Ming conquest of Yunnan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ming conquest of Yunnan
Part of the military conquests of the Ming dynasty
Result Ming victory[1]
Ming dynasty Yuan remnants in Yunnan
House of Duan
Commanders and leaders
Hongwu Emperor
Fu Youde
Lan Yu
Mu Ying
Duan Gong
250,000[2] Thousands of Mongol and Chinese Muslim troops
Casualties and losses
Thousands killed, hundreds of castrations

The Ming conquest of Yunnan was the final phase in the Chinese Ming dynasty expulsion of Mongol Yuan dynasty rule from China in the 1380s.


Muslim troops fought in both the Chinese Ming army and the Yuan Mongol army. 300,000 Han Chinese and Hui Muslim troops were dispatched to crush the Yuan remnants in Yunnan in 1381.

The Ming Chinese Muslim General Fu Youde led the attack on the Mongol and Yuan Muslim forces. Also fighting on the Ming side were Muslim Generals Mu Ying and Lan Yu, who led Ming loyalist Muslim troops against Yuan loyalist Muslims.[3]

The Prince of Liang, Basalawarmi, committed suicide on January 6, 1382, as the Ming dynasty Muslim troops overwhelmed the Yuan Mongol and Muslim forces. The Chinese Muslim troops loyal to the Ming dynasty then flooded Yunnan and colonized it. Mu Ying and his Muslim troops were given hereditary status as military garrisons of the Ming dynasty and remained in the province.[4]

The House of Duan, which have been assigned by the Yuan to govern some parts of Yunnan after the Mongol conquest of Dali, also fought against the Ming army. The ruler Duan Gong refused to surrender by writing to Fu Youdei, making it clear that Dali could only be a tributary to the Ming. Fu Youdei attacked and crushed Duan Gong's realm after a fierce battle. The Duan brothers were taken captive and escorted back to the Ming capital. [5]

The Ming Muslim Generals Lan Yu and Fu Youde castrated 380 captured Mongol and Muslim captives after the war.[6] This led to many of them becoming eunuchs and serving the Ming Emperor.[7] One of the eunuchs was Zheng He.[8]

In western Yunnan and Guizhou, Han Chinese soldiers also crushed local rebellions. The Han then married Han, Miao, and Yao women; their descendants are called "Tunbao", in contrast to newer Han Chinese colonists who moved to Yunnan in later centuries. The Tunbao still live in Yunnan today.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.
  2. ^ Dardess 2012, p. 6.
  3. ^ Tan Ta Sen, Dasheng Chen (2009). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 170. ISBN 981-230-837-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  4. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  5. ^ Du Yuting; Chen Lufan. "Did Kublai Khan's conquest of the Dali Kingdom give rise to the mass migration of the Thai people to the south?" (PDF) (Institute for Asian Studies, Kunming ed.). Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  6. ^ Journal of Asian history, Volume 25. O. Harrassowitz. 1991. p. 127. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
  7. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  8. ^ Shoujiang Mi, Jia You (2004). Islam in China. 五洲传播出版社. p. 37. ISBN 7-5085-0533-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  9. ^ James Stuart Olson (1998). An ethnohistorical dictionary of China. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 340. ISBN 0-313-28853-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.


Dardess, John (2012), Ming China 1368-1644 A Concise History of A Resilient Empire, Roman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.