduction[edit]

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program[59] developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and yoga to help people become more mindful.[9] In recent years, meditation has been the subject of controlled clinical research.[60] This suggests it may have beneficial effects, including stress reduction, relaxation, and improvements to quality of life, but that it does not help prevent or cure disease.[61] While MBSR has its roots in spiritual teachings, the program itself is secular.[62]

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy[edit]

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a psychological therapy designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with Major depressive disorder (MDD).[63] It uses traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods and adds in newer psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression.[64] Mindfulness and mindfulness meditation, focus on becoming aware of all incoming thoughts and feelings and accepting them, but not attaching or reacting to them.[65] Like CBT, MBCT functions on the theory that when individuals who have historically had depression become distressed, they return to automatic cognitive processes that can trigger a depressive episode.[66] The goal of MBCT is to interrupt these automatic processes and teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming stimuli, and instead accepting and observing them without judgment.[66] This mindfulness practice allows the participant to notice when automatic processes are occurring and to alter their reaction to be more of a reflection. Research supports the effects of MBCT in people who have been depressed three or more times and demonstrates reduced relapse rates by 50%.[67]

Acceptance and commitment therapy[edit]

Acceptance and commitment therapy or (ACT) (typically pronounced as the word "act") is a form of clinical behavior analysis (CBA)[68] used in psychotherapy. It is an empirically-based psychological intervention that uses acceptance and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways[69] with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. The approach was originally called comprehensive distancing.[70] It was developed in the late 1980s[71] by Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson, and Kirk Strosahl.[72]

Dialectical behavior therapy[edit]

Mindfulness is a "core" exercise used in Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with borderline personality disorder. DBT is dialectic, explains Linehan,[73] in the sense of "the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis." As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:

This emphasis in DBT on a balance of acceptance and change owes much to my experiences in studying meditation and Eastern spirituality. The DBT tenets of observing, mindfulness, and avoidance of judgment are all derived from the study and practice of Zen meditations.[74]

Mode Deactivation Therapy[edit]

Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) is a treatment methodology that is derived from the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and incorporates elements of Acceptance and commitment therapy, Dialectical behavior therapy, and mindfulness techniques.[75] Mindfulness techniques such as simple breathing exercises are applied to assist the client in awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of unpleasant and distressing thoughts and feelings as they occur in the present moment. Mode Deactivation Therapy was developed and is established as an effective treatment for adolescents with problem behaviors and complex trauma-related psychological problems, according to recent publications by Jack A. Apsche and Joan Swart.[76]

Other programs[edit]

Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain (McCracken et al. 2007), stress (Grossman et al. 2004), anxiety and depression (Hofmann et al. 2010), substance abuse (Melemis 2008:141-157), and recurrent suicidal behavior (Williams et al. 2006). Bell (2009) gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly family therapy, starting with a discussion of mysticism and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.

Morita therapy

The Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita, who trained in Zen meditation, developed Morita therapy upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment. Since the beginnings of Gestalt therapy in the early 1940s, mindfulness, referred to as "awareness", has been an essential part of its theory and practice.[77]

Adaptation Practice

The British doctor Clive Sherlock developed Adaptation Practice in 1977. Adaptation Practice is a structured programme of self-discipline.[78][79]

Hakomi therapy

Hakomi therapy, under development by Ron Kurtz and others, is a somatic psychology based upon Asian philosophical precepts of mindfulness and nonviolence.[citation needed]

IFS

Internal Family Systems Model (IFS), developed by Richard C. Schwartz, emphasizes the importance of both therapist and client engaging in therapy from the Self, which is the IFS term for one’s "spiritual center". The Self is curious about whatever arises in one’s present experience and open and accepting toward all manifestations.[citation needed]

Positive psychology

Principal researchers belonging to the positive psychology school, including Martin Seligman and Jonathan Haidt, suggest that mindfulness is but one (albeit a major) component of a "repertoire" of disciplines that have been shown to significantly improve "Subjective well-being" (happiness). They recommend a combination of exercise, mindfulness meditation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and, where needed, medication (esp selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).[80]

Mindfulness relaxation

Mindfulness relaxation uses breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.[81]

Scientific research[edit]

Research on the effects of mindfulness has been ongoing over the last twenty or thirty years, with a surge of interest over the last decade in particular.[82][83] According to Khoury, Lecomte and Fortin, mindfulness-based therapies are moderately effective in pre-post studies, superior to some treatments such as psychoeducation, supportive therapy, relaxation, imagery, and art-therapy, but not more effective than traditional cognitive behavioral therapy.[84]

The US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality concluded in 2014 that although "Meditation programs, in particular mindfulness programs, reduce multiple negative dimensions of psychological stress",[85]:vii including anxiety disorder, depression, and perceived stress/general distress,[85]:130 there is:

[N]o effect or insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, and weight. We found no evidence that meditation programs were better than any active treatment (ie, drugs, exercise, and other behavioral therapies).[web 6][note 17][note 18]

"Mindfulness Movement"[edit]

Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology.[9] In this context mindfulness is defined as moment-by-moment awareness of thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment, characterized mainly by "acceptance" - attention to thoughts and feelings without judging whether they are right or wrong. Mindfulness focuses the human brain on what is being sensed at each moment, instead of on its normal rumination on the past or on the future.[86]

The "Mindfulness Movement"[2] has entered the mainstream, mainly through the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn[9] and his Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, launched at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in 1979. Since that time, clinical studies have documented the physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness in general, and MBSR in particular. Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adapted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.

According to Jon Kabat-Zinn the practice of mindfulness may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary.[87] Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins.[88]

Mindfulness has come to be seen as a mode of being,[51] rather than a formal meditation practice, which can be practiced and maintained outside a formal setting.[52]

Schools[edit]

In 2012 Congressman Tim Ryan of Ohio published A Mindful Nation, and has received a $1 million federal grant to teach mindfulness in schools in his home district.[9]

In 2000, The Inner Kids Program, a mindfulness-based program developed for children, was introduced into public and private school curricula in the greater Los Angeles area.[89]

MindUP, a classroom-based program spearheaded by Goldie Hawn's Hawn Foundation, teaches students to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. For the last decade, MindUP has trained teachers in over 1,000 schools in cities from Arizona to Washington.[90]

The Holistic Life Foundation, a non-profit organization that created an in-school mindfulness program called Mindful Moment, is currently serving almost 350 students daily at Robert W. Coleman Elementary School and approximately 1300 students at Patterson Park High School in Baltimore, Maryland. [1] At Patterson High School, the Mindful Moment program engages the school's faculty along with the students during a 15-minute mindfulness practice at the beginning and end of each school day. [2]

Mindful Life Project, a non-profit 501(c)3 based out of Richmond, California, teaches mindfulness to elementary school students in underserved schools in the South Richmond school district. Utilizing Mindful Schools curriculum, “Rise-Up” is a regular school day intervention program serving 430 students weekly, while “Mindful Community” is currently implemented at six South Richmond partner schools.[3] These in-school mindfulness programs have been endorsed by Richmond Mayor Gayle McLaughlin, who has recommended additional funding to expand the program in order to serve all Richmond youth.[4]

Mindfulness meditation has also been incorporated in lower level academics such as elementary and middle schools through a program called Quiet Time that was developed by the David Lynch Foundation. The program involves two 15-minute periods of meditation time a day. The program was piloted in the San Francisco Bay Area of California and was implemented in over 200 schools. The program is school-wide and has been found beneficial in decreasing reports of stress and increasing academic and job performance in students and teachers.[91]

A study enrolled college students in a course about mindfulness that included guided mindfulness meditation as part of the curriculum. After the semester, pre- and post-levels for different aspects of mental health were compared and students were found to have more non-judgmental stances towards their thoughts and feelings. This is believed to result better stress coping skills, improved academic performance and quality of life.[92] Furthermore, scores continued to improve for the weeks following the end of the course, demonstrating the long-lasting effects of mindfulness meditation.

Business[edit]

The effects of mindfulness have been found to be beneficial in a wide range of settings. Most notably, many large corporations have been incorporating practicing mindfulness into their culture. Companies such as Apple, Procter & Gamble, General Mills and many others offer mindfulness coaching, meditation breaks and other resources to their employees.[93] Mindfulness has been found to result in better employee well-being, lower levels of frustration, and an improved overall work environment. Additionally, mindful employees have lower levels of absenteeism, burnout and other negative results.

In the U.S. business world, interest in mindfulness is rising dramatically. This shows in the popular business press, including books such as Awake at Work (Carroll, 2004) and Resonant Leadership: Renewing Yourself and Connecting with Others Through Mindfulness, Hope, and Compassion.[94]

In addition, the website of the University of Massachusetts Medical School Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society and Carroll’s (2007) book, The Mindful Leader, mention many companies that have provided training programs in mindfulness. These include Fortune 500 companies (such as Raytheon, Procter & Gamble, Monsanto, General Mills, and Comcast) and others (such as BASF Bioresearch, Bose, New Balance, Unilever, and Nortel Networks). Executives who “meditate and consider such a practice beneficial to running a corporation”[95] have included the chairman of the Ford Motor Company, Bill Ford, Jr.[page needed]; a managing partner of McKinsey & Co., Michael Rennie; and Aetna International’s former chairman, Michael Stephen. A professional-development program — “Mindfulness at Monsanto” — was started at Monsanto corporation by its CEO, Robert Shapiro.

Law[edit]

Legal and law enforcement organizations are also showing interest in mindfulness:[96]

  • Harvard Law School’s Program on Negotiation hosted a workshop on “Mindfulness in the Law & Alternative Dispute Resolution.”[97]
  • Many law firms offer mindfulness classes.[95]

Prison-programs[edit]

Mindfulness has been taught in prisons, reducing hostility and mood disturbance among inmates, and improving their self-esteem.[98] Additional studies indicate that mindfulness interventions can result in significant reductions in anger, reductions in substance use, increased relaxation capacity, self-regulation and optimism.[99][100]

Government[edit]

Many government organizations offer mindfulness training.[101] Coping Strategies is an example of a program utilized by United States Armed Forces personnel. The British Parliament organised a mindfulness-session for its members in 2014, led by Ruby Wax.[web 7]

Criticism[edit]

Various scholars have criticized how mindfulness has been defined or represented in recent western psychology publications. B. Alan Wallace has stated that an influential definition of mindfulness in the psychology literature (by Bishop et al.[33]) differs in significant ways from how mindfulness was defined by the Buddha and by much of Buddhist tradition.[102] Wallace concludes that

The modern description and practice of mindfulness are certainly valuable, as thousands of people have discovered for themselves through their own practice. But this doesn’t take away from the fact that the modern understanding departs significantly from the Buddha’s own account of sati, and from those of the most authoritative commentators in the Theravada and Indian Mahayana traditions.[102]:62

A 2013 review by Alberto Chiesa[103] in the journal Mindfulness concluded that

According to authors well versed in the original Buddhist literature, from which several MBIs [Mindfulness Based Interventions] are overtly or implicitly derived, modern attempts to operationalize mindfulness have consistently failed to provide an unequivocal definition of mindfulness which takes into account the complexity of the original definitions of mindfulness.... Probably, a more in-depth dialogue between Western researchers concerned with the topic of mindfulness and Eastern and Western long-term mindfulness meditation practitioners will be needed before advances into the understanding of mindfulness within Western psychological theoretical frameworks will be achieved.[103]:265

Eleanor Rosch has stated that contemporary "therapeutic systems that include mindfulness"[note 19] "could as much be called wisdom-based as mindfulness-based."[104]:262 In these therapeutic approaches

Mindfulness would seem to play two roles: as a part of the therapy itself and as an umbrella justification ("empirical") for the inclusion of other aspects of wisdom that may be beyond our present cultural assumptions. Where in this is mindfulness in its original sense of the mind adhering to an object of consciousness with a clear mental focus?[104]:262

William Mikulas, in the Journal of Consciousness Studies, stated that

In Western psychology, mindfulness and concentration are often confused and confounded because, although in the last few years there has been a moderate interest in mindfulness, there has not been a corresponding interest in concentration. Hence, many mindfulness-based programs are actually cultivating both concentration and mindfulness, but all results are attributed to mindfulness.[105]:20

The popularisation of mindfulness as a "commodity"[106] has been criticised, being termed "McMindfulness" by some critics.[web 8][web 9][107] According to Safran, the popularity of mindfulness is the result of a marketing strategy:[106] "McMindfulness is the marketing of a constructed dream; an idealized lifestyle; an identity makeover."[106][108][109]

According to Purser and Loy, mindfulness is not being used as a means to awaken to insight in the "unwholesome roots of greed, ill will and delusion,"[web 8] but reshaped into a "banal, therapeutic, self-help technique" that has the opposite effect of reinforcing those passions.[web 8] While mindfulness is marketed as a means to reduce stress, in a Buddhist context it is part of an all-embracing ethical program to foster "wise action, social harmony, and compassion."[web 8] The privatisation of mindfulness neglects the societal and organisational causes of stress and discomfort, instead propagating adaptation to these circumstances.[web 8] According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, "|[A]bsent a sharp social critique, Buddhist practices could easily be used to justify and stabilize the status quo, becoming a reinforcement of consumer capitalism."[web 8] The popularity of this new brand of mindfulness has resulted in the commercialization of meditation through self-help books, guided meditation classes, and mindfulness retreats.

Related concepts[edit]

Choiceless Awareness[edit]

Main article: Choiceless awareness

Choiceless Awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in mid-20th-century by Jiddu Krishnamurti, in whose philosophy it signifies a main theme. Similar or related concepts had been previously developed in several religious or spiritual traditions; the term or others like it has also been used to describe traditional and contemporary secular and religious meditation practices. However, Krishnamurti's approach to Choiceless Awareness was unique, and differs from both pre-existing and later-developed notions.[citation needed]

Nonviolent Communication[edit]

Nonviolent Communication (abbreviated NVC, also called Compassionate Communication or Collaborative Communication[110][111]) is a communication process developed by Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s.[112] NVC often functions as a conflict resolution process. It focuses on three aspects of communication: self-empathy (defined as a deep and compassionate awareness of one's own inner experience), empathy (defined as listening to another with deep compassion), and honest self-expression (defined as expressing oneself authentically in a way that is likely to inspire compassion in others).

NVC is based on the idea that all human beings have the capacity for compassion and only resort to violence or behavior that harms others when they don't recognize more effective strategies for meeting needs.[113] Habits of thinking and speaking that lead to the use of violence (psychological and physical) are learned through culture. NVC theory supposes all human behavior stems from attempts to meet universal human needs and that these needs are never in conflict. Rather, conflict arises when strategies for meeting needs clash. NVC proposes that if people can identify their needs, the needs of others, and the feelings that surround these needs, harmony can be achieved.[114]

While NVC is ostensibly taught as a process of communication designed to improve compassionate connection to others, it has also been interpreted as a spiritual practice, a set of values, a parenting technique, an educational method and a worldview.

Alexander Technique[edit]

Main article: Alexander Technique

The Alexander Technique is a re-educational, movement based self observational method of unifying body and mind. It can be thought of as active mindfulness, in that fresh choices are presented, assimilated and responded to on receipt of stimulus. By addressing underlying habitual thought patterns, you are given the option of responding in a fresh and constructive manner. John Dewey referred to the practice of Alexander Technique as "thinking in action".

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See also Eating One Raisin: A First Taste of Mindfulness for a hand-out file
  2. ^ a b "The topics of Mind and Life XVIII are human attention, memory, and the mind considered from phenomenological (including contemplative), psychological, and neurobiological perspectives... Furthermore, sustained voluntary attention (samadhi) is closely related to memory, because in order to deliberately sustain one’s attention upon a chosen object, one must continue to remember to do so from moment to moment, faithfully returning back to refocus on that object whenever the mind wanders away from it. Likewise, in Buddhism, the faculty of “mindfulness” (smrti) refers not only to moment-to-moment awareness of present events. Instead, the primary connotation of this Sanskrit term (and its corresponding Pali term sati) is recollection. This includes long-term, short-term, and working memory, non-forgetful, present-centered awareness, and also prospective memory, i.e., remembering to be aware of something or to do something at a designated time in the future. In these ways, from a contemplative perspective, memory is critically linked to attention, and both of these mental faculties have important ramifications for the experiential and phenomenological study of the mind, its training, and potential optimization." - official website for the 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting
  3. ^ "The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning “to remember,” and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.[21]
  4. ^ Black: "[S]everal decades of research methodology and scientific discovery have defrayed these myths; mindfulness is now widely considered to be an inherent quality of human consciousness. That is, a capacity of attention and awareness oriented to the present moment that varies in degree within and between individuals, and can be assessed empirically and independent of religious, spiritual, or cultural beliefs.[25]
  5. ^ "Mindfulness meditation" may refer to either the secular, western practice of mindfulness,[1] or to modern Buddhist Vipassana-meditation.[115][116][117]
  6. ^ Vipassana as taught by teachers from the Vipassana movement is a 19th century development, inspired by and reacting against western modernism.[47][118] See also Buddhist modernism.
  7. ^ The resort to "experience" as the ground for religious truths is a strategy which goes back to Schleiermacher, as a defense against the growing influence of western rationality on the religious life of Europeans in the 19th century. See Sharf (1995), Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience.[118]
  8. ^ "Historically a Buddhist practice, mindfulness can be considered a universal human capacity proposed to foster clear thinking and open-heartedness. As such, this form of meditation requires no particular religious or cultural belief system." - Mindfulness in Medicine by Ludwig and Kabat-Zinn, available at jama.ama-assn.org
  9. ^ "Kabat-Zinn (2000) suggests that mindfulness practice may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary. Thus, Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins (Kabat-Zinn, 1982;Linehan, 1993b)." - Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review by Ruth A. Baer
  10. ^ Majjhima Nikaya (MN), sutta number 118. See Thanissaro, 2006. Other discourses which describe the full four tetrads can be found in the Samyutta Nikaya's Anapana-samyutta (Ch. 54), such as SN 54.6 (Thanissaro, 2006a), SN 54.8 (Thanissaro, 2006b) and SN 54.13 (Thanissaro, 1995a). The one-tetrad exposition of anapanasati is found, for instance, in the Kayagata-sati Sutta (MN 119; Thanissaro, 1997), the Maha-satipatthana Sutta (DN 22; Thanissaro, 2000) and the Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10; Thanissaro, 1995b).
  11. ^ "In short, the contemplative training known as “shamatha” (meditative quiescence) deals with the development and refinement of attention; and this is the basis for “vipashyana” (contemplative insight), which entails methods for experientially exploring the nature of the mind and its relation to the world at large." From a description of the 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting, official webpage,[119]
  12. ^ In Mahayana contexts, it entails insight into what is variously described as sunyata, dharmata, the inseparability of appearance and emptiness (two truths doctrine), clarity and emptiness, or bliss and emptiness.[120]
  13. ^ [I]n Buddhist discourse, there are three terms that together map the field of mindfulness [...] [in their Sanskrit variants] smṛti (Pali: sati), samprajaña (Pali: Sampajañña) and apramāda (Pali: appamada).[55]
  14. ^ According to this correspondence, Ven. Nyanaponika spend his last ten years living with and being cared for by Bodhi. Bodhi refers to Nyanaponika as "my closest kalyāṇamitta in my life as a monk."
  15. ^ Dreyfus concludes his examination by stating: "[T]he identification of mindfulness with bare attention ignores or, at least, underestimates the cognitive implications of mindfulness, its ability to bring together various aspects of experience so as to lead to the clear comprehension of the nature of mental and bodily states. By over-emphasizing the nonjudgmental nature of mindfulness and arguing that our problems stem from conceptuality, contemporary authors are in danger of leading to a one-sided understanding of mindfulness as a form of therapeutically helpful spacious quietness. I think that it is important not to lose sight that mindfulness is not just a therapeutic technique but is a natural capacity that plays a central role in the cognitive process. It is this aspect that seems to be ignored when mindfulness is reduced to a form of nonjudgmental present-centered form of awareness of one’s experiences.[57]
  16. ^ Sharf: "Mahasi’s technique did not require familiarity with Buddhist doctrine (notably abhidhamma), did not require adherence to strict ethical norms (notably monasticism), and promised astonishingly quick results. This was made possible through interpreting sati as a state of "bare awareness" — the unmediated, non-judgmental perception of things "as they are," uninflected by prior psychological, social, or cultural conditioning. This notion of mindfulness is at variance with premodern Buddhist epistemologies in several respects. Traditional Buddhist practices are oriented more toward acquiring "correct view" and proper ethical discernment, rather than "no view" and a non-judgmental attitude."[web 5]
  17. ^ "[M]indfulness-based therapies "did not show superiority for any outcome" when compared to such therapies as exercise, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and medications.[85]:131
  18. ^ See also Linda Heuman (2014), Meditation Nation, TriCycle for an interpretation of these findings.
  19. ^ Rosch (2007) is discussing "the four therapeutic systems that include mindfulness training as a component. These systems are Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1990), Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002; Teasdale &Barnard, 1993), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a,b), and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hays, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999). (See also Baer, 2006; and Hayes, Jacobson, Follette, & Dougher, 1994.) Patients are never just given minimalist mindfulness instructions (such as "Pay bare attention to what comes into your mind") and then left to themselves—for good reason. I know of no cases where anyone has developed a meditation, or even relaxation, practice without considerable input." (p. 261)

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Sources[edit]

Published sources[edit]

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  • Deckersbach, T., Hölzel, B., Eisner, L., Lazar, S.W., Nierenberg, A.A. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-1406-9
  • Didonna, Fabrizio (2008), Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness, Springer Science & Business Media 
  • Gehart, Diane R. (2012), Mindfulness and Acceptance in Couple and Family Therapy, Springer Science & Business Media 
  • Germer, Christopher K. (2005), Mindfulness. What Is It? What does It Matter? In: Christopher K. Germer, Ronald D. Siegel, Paul R. Fulton, "Mindfulness and Psychotherapy", Guilford Press 
  • Germer, C.K. (2009). The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself from Destructive Thoughts and Emotions. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-59385-975-6
  • Germer, C.K., Siegel, R., Fulton, P.R., eds. (2013). Mindfulness and Psychotherapy: Second Edition. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-1137-2
  • Germer, Christopher K., Ronald Siegel, Paul R. Fulton (2005), Mindfulness and Psychotherapy, The Guilford Press, ISBN 1-59385-139-1 ( The use of mindfulness in psychology, and the history of mindfulness )
  • Grossman P., Niemann L., Schmidt S., Walach H. (2004). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis". Journal of Psychosomatic Research 57 (1): 35–43. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7. PMID 15256293. 
  • Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding" Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.
  • Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola (2002). Mindfulness in Plain English. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-906-8
  • Ihnen, Anne; Flynn, Carolyn (2008), The Complete Idiot's Guide to Mindfulness, Penguin 
  • Kabat-Zin, Jon (2000), "Participatory Medicine", Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Veneoroly 14:239-240 
  • Kabat-Zin, Jon (2011), Mindfulness for Beginners: Reclaiming the Present Moment--and Your Life, Sounds True 
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  • Kapleau, Phillip (1989). The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice and Enlightenment. Anchor Books.
  • King, Winston L. (1992), Theravada Meditation. The Buddhist Transformation of Yoga, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 
  • King, Richard (2001), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Taylor & Francis e-Library 
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  • Nyanaponika (1998), Het hart van boeddhistische meditatie (The heart of Buddhist Meditation), Asoka 
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Web-sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Practice

Buddhism

  • Nyanaponika, The Heart of Buddhist Meditation: Satipaṭṭhāna : a Handbook of Mental Training Based on the Buddha's Way of Mindfulness, with an Anthology of Relevant Texts Translated from the Pali and Sanskrit 
  • William Hart (2011), The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation As Taught by S. N. Goenka, Pariyatti

Psychology

  • Didonna, Fabrizio (2008), Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness, Springer Science & Business Media 
  • Amanda Ie, Christelle T. Ngnoumen, Ellen J. Langer (2014), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness (Two Volumes), John Wiley & Sons

Popular

  • Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life. Hyperion Books, 2005. ISBN 1-4013-0778-7
History
  • Wilson, Jeff (2014), Mindful America: Meditation and the Mutual Transformation of Buddhism and American Culture, Oxford University Press 
  • McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276 
Critical

External links[edit]