Minimum viable product

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A minimum viable product (MVP) is a version of a product with just enough features to be usable by early customers who can then provide feedback for future product development.[1][2]

A focus on releasing an MVP means that developers potentially avoid lengthy and (ultimately) unnecessary work. Instead, they iterate on working versions and respond to feedback, challenging and validating assumptions about a product's requirements.[3] The term was coined and defined in 2001 by Frank Robinson[4] and then popularized by Steve Blank and Eric Ries.[5][6][7][8] It may also involve carrying out market analysis beforehand. The MVP is analogous to experimentation in the scientific method applied in the context of validating business hypotheses, it is utilised so that prospective entrepreneurs would know whether a given business idea would actually be viable and profitable by testing the assumptions behind a product or business idea[9]. The concept can be used to validate a market need for a product[9] and for incremental developments of an existing product[10]. As it tests a potential business model to customers to see how the market would react, it is especially useful for new/startup companies who are more concerned with finding out where potential business opportunities exist rather than executing a prefabricated, isolated business model[11].


A minimum viable product has just enough core features to effectively deploy the product, and no more. Developers typically deploy the product to a subset of possible customers—such as early adopters thought to be more forgiving, more likely to give feedback, and able to grasp a product vision from an early prototype or marketing information. This strategy targets avoiding building products that customers do not want and seeks to maximize information about the customer with the least money spent. The technique falls under the Lean Startup methodology as MVPs aim to test business hypotheses and validated learning is one of the five principles of the Lean Startup method[12]. It contrasts strongly with the traditional "stealth mode" method of product development where businesses make detailed business plans spanning a considerable time horizon. Steve Blank posited that the main principle of the Lean Startup approach rests in validating the hypotheses underlying the product by asking customers if they want the product or if the product meets their needs, and pivoting to another approach if the hypothesis turns out to be false[11]. This approach to validating business ideas cheaply before substantial investment saves costs and limits risk as businesses that upon experimentation turn out to be commercially unfeasible can easily be terminated. It is especially important as the main cause of startup failure is the lack of market need[13], that is, many startups fail because their product isn't needed by many people, and so they cannot generate enough revenue to recoup the initial investment. Thus it can be said that utilising an MVP would illuminate a prospective entrepreneur on the market demand for their products.

An example would help illustrate: in 2015, specialists from the University of Sydney devised the Rippa robot to automate farm and weed management[14]. Before it was released, the underlying hypothesis that the robot's systems can detect weeds from farm plants was tested before the robot project can undergo further development[15]. The application of the MVP method here is that the business hypothesis (that the robot can detect weeds) is tested on a farm, and only if it proves successful will the robot proceed to further development.

"The minimum viable product is that version of a new product a team uses to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort."[2] The definition's use of the words maximum and minimum means it is not formulaic. It requires judgement to figure out, for any given context, what MVP makes sense. Due to this vagueness, the term MVP is commonly used, either deliberately or unwittingly, to refer to a much broader notion ranging from a rather prototype-like product to a fully-fledged and marketable product.[16]

An MVP can be part of a strategy and process directed toward making and selling a product to customers.[17] It is a core artifact in an iterative process of idea generation, prototyping, presentation, data collection, analysis and learning. One seeks to minimize the total time spent on an iteration. The process is iterated until a desirable product/market fit is obtained, or until the product is deemed non-viable.

Steve Blank typically refers to minimum viable product as minimum feature set.[18][19]


  • Be able to test a product hypothesis with minimal resources
  • Accelerate learning
  • Reduce wasted engineering hours
  • Get the product to early customers as soon as possible
  • Base for other products
  • To establish a builder's abilities in crafting the product required
  • Brand building very quickly

Key MVP elements[edit]

An MVP must include these key elements in production quality:[20]

  • Functionality - the set of features must deliver clear value to the user,
  • Design - the design of the MVP must be up to the highest industry standard,
  • Reliability - production quality standard needs to be achieved by rigorous testing,
  • Usability - the MVP must be easy to use and intuitive,


  • Results from a minimum viable product test aim to indicate if the product should be built to begin with. Testing evaluates if the initial problem or goal is solved in a manner that makes it reasonable to move forward.

Notable quotes[edit]

  • Steve Blank: "You’re selling the vision and delivering the minimum feature set to visionaries, not everyone."[18]


Releasing and assessing the impact of a minimum viable product is a market testing strategy that is used to screen product ideas soon after their generation. In software development, the release is facilitated by rapid application development tools and languages common to web application development.

The whole point of MVP is to make quick working project or ready business. Using MVP companies can build more accurate market predictions and attract new investments.

The MVP differs from the conventional market testing strategy of investing time and money early to implement a product before testing it in the market. The MVP is intended to ensure that the market wants the product before large time and monetary investments are made. The MVP differs from the open source software methodology of release early, release often that listens to users, letting them define the features and future of the product. The MVP starts with a product vision, which is maintained throughout the product life cycle, although it is adapted based on the explicit and implicit (indirect measures) feedback from potential future customers of the product.[2]

The MVP is a strategy that may be used as a part of Blank's customer development methodology that focuses on continual product iteration and refinement based on customer feedback. Additionally, the presentation of non-existing products and features may be refined using web-based statistical hypothesis testing, such as A/B testing.

Business Model Canvas[edit]

The Business Model Canvas is used to map in the major components and activities for a company starting out. The minimum viable product can be designed by using selected components of the Business Model Canvas:[21]

  • Customers
  • Value proposition
  • Channels
  • Relationship

Emerging applications[edit]

Concepts from minimum viable product are applied in other aspects of startups and organizations.

Minimum viable brand (MVB)[edit]

Using a minimum viable brand (MVB) concept can ensure brand hypotheses are grounded in strategic intent and market insights.[22]

Minimum viable co-founder[edit]

Finding other people to create a minimum viable product is a common challenge for new companies and startups. The concept of minimum viable co-founder is based on looking for a co-founder with the following attributes:[23]

  • Trust
  • Exceptional at building or selling
  • Company commitment
  • Personally likeable
  • Productivity
  • Reasonable
  • Rational
  • Realistic

Minimum viable team[edit]

Founders with an early-stage company are faced with the challenge of building a team with minimal people and cost. The process starts by listing out basic functions of a particular company (e.g., engineer, operations, finance) and then stripping down to the abstract job activities and skills that the company must have to operate.[24][25]


Some research has showed that early release of an MVP may hurt a company more than help when companies risk imitation by a competitor and have not established other barriers to imitation.[26] It has also indicated that negative feedback on an MVP can negatively affect a company's reputation.[26] Many developers of mobile and digital products are now criticizing the MVP because customers can easily switch between competing products through platforms (e.g. app stores).[27] Also, products that do not offer the expected minimum standard of quality are inferior to competitors that enter the market with a higher standard.

A notable limitation of the MVP is rooted in its approach that seeks out to test their ideas to the market. Since the business' new product ideas can be inferred from their testing, the method may be unsuited to environments where the protection of intellectual property is limited (and where products are easily imitated)[28].

The criticism of the MVP approach has led to several new approaches, e.g. the Minimum Viable Experiment MVE,[29] the Minimum Awesome Product MAP,[30] or the Simple, Lovable, Complete.[31]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "What is a Minimum Viable Product (MVP)? - Definition from Techopedia".
  2. ^ a b c Ries, Eric (August 3, 2009). "Minimum Viable Product: a guide".
  3. ^ "MVP: A maximally misunderstood idea". Slalom. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  4. ^ "SyncDev methodology". SyncDev. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  5. ^ W. S. Junk, "The Dynamic Balance Between Cost, Schedule, Features, and Quality in Software Development Projects", Computer Science Dept., University of Idaho, SEPM-001, April 2000.
  6. ^ Eric Ries, March 23, 2009, Venture Hacks interview: "What is the minimum viable product?", Lessons Learned
  7. ^ Perfection By Subtraction – The Minimum Feature Set
  8. ^ Holiday, Ryan The single worst marketing decision you can make The Next Web. 1 April 2015
  9. ^ a b "A Minimum Viable Product Is Not a Product, It's a Process: Building Product, Experimentation, MVP". YC Startup Library. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  10. ^ "The Scientific Method for Startups: Building Product, Experimentation, KPI". YC Startup Library. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  11. ^ a b Blank, Steve (2013-05-01). "Why the Lean Start-Up Changes Everything". Harvard Business Review (May 2013). ISSN 0017-8012. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  12. ^ "Eric Ries on 'The Lean Startup'". Knowledge @ Wharton.
  13. ^ "Why Startups Fail: Top 20 Reasons l CB Insights". CB Insights Research. 2019-11-06. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  14. ^ "Rippa robot takes farms forward to the future". The University of Sydney. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  15. ^ admin (2018-07-26). "RIPPA The Farm Robot Exterminates Pests And Weeds". agronomybots. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  16. ^ Ambler, Scott (2017-12-27). "Defining MVP, MMF, MMP, and MMR". The Disciplined Agile (DA) Framework. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  17. ^ Radoff, Jon (May 4, 2010). "Minimum Viable Product rant". Jon Radoff's Internet Wonderland. Archived from the original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  18. ^ a b Blank, Steve (March 4, 2010). "Perfection By Subtraction – The Minimum Feature Set".
  19. ^ Lenarduzzi, Valentina; Taibi, Davide (August 2016). MVP Explained: A Systematic Mapping Study on the Definitions of Minimal Viable Product. 2016 42nd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA). Cyprus. pp. 112–119. doi:10.1109/SEAA.2016.56.
  20. ^ "MVP - what is it and why is it crucial for your business?". Pixelfield blog. 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  21. ^ Kromer, Tristan (April 15, 2014). "The Four Parts of a Minimal Viable Product". Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
  22. ^ "Start-Ups Need a Minimum Viable Brand". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 2017-09-20.
  23. ^ Shah, Darmesh (October 5, 2011). "Choosing A Minimally Viable Co-Founder".
  24. ^ Kromer, Tristan (October 11, 2011). "A Minimum Viable Team is More Important than a Minimum Viable Product".
  25. ^ O'Donnell, Charlie (August 22, 2012). "Minimum Viable Team".
  26. ^ a b "The Limitations of Lean Startup Principles". Knowledge@Wharton, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. 28 September 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  27. ^ Beneyto, Carlos (February 5, 2018). "The MVP is dead, long life to the MAP. (Minimum Awesome Product)".
  28. ^ Contigiani, Andrea. "The Downside of Applying Lean Startup Principles". Knowledge @ Wharton.
  29. ^ "Death to the Minimum Viable Product! | Lean User Testing". January 11, 2019.
  30. ^ fluidmobile GmbH (January 22, 2019). "Minimum Awesome Product in der App-Entwicklung".
  31. ^ Cohen, Jason (22 Aug 2017). "I hate MVPs. So do your customers. Make it SLC instead".