Ministry of Education (Spain)

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Ministry of Education and Vocational Training
Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional
Logotipo del Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional.svg
Ministerio de Educación de España (Madrid) 02.jpg
Headquarters of the Ministry of Education
Agency overview
FormedMarch 31, 1900; 119 years ago (1900-03-31) (as Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts)
June 7, 2018 (as Ministry of Education and Vocational Training)
Preceding agency
TypeMinistry
JurisdictionSpanish government
Headquarters36, Alcalá Street
Madrid, Spain
Employees13,247 (2018)[note 1][1]
Annual budget2.4 billion (2019)[2]
Minister responsible
Agency executives
Child agencies
  • State School Council
  • Superior Council of Artistic Teaching
  • State Observatory for School Coexistence
WebsiteMinistry of Education (in Spanish)

The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MEFP) is the department of the Government of Spain responsible for proposing and carrying out the government policy on education and vocational training, including all the teachings of the education system except university education, without prejudice to the competences of the National Sports Council in matters of sports education. Likewise, it is also the responsibility of this Department the promotion of cooperation actions and, in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the promotion of international relations in the field of non-university education.[3]

The Education in Spain is established as a decentralized system in which the regions has powers over the basic and secondary education while the central government establishes the general basis of the system and it is responsible for the tertiary education. [4]Currently, the Education Ministry has not authority over universities because it is responsible of the Ministry of Science. As of 2018, there are more than 550,000 school teachers and more than 7,000 university professors.[1]

The MEFP is headed by the Minister of Education, who is appointed by the King of Spain at request of the Prime Minister, after hearing the Council of Ministers. The Minister is assisted by the Secretary of State for Education and Vocational Training and the Under Secretary of Education. In addition, in order to coordinate the education system exists the Sectoral Conference on Education that is composed by the Education Minister and the Regional Ministers of Education.[5]

From June 2018 the current minister is Isabel Celaá, from the Spanish Socialist Workers Party.[6]

History[edit]

Early period[edit]

The Ministry of Education was created during the regency of Maria Christina of Austria by 1900 Budget Act.[7] However, the government policy on education appeared time before. Section 369 of the Constitution of 1812 created the Directorate-General for Studies for the Inspection of Public Teaching.[8] Thirteen years later the Directorate-General for Studies acquired the name of Inspectorate-General for Public Instruction and, in 1834 it recovers its original denomination. The Royal Decree of May 13, 1846, change its name to Directorate-General for Public Instruction.

It depended on many departments, going through the Secretariat of the Dispatch of Grace and Justice under the reign of Ferdinand VII; the Secretariat of the Dispatch of Development (later called of the Interior) in 1832 with powers on public instruction, universities, economic societies, schools, Royal Academies, Primary Schools and Conservatories of Art and music; the Secretariat of the Dispatch of the Governance of the Realm in 1835 and Secretariat of the Dispatch of Commerce, Instruction and Public Works in 1847.

Since 1855, these responsibilities returned to the Ministry of Development and stayed that way until 1900. During this 45 years, the Directorate-General for Public Instruction assumed powers on Culture and it was divided in offices: universities; high schools; basic schools; archives, libraries and museums; fine arts and development; Accounting and the Intellectual and Industrial Property Bulletin.[9]

Late period[edit]

Antonio García Alix, first Minister of Education.

In 1900, the Ministry of Development split into two ministries, being one of them the Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts. This ministry, that would maintain its denomination until the Civil War, it was driven by prime minister Francisco Silvela who appointed Antonio García Alix as the first Education Minister. PM Silvela had assumed the office a year before and after the disaster of the 1898, it was needed a cut of the government expenditure.

In order to comply with this, in April Silvela reshuffled the Cabinet suppressing the Ministry of Overseas[10] —which lost the sense of its existence after the loss of the last colonies— and the Ministry of Development, creating in its place the Ministry of Public Instruction and of Agriculture.

With the premiership of the Count of Romanones it would begin to shape a model of Ministry with timid regenerationist airs.[11] Initially, it had four sections: Universities and Institutes; First Teaching and Normal Schools; Fine arts; and Civil Constructions and Special Schools, whose work consisted in the promotion of public and private education in its different classes and degrees, the promotion of science and letters, Fine Arts, Archives, Libraries and Museums. It was also part of the ministry the Directorate-General for the Geographical and Statistical Institute.[12]

Throughout those years, the Department widened its structure, with the creation of the Directorate-General for Primary Education (1911) and the Directorate-General for Fine Arts (1915). It was also at this time that the current headquarters were built on Alcalá Street 36 in Madrid.

In Second Republic, the Department assumed the competence on Vocational Training (until then dependent of Labour) and the Directorate-General for Technical and Superior Education is created. Briefly, between May 1937 and March 1939, the ministry merged with the Ministry of Health.[13] After the victory of Franco, the Franco regime change its name to Ministry of National Education and the Department assumed the management of the Spanish and Maria Guerrero theaters, through the so-called National Council of Theaters, which in 1951 was ceded to the newly created Ministry of Information and Tourism.

During this period, the Spanish National Research Council was also created within the Ministry. Through Law 35/1966, of May 31, the Department changed its name to Ministry of Education and Science, which would last three decades. According to statements by the education minister Manuel Lora-Tamayo, it was intended, following recommendations of the Council of Europe and the OECD, to enhance the scientific and research work of the Spanish Administration and put it in direct relation with the tertiary education. An Undersecretariat for Higher Education and Research was also created.

Democracy[edit]

During the reign of Juan Carlos I, the Spanish transition to democracy started and started the specialization of the Administration by creating new ministries for specific work areas. In this sense, in 1977 the Ministry of Culture was created assuming the Directorate-General for Artistic and Cultural Heritage. In 1979 it was created the Ministry of Universities and Research assuming those functions but was suppressed in 1981. In 1990, the National Sports Council was integrated in the Ministry.

After 1996, both Education and Culture merge again and it was created the Secretariats of State for Universities, Research and Development and for Culture, as well as the General Secretariat for Education and Vocational Training. However, under the second term of José María Aznar (2000-2004), Education loses the research competences for the benefit of the new Ministry of Science and Innovation.

In 2004, the new government of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero recovered the classic name of the Ministry of Education and Science. Again, Culture acquires ministerial rank and Science and Research return to Education. Only for four years, because in 2008 the Ministry of Science and Innovation was created assuming the responsibilities on University Education and Science. In return, the Ministry of Education is assigned the competence on Social Policy. This situation is maintained for one year: In 2009 the functions on tertiary education are returned to Education and the Social Policy goes to Health.

In the first government of Mariano Rajoy, since December 22, 2011, the Ministry of Education is merged again with Culture in the new Department of Education, Culture and Sport.[14] After the motion of no confidence against Rajoy of 2018 and the formation of the new government of Pedro Sanchez in June 2018, the Ministry again broke away from Culture and also loses competences on universities, in favor of the Ministry of Science. It is now called the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training.[3]

Structure[edit]

Isabel Celaá, current Education Minister.

The current structure of the Department of Education is:[3]

  • The Secretariat of State for Education and Vocational Training.
    • The Directorate-General for Evaluation and Territorial Cooperation.
    • The Directorate-General for Vocational Training.
    • The Directorate-General for Educational Planning and Management.
  • The Undersecretariat of Education and Vocational Training.
    • The Technical General Secretariat.
    • The Budget Office.
    • The Administrative Office.
    • The Deputy Directorate-General for Personnel.
    • The Deputy Directorate-General for Information and Communications Technologies.
    • The Inspectorate-General of Services.

List of Ministers[edit]

Period Took office Left office Name Party
Regency of
María Cristina

for Alfonso XIII
(1885–1902)
April 18, 1900 March 6, 1901 Antonio García Alix (1)
March 6, 1901 March 19, 1902 Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres (1)
Reign of
Alfonso XIII
(1902–1923)
May 17, 1902 December 6, 1902 Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres (1) Liberal
December 6, 1902 July 20, 1903 Manuel Allendesalazar y Muñoz (1) Conservador
July 20, 1903 December 5, 1903 Gabino Bugallal Araújo (1) Liberal
December 5, 1903 December 16, 1904 Lorenzo Domínguez Pascual (1) Conservador
December 16, 1904 June 23, 1905 Juan de la Cierva y Peñafiel (1)
June 23, 1905 October 31, 1905 Andrés Mellado y Fernández (1) Liberal
October 31, 1905 December 1, 1905 Manuel de Eguilior y Llaguno (1) Liberal
December 1, 1905 June 9, 1906 Vicente Santamaría de Paredes (1) Liberal
June 9, 1906 July 6, 1906 Alejandro San Martín y Satrústegui (1) Liberal
July 6, 1906 November 30, 1906 Amalio Gimeno y Cabañas (1)
November 30, 1906 December 4, 1906 Pedro Rodríguez de la Borbolla (1)
December 4, 1906 January 25, 1907 Amalio Gimeno y Cabañas (1)
January 25, 1907 October 21, 1909 Faustino Rodríguez San Pedro (1)
October 21, 1909 February 9, 1910 Antonio Barroso Castillo (1) Liberal
February 9, 1910 June 9, 1910 Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres (1)
June 9, 1910 January 2, 1911 Julio Burell y Cuéllar (1) Liberal
January 2, 1911 April 3, 1911 Amós Salvador Rodrigáñez (1)
April 3, 1911 March 12, 1912 Amalio Gimeno y Cabañas (1)
March 12, 1912 December 31, 1912 Santiago Alba Bonifaz (1)
December 31, 1912 June 13, 1913 Antonio López Muñoz (1)
June 13, 1913 October 27, 1913 Joaquín Ruiz Jiménez (1) Liberal
October 27, 1913 December 11, 1914 Francisco Bergamín García (1)
January 4, 1915 October 25, 1915 Saturnino Esteban Miguel y Collantes (1)
October 25, 1915 December 9, 1915 Rafael Andrade Navarrete (1)
December 9, 1915 April 20, 1917 Julio Burell y Cuéllar (1) Liberal
April 20, 1917 June 11, 1917 José Francos Rodríguez (1)
June 11, 1917 November 3, 1917 Rafael Andrade Navarrete (1)
November 3, 1917 March 2, 1918 Felipe Rodés Baldrich (1)
March 2, 1918 March 21, 1918 Luis Silvela Casado (1)
March 23, 1918 October 10, 1918 Santiago Alba Bonifaz (1)
October 10, 1918 November 9, 1918 Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres (1)
November 9, 1918 December 5, 1918 Julio Burell y Cuéllar (1) Liberal
December 5, 1918 April 15, 1919 Joaquín Salvatella Gisbert (1)
April 15, 1919 July 19, 1919 César Silió y Cortés (1)
July 19, 1919 December 12, 1919 José del Prado Palacio (1) Conservador
December 12, 1919 May 5, 1920 Natalio Rivas Santiago (1)
May 5, 1920 September 1, 1920 Luis Espada Guntín (1)
September 1, 1920 December 29, 1920 Vicente Cabeza de Vaca (1)
December 29, 1920 March 12, 1921 Tomás Montejo y Rica (1)
March 12, 1921 August 13, 1921 Francisco Aparicio y Ruiz (1)
August 14, 1921 April 1, 1922 César Silió y Cortés (1)
April 1, 1922 November 8, 1922 Tomás Montejo y Rica (1)
November 8, 1922 December 5, 1922 César Silió y Cortés (1)
Dictadura de
Primo de Rivera
(1923–1931)
December 3, 1925 January 28, 1930 Eduardo Callejo de la Cuesta (1)
January 28, 1930 February 24, 1930 Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart y Falcó (1)
February 24, 1930 February 18, 1931 Elías Tormo y Monzó (1)
February 18, 1931 April 14, 1931 José Gascón y Marín (1)
II Republic
(1931–1939)
April 14, 1931 December 16, 1931 Marcelino Domingo Sanjuán (1) PRRS
December 16, 1931 June 12, 1933 Fernando de los Ríos Urruti (1) PSOE
June 12, 1933 September 12, 1933 Francisco Barnés Salinas (1) PRRS
September 12, 1933 December 16, 1933 Domingo Barnés Salinas (1) Indep.
December 16, 1933 March 3, 1934 José Pareja Yébenes (1) PRR
March 3, 1934 April 28, 1934 Salvador de Madariaga Rojo (1) Indep.
April 28, 1934 December 29, 1934 Filiberto Villalobos González (1) PLD
December 29, 1934 April 3, 1935 Joaquín Dualde Gómez (1) PLD
April 3, 1935 May 6, 1935 Ramón Prieto Bances (1) Indep.
May 6, 1935 September 25, 1935 Joaquín Dualde Gómez (1) PLD
September 25, 1935 October 29, 1935 Juan José Rocha García (1) PRR
October 29, 1935 December 14, 1935 Luis Bardají López (1) PRR
December 14, 1935 December 30, 1935 Manuel Becerra Fernández (1) PRR
December 30, 1935 February 19, 1936 Filiberto Villalobos González (1) PCNR
February 19, 1936 May 13, 1936 Marcelino Domingo Sanjuán (1) IR
May 13, 1936 July 19, 1936 Francisco Barnés Salinas (1) IR
July 19, 1936 July 19, 1936 Marcelino Domingo Sanjuán (1) IR
July 19, 1936 September 4, 1936 Francisco Barnés Salinas (1) IR
September 4, 1936 May 17, 1937 Jesús Hernández Tomás (1) PCE
May 17, 1937 April 5, 1938 Jesús Hernández Tomás (2) PCE
April 5, 1938 April 1, 1939 Segundo Blanco González (2) CNT
Francoism
(1936–1975)
October 3, 1936 January 30, 1938 José María Pemán Pemartín (3)
January 30, 1938 August 9, 1939 Pedro Sainz Rodríguez (4)
August 9, 1939 July 18, 1951 José Ibáñez Martín (4)
July 18, 1951 February 16, 1956 Joaquín Ruiz-Giménez Cortés (4)
February 16, 1956 July 10, 1962 Jesus Rubio García-Mina (4)
July 10, 1962 April 18, 1968 Manuel Lora-Tamayo Martín (4)
April 18, 1968 June 9, 1973 José Luis Villar Palasí (6)
June 9, 1973 January 3, 1974 Julio Rodríguez Martínez (5)
January 3, 1974 December 12, 1975 Cruz Martínez Esteruelas (5)
Reign of
Juan Carlos I
(1975– )
December 12, 1975 July 5, 1976 Carlos Robles Piquer (5)
July 5, 1976 July 4, 1977 Aurelio Menéndez Menéndez (4)
July 4, 1977 February 25, 1978 Íñigo Cavero Lataillade (4) UCD Cst. (Suárez)
February 25, 1978 April 6, 1979 Íñigo Cavero Lataillade (5) UCD
April 6, 1979 September 9, 1980 José Manuel Otero Novas (5) UCD I (Suárez)
September 9, 1980 February 26, 1981 Juan Antonio Ortega (5) UCD
February 26, 1981 December 2, 1981 Juan Antonio Ortega (6) UCD I (Calvo-Sotelo)
December 2, 1981 December 2, 1982 Federico Mayor Zaragoza (5) UCD
December 3, 1982 July 12, 1988 José María Maravall (5) PSOE II • III • IV
(González)
July 12, 1988 June 24, 1992 Javier Solana Madariaga (5) PSOE
June 24, 1992 July 12, 1993 Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba (5) PSOE
July 13, 1993 July 3, 1995 Gustavo Suárez Pertierra (5) PSOE V (González)
July 3, 1995 May 5, 1996 Jerónimo Saavedra (5) PSOE
May 6, 1996 January 20, 1999 Esperanza Aguirre (7) PP VI (Aznar)
January 20, 1999 April 27, 2000 Mariano Rajoy Brey (7) PP
April 28, 2000 April 17, 2004 Pilar del Castillo (8) PP VII (Aznar)
April 18, 2004 April 7, 2006 María Jesús San Segundo (5) PSOE VIII (Zapatero)
April 7, 2006 April 13, 2008 Mercedes Cabrera (5) PSOE
April 14, 2008 April 7, 2009 Mercedes Cabrera (9) PSOE IX (Zapatero)
April 7, 2009 December 22, 2011 Ángel Gabilondo Pujol (4) Indep.
December 22, 2011 June 26, 2015 José Ignacio Wert (8) Indep. XXIXII
(Rajoy)
Reign of
Felipe VI
(2014– )
June 26, 2015 June 1, 2018 Íñigo Méndez de Vigo (8) PP
June 7, 2018 Incumbent Isabel Celaá (10) PSOE XII (Sánchez)

Since the reign of Alfonso XIII, the current Ministry of Education has successively been known by the following titles:

  • Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts (1900–1937) (1).
  • Ministry of Public Instruction and Health (1937–1939) (2).
  • Commission of Culture and Education of the Technical Board of the State (1936–1938) (3).
  • Ministry of Education (1938–1968, 1976–1978, 2009–2011) (4).
  • Ministry of Education and Science (1973–1976, 1978–1981, 1981–1996, 2004–2008) (5).
  • Ministry of Education and University (1968–1973, 1981) (6).
  • Ministry of Education and Culture (1996–2000) (7).
  • Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (2000–2004, 2011–2018) (8).
  • Ministry of Education, Social policy and Sport (2008–2009) (9).
  • Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (2018- ) (10).

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b Statistical Bulletin of the personnel at the service of the Public Administrations (PDF). Ministry of Territorial Policy and Civil Service. 2018. pp. 27 and 46.
  2. ^ "State General Budget for 2018 carried over to 2019 - Ministry of Education" (PDF).
  3. ^ a b c "Royal Decree 1045/2018, of August 24, by which the basic organic structure of the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training is developed". boe.es. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  4. ^ "A guide to education in Spain". Expat Guide to Spain | Expatica. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  5. ^ "Composición y funcionamiento". www.educacionyfp.gob.es (in Spanish). Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  6. ^ Vera, Joaquín (June 8, 2018). "Los cinco retos de Isabel Celaá, la nueva ministra de Educación y FP". El Español (in Spanish). Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  7. ^ "Instituto de Formación del Profesorado, Investigación e Innovación Educativa (IFIIE) - Gobierno de España - Ministerio de Educación". web.archive.org. November 8, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  8. ^ "Instituto de Formación del Profesorado, Investigación e Innovación Educativa (IFIIE) - Gobierno de España - Ministerio de Educación". web.archive.org. November 8, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  9. ^ "Instituto de Formación del Profesorado, Investigación e Innovación Educativa (IFIIE) - Gobierno de España - Ministerio de Educación". web.archive.org. November 8, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  10. ^ "Corporate Body - Ministerio de Ultramar (España)". PARES. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  11. ^ Cien años de educación en España: en torno a la creación del Ministerio de Instrucción Pública y Bellas Artes. Fundación BBVA and MECyD. 2001. pp. 183–195. ISBN 8436934296.
  12. ^ "Instituto de Formación del Profesorado, Investigación e Innovación Educativa (IFIIE) - Gobierno de España - Ministerio de Educación". web.archive.org. November 8, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  13. ^ "Corporate Body - Ministerio de Instrucción Pública y Sanidad (España)". PARES. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  14. ^ "Royal Decree 1823/2011, of December 21, by which the ministerial departments are restructured". www.boe.es. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  1. ^ Spain has 555,951 school and high school teachers although they depend from the regional educational administrations. The university employees and professors are 157,111

External links[edit]