Type 035 submarine

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Class overview
Name: Ming class
Builders:
Operators:
Preceded by: Type 033 (Romeo-class)
Succeeded by: Type 039 (Song-class)
In commission:
  • Type 035 1974-1990s
  • Type 035A 1982-present
  • Type 035G 1990-present
  • Type 035B 2000-present
Completed:
  • 2 Type 035
  • 4 Type 035A
  • 12 Type 035G
  • 4 Type 035B
Active:
  • 2 Type 035A
  • 11 Type 035G
  • 4 Type 035B
Lost: 1 Type 035G
Retired:
  • 2 Type 035
  • 2 Type 035A
General characteristics
Type: Attack submarine
Displacement: 2,110 tonnes (submerged)[1]
Length: 76 m (249 ft)[1]
Beam: 7.6 m (25 ft)[1]
Draft: 5.1 m (17 ft)[1]
Depth: 7.6 m (25 ft)[1]
Propulsion: Type E390ZC-1 diesel engine, 5,200 horsepower[1]
Speed: 18 knots (33 km/h) (submerged)[1]
Test depth: 300 m (980 ft)[1]
Crew: 57
Armament: 533 mm torpedo tubes[1]

The Type 035 submarine (NATO reporting name: Ming-class) is a class of diesel-electric submarines of the People's Liberation Army Navy. The Type 035 is a heavily improved redesign of the older Type 033 Romeo-class submarine, which were built in China from 1962 to 1984.

Background[edit]

In 1963, under the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, the Soviet Union passed to China the necessary design details in order to produce Romeo-class submarines.[2] The Chinese variant became known as the Type 033 Romeo-class, of which China built a total of 84 between 1962 and 1984.

During 1970s, China's ambition to create an indigenous submarine industry lead to the commissioning of Wuhan Ship Development and Design Institute (701 Institute) to design and build an improved submarine based on the Type 033 hull, named the Type 035 Ming-class.[1] Two Type 035 boats were complete by 1974.[1]

Yet further improvements were deemed necessary and by the early 1980s a new and improved design, named the Type 035A Ming-class were produced.[1] The first of these improved "A" models entered service in 1982, with three more under construction.[1] The latter three boats were completed and commissioned by 1990.[1]

The Type 035G Ming-class is the most numerous variant. A total of 12 were built and commissioned between 1990 and 1999.[1] They were built with further improvements, especially in terms of noise reduction, weapons, sensors and crew living standards. The PLAN refer to this sub-class as, "new wine in an old bottle". Two boats of the Type 035A were upgraded to same standard as the Type 035G.

The most modern design variant is the Type 035B Ming-class, which features a redesigned conning tower and portions of the hull, giving it a very similar appearance to the newer Type 039 submarines. Type 035B are capable of launching land attack cruise missile from their torpedo tubes. A total of four boats were commissioned between 2000 and 2003.[1]

Variants[edit]

  • Type 035: First unit of the Ming class submarine, with construction of 2 units begun simultaneously in October 1969 in Wuchang Shipyard and Jiangnan Shipyard. The general designer was Mr. Wei Xumin (魏绪民). The most significant difference between Type 035 Ming class and Type 033 Wuhan class is that the former is driven by a single shaft instead of twin shafts of the latter. Trials completed in October 1974 and this first unit (original pennant number 162, but later changed to 232) built at Jiangnan Shipyard entered Chinese service in the following month.[3][4]
  • Type 035A: The second unit of the Ming class submarine with pennant number 342 was built at Wuchang Shipyard, and many problems were discovered during its trials. As a result, the Chinese navy ordered 701st Institute to perform a major redesign, which not only solved the problem, but also increased the top speed by 40% to 18.3 kt. The redesigned boat was completed in June 1980, and finally entered Chinese service on December 24, 1982, with a new designation of Type 035A. In December 1983, decision was made to stop the production of new Type 033 class boat and replace it with Type 035A. After the completion of the first Type 035A in 1982, the production of Type 035 briefly halted, until 1987, when the production restarted again and 3 more units were completed before the production ended in 1990.[3][4]
  • ES5C: Export version of Type 035/035A, with updated fire control system to launch acoustic homing torpedoes. There is no known export, but the design was used to upgrade Type 035/035A fleet.[3][4]
  • ES5D: further development of ES5C for export, with capability to launch AShM while submerged added. As with its predecessor ES5C, there's no known export but the design was used to upgrade Type 035/035A fleet.[3][4]
  • Type 035G: Program begun in 1985, and the first unit with pennant number 356 was launched in 1989, entering service in December 1990, and state certification received in 1993. This is the first Type 035 series to have anti-submarine (ASW) capability. The primary weaponry for Type 035G is Yu-3 torpedo, and French sonar DUUX-5 and its Chinese built version were used on later units, 12 of which were completed between 1990 and 1999. The last unit with pennant number 308 was lengthened by 2 meters to add a section for AIP tests.[3][4]
  • ES5E: Export version developed from Type 035G, with ability to launch wire-guided torpedoes added, but there is no known export.[3][4]
  • Type 035ET: French sonar system and its equivalent Chinese version on ES5E export version of Ming was expensive, so a cheaper alternative was developed, using Italian sonar systems, the JP-64 active sonar and Velox passive sonar of Toti-class submarine. However, this failed to attract any buyers and the unit went into Chinese service instead.[3][4]
  • ES5F: Export version with integrated sonar system that integrates previously separated active, passive ranging, flank (and towed upon customer's request) sonar into one.[3][4]
  • Type 035B: First batch of 4 completed between 2000 through 2003, and additional order followed sometimes later. Conning tower and certain portion of hull was redesigned, with new structure similar to that of Type 039 submarine. This type was capable of launching land attack cruise missile from torpedo tubes.[3][4]

Boats of the class[edit]

The following are the pennant numbers of each boat, according to their type:

  • Type 035 Ming-class (ES5C): 232 and 233
  • Type 035A Ming-class: 352, 353 and 354
  • ES5D: 342
  • Type 035G Ming-class (ES5E): 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 305, 306, 307 and 308
  • Type 035B Ming-class (ES5F): 309, 310, 311 and 312

Exports[edit]

  •  Bangladesh Navy - Bangladesh Navy has ordered two off the shelf Type-035G submarines from China in 2013 worth $203 million. The boats underwent refit on China, followed by Bangladesh Navy took delivery on 14th November, 2016 of its first submarines, bought from China. Bangladesh Navy ship names and pennant numbers of the submarines are BNS Nabajatra (S 161) and BNS Joyjatra (S 162) respectively.[5] They have commissioned on 12 March 2017.

The Type 035G-class submarines (Ming-class), were reportedly assembled at the Dalian state’s Liaonan shipyard. The submarines are a class of diesel-electric submarines used by the People’s Liberation Army Navy. They are 76 metres in length and 7.6 metres in width. The primary weaponry for Type 035G is the Yu-3 torpedo. It uses French-made sonar DUUX-5 unit. The 035G-class is also renowned for its anti-submarine weapon capabilities. They were built with further improvements, especially in terms of noise reduction, weapons, sensors and crew living standards. The Type 035G, which is frequently used for coastal patrols, will be especially useful since, after settling maritime border disputes with Myanmar and India, Bangladesh now has about 118,813 sq km of maritime territory. More 6 035G submarines have been ordered by Bangladesh Navy in 2016 which are expected to be delivered by 2018[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Type 035 submarine (in Chinese), haijun360.com, Retrieved 1 May 2015
  2. ^ Korabli VMF SSSR, Vol. 1, Part 2, Yu. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0072-4
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Type 035 derivatives". Retrieved June 27, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Subtypes of Type 035 submarine". Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  5. ^ Navy to get submarines, corvettes, Newage.com
  6. ^ http://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2017/03/12/bangladeshs-first-submarines-commissioned/