Eastern Min

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"Mindong" redirects here. For information about the Eastern region of Fujian Province, China, see Fuzhou and Ningde.
Eastern Min
Min Dong
Native to Southern China, Taiwan, Vietnam, United States (chiefly New York City)
Region Eastern Fujian (Fuzhou and Ningde), Matsu; parts of Taishun and Cangnan, Wenzhou, Zhejiang
Native speakers
9.5 million  (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cdo
Glottolog mind1253[2]
Min Dong (violet)
Fuzhou, the center for the Eastern Min dialect group

Eastern Min, or Min Dong (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: 閩東語; pinyin: Mǐndōngyǔ; Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a variety in the Min group.

The variety is mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province in P.R.China, in and near Fuzhou and Ningde. It is also widely encountered as the mother tongue on the Matsu Islands, Republic of China.

Fuzhou is the capital and largest city of Fujian province, so the Fuzhou dialect is considered the standard form of the Eastern Min dialect group, widely cited as the most representative variety.[3]

As this area has been a historical homeland of a large worldwide diaspora of overseas Chinese, varieties of Eastern Min can also be found across the world, especially in their respective Chinatowns. Among cities with high concentrations of such immigrants include New York City,[4] especially Little Fuzhou, Manhattan; Sunset Park, Brooklyn; and Flushing, Queens; various Chinatown communities in Europe, including London, Paris, and Prato in Italy;[5] additionally, in Asia, Ikebukuro in Tokyo,[6] as well as Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

The ISO 639-3 abbreviation for Eastern Min is cdo.

The Eastern Min group is conventionally divided into three branches:[7]

  1. Houguan dialect subgroup (侯官片), including the Fuzhou dialect, Fuqing dialect, Lianjiang dialect and the dialect of the Matsu Islands.
  2. Funing dialect subgroup (福寧片), including the Ningde dialect and the Fu'an dialect.
  3. Mango dialect (蠻講), spoken in parts of Taishun and Cangnan, Wenzhou, Zhejiang.


  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Min Dong Chinese". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ 李如龙 Li Rulong (1994). 福州方言词典 Fuzhou Fangyan Cidian (Rev. 1st edition ed.). Fuzhou: 福建人民出版社 Fujian Renmin Chubanshe. p. 1. ISBN 7211023546. 
  4. ^ Guest, Kenneth J. (2003). God in Chinatown: Religion and Survival in New York's Evolving Immigrant Community ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New York: New York University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0814731546. 
  5. ^ Pieke, Frank. "Research Briefing 4: Transnational Communities" (PDF). Transnational Communities Programme, Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Oxford. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  6. ^ Wong, ed. by Bernard P.; Chee-Beng, Tan (2013). Chinatowns around the world gilded ghetto, ethnopolis, and cultural diaspora. Leiden [etc.]: Brill. p. 251. ISBN 9004255907. 
  7. ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese language(s) : a look through the prism of the great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. p. 71. ISBN 9783110219142. 

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