Carol Dweck

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Carol S. Dweck
Carol Dweck for Innovation documentary.jpg
Carol Dweck speaking for the documentary Innovation: Where Creativity and Technology Meet in 2015
Born (1946-10-17) October 17, 1946 (age 71)
Nationality American
Alma mater Barnard College
Yale University
Scientific career
Fields Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology
Institutions Stanford University
Columbia University
Harvard University
University of Illinois

Carol S. Dweck (born October 17, 1946) is the Lewis and Virginia Eaton Professor of Psychology at Stanford University.[1] Dweck is known for her work on the mindset psychological trait. She graduated from Barnard College in 1967 and earned a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1972. She taught at Columbia University, Harvard University, and the University of Illinois before joining the Stanford faculty in 2004.


Dweck has primary research interests in motivation,[2][3][4][5][6][7] personality, and development. She teaches courses in Personality and Social Development as well as Motivation. Her key contribution to social psychology relates to implicit theories of intelligence, per her 2006 book Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. According to Dweck, individuals can be placed on a continuum according to their implicit views of where ability comes from. Some believe their success is based on innate ability; these are said to have a "fixed" theory of intelligence (fixed mindset). Others, who believe their success is based on hard work, learning, training and doggedness are said to have a "growth" or an "incremental" theory of intelligence (growth mindset). Individuals may not necessarily be aware of their own mindset, but their mindset can still be discerned based on their behavior. It is especially evident in their reaction to failure. Fixed-mindset individuals dread failure because it is a negative statement on their basic abilities, while growth mindset individuals don't mind or fear failure as much because they realize their performance can be improved and learning comes from failure. These two mindsets play an important role in all aspects of a person's life. Dweck argues that the growth mindset will allow a person to live a less stressful and more successful life. Dweck's definition of fixed and growth mindsets from a 2012 interview:

"In a fixed mindset students believe their basic abilities, their intelligence, their talents, are just fixed traits. They have a certain amount and that's that, and then their goal becomes to look smart all the time and never look dumb. In a growth mindset students understand that their talents and abilities can be developed through effort, good teaching and persistence. They don't necessarily think everyone's the same or anyone can be Einstein, but they believe everyone can get smarter if they work at it."[8]

This is important because (1) individuals with a "growth" theory are more likely to continue working hard despite setbacks and (2) individuals' theories of intelligence can be affected by subtle environmental cues. For example, children given praise such as "good job, you're very smart" are much more likely to develop a fixed mindset, whereas if given compliments like "good job, you worked very hard" they are likely to develop a growth mindset. In other words, it is possible to encourage students, for example, to persist despite failure by encouraging them to think about learning in a certain way.

Awards and honors[edit]

Dweck is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences. She received the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association in 2011. On September 19, 2017, the Hong Kong-based Yidan Prize Foundation named Dweck one of two inaugural laureates, to be awarded the Yidan Prize for Education Research, citing her mindset work. The prize includes receipt of approximately US$3.9 million, divided equally between a cash prize and project funding.[9][10][11][12]

Selected publications[edit]

  • Heckhausen, J., & Dweck, C. S. (Eds.). (1998). Motivation and self-regulation across the life span. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
  • Elliot, A. J., & Dweck, C. S. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of competence and motivation. New York: Guilford.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindset: How you can fulfill your potential. Constable & Robinson Limited.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dweck, Carol S. - Department of Psychology, Stanford University
  2. ^ "The words that could unlock your child", BBC News, 19 April 2011.
  3. ^ Mangels, J. A.; Butterfield, B.; Lamb, J.; Good, C.; Dweck, C. (2006). "Why do beliefs about intelligence influence learning success? A social cognitive neuroscience model". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 1 (2): 75–86. PMC 1838571Freely accessible. PMID 17392928. doi:10.1093/scan/nsl013. 
  4. ^ Job, V.; Dweck, C. S.; Walton, G. M. (2010). "Ego Depletion--Is It All in Your Head?: Implicit Theories About Willpower Affect Self-Regulation". Psychological Science. 21 (11): 1686–1693. PMID 20876879. doi:10.1177/0956797610384745. 
  5. ^ Olson, K. R.; Dunham, Y.; Dweck, C. S.; Spelke, E. S.; Banaji, M. R. (2008). "Judgments of the lucky across development and culture". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 94 (5): 757–776. PMC 2745195Freely accessible. PMID 18444737. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.757. 
  6. ^ Dweck, C. S.; Leggett, E. L. (1988). "A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality". Psychological Review. 95 (2): 256–273. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256. 
  7. ^ Dweck, C. S. (1986). "Motivational processes affecting learning". American Psychologist. 41 (10): 1040–1048. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040. 
  8. ^ "Stanford University’s Carol Dweck on the Growth Mindset and Education". 2012-06-19. 
  9. ^ "American Academy of Arts & Sciences Members 1780-Present" (PDF). 2017-09-19. 
  10. ^ "Four APS Fellows Elected to the National Academy of Sciences". 2012-05-02. 
  11. ^ "Stanford professor Carol Dweck, pioneer of ‘mindset’ educational theory, awarded $4 million prize". 2017-09-19. 
  12. ^ "Stanford psychologist recognized with $4 million prize for education research". 2017-09-19. 

External links[edit]