Minichromosome maintenance

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MCM2/3/5 family
PDB 1ltl EBI.jpg
Structure of MCM from archaeal M. Thermoautotrophicum.[1]
Symbol MCM
Pfam PF00493
Pfam clan CL0023
InterPro IPR001208
Potential role of Cdc6 at the initiation of DNA replication.[2]

Minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM) is a eukaryotic DNA helicase complex required for the process of DNA replication, specifically the formation and elongation of the replication fork. It is a hexamer of six related polypeptides (MCM2 through MCM7) that form a ring structure.[3][4][5] MCM is a component of the pre-replication complex that forms at the eukaryotic origin of replication.

Control of MCM activity in the cell is partly achieved by its sumoylation. During cell cycle levels of chromatin-bound MCM sumoylation oscillate, loss of MCM sumoylation occurs immediately before DNA replication[6] Increased expression level of MCM proteins is observed in cells of different cancer types. MCMs could be useful markers of cancer cell proliferation.[7][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Fletcher RJ, Bishop BE, Leon RP, Sclafani RA, Ogata CM, Chen XS (March 2003). "The structure and function of MCM from archaeal M. Thermoautotrophicum". Nat. Struct. Biol. 10 (3): 160–7. doi:10.1038/nsb893. PMID 12548282. 
  2. ^ Borlado LR, Méndez J (February 2008). "CDC6: from DNA replication to cell cycle checkpoints and oncogenesis". Carcinogenesis. 29 (2): 237–43. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgm268. PMID 18048387. 
  3. ^ a b Cortez D, Glick G, Elledge SJ (July 2004). "Minichromosome maintenance proteins are direct targets of the ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (27): 10078–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.0403410101. PMC 454167Freely accessible. PMID 15210935. 
  4. ^ Carpentieri F, De Felice M, De Falco M, Rossi M, Pisani FM (April 2002). "Physical and functional interaction between the mini-chromosome maintenance-like DNA helicase and the single-stranded DNA binding protein from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (14): 12118–27. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200091200. PMID 11821426. 
  5. ^ Brewster, Aaron; Chen, Xiaojiang (June 2010). "Insights into MCM functional mechanism: lessons learned from the archaeal MCM complex". Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 45 (3): 243–256. doi:10.3109/10409238.2010.484836. PMC 2953368Freely accessible. PMID 20441442. 
  6. ^ Baumann, Kim (2016). "DNA replication: SUMO wrestling to get the timing right". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 17 (3): 134–135. doi:10.1038/nrm.2016.15. ISSN 1471-0072. PMID 26882998. 
  7. ^ Valverde, Ludmila de F.; de Freitas, Raíza D.; Pereira, Thiago de A.; de Resende, Marina F.; Agra, Ivan M. G.; Dos Santos, Jean N.; Dos Reis, Mitermayer G.; Sales, Caroline B. S.; Gurgel Rocha, Clarissa A. (2016-06-02). "MCM3: A Novel Proliferation Marker in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma". Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: 1. doi:10.1097/PAI.0000000000000397. ISSN 1533-4058. PMID 27258565. 
  8. ^ Nowinska, Katarzyna; Chmielewska, Magdalena; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Pula, Bartosz; Pastuszewski, Wojciech; Krecicki, Tomasz; Podhorska-Okołow, Marzena; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr (2016-02-01). "Correlation between levels of expression of minichromosome maintenance proteins, Ki-67 proliferation antigen and metallothionein I/II in laryngeal squamous cell cancer". International Journal of Oncology. 48 (2): 635–645. doi:10.3892/ijo.2015.3273. ISSN 1791-2423. PMID 26648405. 

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