During the Han dynasty, the title became written with the different characters 司徒 (pinyin: sītú), which is translated variously as Minister over the Masses or Excellency over the Masses. It was one of the three most important official posts during the Han dynasty, called the Three Excellencies. The nominal salary for the post was 20,000 shi (石) of grain.
The title is the origin of the surname Situ.
- Bielenstein, Hans (1980). The Bureaucracy of Han Times. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-22510-6.
- de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23 – 220 AD). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
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