Mineralization (soil science)

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Mineralization in soil science is decomposition or oxidation of the chemical compounds in organic matter into plant-accessible forms.[1][2] Mineralization is the opposite of immobilization.

Carbon to nitrogen ratio[edit]

Whether nitrogen is mineralized or immobilized depends on the Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) ratio of the plant residues.[3] In general plant residues entering the soil have too little nitrogen for the soil microbial population to convert all of the carbon into their cells. If the C:N ratio of the decomposing plant material is above about 30:1 the soil microbial population may take nitrogen in mineral form (e.g. nitrate). This mineral nitrogen is said to be immobilized. This may cause nitrogen deficiency in plants growing in the soil.

As carbon dioxide is released via decomposition the C:N ratio of the organic matter decreases, and the microbial demand for mineral nitrogen is decreased. When the C:N ratio falls below about 25:1 further decomposition results in simultaneous mineralization of nitrogen which is in excess to that required by the microbial population.

When decomposition is virtually complete soil mineral nitrogen will be higher than it was initially due to mineralization of the plant residue nitrogen.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ White, Robert E. (October 2005). Principles and Practice of Soil Science: The Soil as a Natural Resource (4th ed.). Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-632-06455-2.  384 pages
  2. ^ Beare, M. H.; Hendrix, P. F.; Cabrera, M. L.; Coleman, D. C. (1994). "Aggregate-Protected and Unprotected Organic Matter Pools in Conventional- and No-Tillage Soils" (PDF). Soil Science Society of America Journal. Free PDF download. 58 (3): 787. doi:10.2136/sssaj1994.03615995005800030021x. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  3. ^ R.G. McLaren & K. Cameron Soil Science: Sustainable production and environmental protection (2nd edition), Oxford University Press, (1996) ISBN 0-19-558345-0