Ming conquest of Yunnan
|Ming conquest of Yunnan|
|Part of the military conquests of the Ming dynasty|
Yuan remnants in Yunnan|
House of Duan
|Commanders and leaders|
|250,000||Thousands of Mongol and Chinese Muslim troops|
|Casualties and losses|
|Thousands killed, hundreds of castrations|
Muslim troops fought in both the Chinese Ming army and the Yuan Mongol army. 300,000 Han Chinese and Hui Muslim troops were dispatched to crush the Yuan remnants in Yunnan in 1381.
The Ming Chinese Muslim General Fu Youde led the attack on the Mongol and Yuan Muslim forces. Also fighting on the Ming side were Muslim Generals Mu Ying and Lan Yu, who led Ming loyalist Muslim troops against Yuan loyalist Muslims.
The Prince of Liang, Basalawarmi, committed suicide on January 6, 1382, as the Ming dynasty Muslim troops overwhelmed the Yuan Mongol and Muslim forces. The Chinese Muslim troops loyal to the Ming dynasty then flooded Yunnan and colonized it. Mu Ying and his Muslim troops were given hereditary status as military garrisons of the Ming dynasty and remained in the province.
The House of Duan, which have been assigned by the Yuan to govern some parts of Yunnan after the Mongol conquest of Dali, also fought against the Ming army. The ruler Duan Gong refused to surrender by writing to Fu Youdei, making it clear that Dali could only be a tributary to the Ming. Fu Youdei attacked and crushed Duan Gong's realm after a fierce battle. The Duan brothers were taken captive and escorted back to the Ming capital. 
The Ming Muslim Generals Lan Yu and Fu Youde castrated 380 captured Mongol and Muslim captives after the war. This led to many of them becoming eunuchs and serving the Ming Emperor. One of the eunuchs was Zheng He.
In western Yunnan and Guizhou, Han Chinese soldiers also crushed local rebellions. The Han then married Han, Miao, and Yao women; their descendants are called "Tunbao", in contrast to newer Han Chinese colonists who moved to Yunnan in later centuries. The Tunbao still live in Yunnan today.
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