Ministry of Interior (Italy)

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Ministry of the Interior
Ministero dell'Interno
Emblem of Italy.svg
Agency overview
Formed 1861
Jurisdiction Government of Italy
Headquarters Palazzo del Viminale
Viminale Square, 1 - Rome
Minister responsible
Website http://www.interno.gov.it/

The Ministry of Interior (Italian: Ministero dell'Interno) is a government agency of Italy, headquartered in Rome.[1] It is cabinet-level ministry of the Italian Republic. As of 12 December 2016, Marco Minniti is the minister.

Responsibilities[edit]

The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for internal security and the protection of the constitutional order, for civil protection against disasters and terrorism, for displaced persons and administrative questions. It is host to the Standing Committee of Interior Ministers and also drafts all passport, identity card, firearms, and explosives legislation.

The Ministry of the Interior is political authority for the administration of internal affairs. It controls the State police, the Vigili del Fuoco, and the prefects (it). The minister herefore sits on the High Council of Defence.

The main functions of the ministry are declared in the Executive Order No. 300, promulgated on the 30th of July 1999[2] and are as follows:

  • Ensuring the regular organisation of the elected organs of the local entities and their correct functioning, regulating local finances and electoral services, looking after vital records and registry offices, and collaborating with local entities;
  • Protection of public order and security and co-ordination of the police forces;
  • General administration and general representation of the government in its territories;
  • Protection of civil rights, including religious belief, citizenship, immigration, and asylum.

Currently, the Ministry's duties and powers are regulated by the Presidential decrees of 5 June 1976, no. 676 and 7 September 2001 no. 398.

Organisation[edit]

The following departments, directorates, special commissions, and other offices and secretariats of the Ministry of Interior are as follows:

Departments[edit]

  • Department of Public Security (Dipartimento della Pubblica sicurezza)
  • Department for Internal and Territorial Affairs (Dipartimento per gli Affari interni e territoriali)
  • Department for Civil Liberty and Immigration (Dipartimento per le Libertà civili e l'Immigrazione)
  • Department of Firefighters, Public Assistance, and Civil Defence (Dipartimento dei Vigili del fuoco, del Soccorso pubblico e della Difesa civile)
  • Department of Civil Administration Policies, Equipment, and Financial Resources (Dipartimento per le Politiche del personale dell'amministrazione civile e per le Risorse strumentali e finanziarie)

Collegial Bodies[edit]

  • National Committee for Order and Public Safety (Comitato nazionale dell'ordine e della sicurezza pubblica)
  • Council of Administration (Consiglio di amministrazione)

Offices for the Direction of Collaboration[edit]

  • Cabinet of Administration (Gabinetto Ministro)
  • Office of Legislative Affairs and Parliamentary Relations (Ufficio affari legislativi e relazioni parlamentari)
  • Independent Organisation for the Valuation of Performance (Organismo indipendente di valutazione della performance)
  • Office of the Spokesman for the Ministry (Portavoce del ministro)
  • Press and Communications Office (Ufficio stampa e comunicazione)

Secretariats[edit]

  • Secretariat of the Minister of Interior (Segreteria del ministro)
  • Secretariat of the Deputy Minister of Interior (Segreteria del viceministro)
  • Office of the Secretaries of the Secretariat (Segreterie dei sottosegretari)

Special Commissions[edit]

  • Special Commission for Anti-Racketing and Anti-Usury (Commissario straordinario antiracket e antiusura)
  • Special Commission for Missing Persons (Commissario straordinario per le persone scomparse)
  • Coordinating Commission of Solidarity for Victims of Mafia Crimes (Commissario per il coordinamento delle iniziative di solidarietà per le vittime dei reati di tipo mafioso)

History[edit]

Palazzo delle Segreterie, in Turin; first seat of the Ministry of the Interior of the Italian State (until 1865) and now the headquarters of the Prefecture

The Ministry of the Interior was among the oldest ministries of the Kingdom of Sardinia. It experienced a notable growth in responsibilities from 1861, as a result of the Unification of Italy. As a result of the absence of any kind of Head of Government from the Albertine Statute, the Ministry of the Interior had priority over the Presidency of the Council from the beginning. During the establishment of the unitary state, the Minister of the Interior represented a strongly centralised model of state, desired by the Piedmontese statesmen in order to strengthen the state which they saw as excessively diverse. Along with the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of the Interior was one of the two pillars on which Italian national unity was built.

The functions of the Ministry were executed by a system of prefectures, based on the French model, with provincial seats whose authority derived from the central government. The attributes of the prefect were intended by the liberal Historical Right government to unify Italy. It was Minister Bettino Ricasoli who initiated this policy of marked centralisation in 1861 with the "Decrees of October." In the first decades of the Kingdom of Italy's existence, the Prefectures gave the government tight control over local affairs, representing the central government locally. In many areas of Italy, the Prefectures were the only offices of the central government.

Palazzo Medici Riccardi, in Florence, seat of the Ministry from 1865 to 1871; now seat of the provincial government

The ministry was reorganised in 1870 by Minister Giovanni Lanza and again in 1874 and 1877, under the first government of the left-wing of the Liberal Party. During these years, the Ministry acquired control of the police (separate from the judicial police), prisons, and social policing (meaning offices of public health). Towards the end of the 19th century, Minister Francesco Crispi strengthened the ministry and the prefectures. Subsequently, Minister Antonio di Rudinì decentralised some functions, entrusting various roles to the prefectures which had previously been the responsibility of the Ministry itself.

Under Giovanni Giolitti, in the early twentieth century, the Ministry became the key means of state action. It exercised watchful and strict control over the comuni and provinces, especially in matters of public order. In the arena of public health, it enforced a rationalisation of health laws in 1913, with the so-called "Sanitary Codex". In the social sphere, the prefectures were called upon to mediate in labour conflicts and improve working conditions, in collaboration with the government labour office, and to "municipalise" essential services like tramlines, streetlighting, kindergartens, etc. In this area too, their powers and administrative role expanded.

Although the Ministry continued its ordinary role in maintaining security, order and health during the First World War, its overall structure was not significantly modified. With the rise of Italian Fascism, there was little change. An exception is Law no.1601 of 3 December 1922, which transferred the General Directorate of Prisons and Rehabilitation to the Ministry of Mercy, Justice, and Worship. In general, Benito Mussolini controlled the ministry personally, but it progressively lost its guiding role in the administration of the state.

Palazzo Braschi in Rome, seat of the Ministry of the Interior from 1871 to 1925, now the site of a museum.

In 1931, the General Directorate of Support for Worship and of Support for Charity and Religion of the City of Rome, as well as the General Directorate of Religious Affairs, which had previously belonged to the Ministry of Mercy and Justice, were entrusted to the Ministry of the Interior. These offices are still part of the Ministry of the Interior.

After the fall of Fascism, institutional changes resulted from the creation of the Republic of Italy. The main theme of these changes was the increased decentralisation of power to the Regions and the progressive transfer of competencies from the Ministry of the Interior to them over the course of the 1960s.

The main role of the Ministry also changed, or rather reverted to the role it had had under Giolitti decades earlier. Its role in social protection was reinforced and, along with the Ministry of Labour it played a key role in welfare politics, providing support to the socially disadvantaged and guaranteeing protection in the event of disaster.

The important sphere of public health was removed from the control of the Ministry in 1958, with the institution of the Ministry of Health. With the creation of the Ministry for Cultural Assets and Environments, the Ministry of the Interior lost control of the Archive of State (it). In the 1980s, the Department of Civil Protection was created, which is headed by an independent Minister without portfolio, but is based on the organisation of the Ministry

There was also a reorganisation of the centralised structure of the Ministry and the number of General Directorates declined from even to five. Moreover, with Law no. 121/1981, the Polizia di Stato was reformed and transformed from the General Directorate of Public Security into a Department. This anticipated the future departmental structure of the ministry as a whole.

In the 1990s, the Bassanini Reforms (it) involved a complex process of reorganisation of the administrative structure of the Ministry. In particular, Decree Law no.300/1999 dealt with the creation of a departmental structure for the Ministry. Additionally, the prefecture system was overhauled and they were renamed "Government Territorial Prefecture Offices." Since the completion of these reforms, the Ministry has had authority over "general" administration, including relationships between centre and periphery, and particularly for the protection of fundamental functions and the security of citizens.

Headquarters[edit]

The Ministry of the Interior has been based in Rome at the Palazzo del Viminale since 1925. Before that, the Ministry, as well as the office of the Prime Minister, were based at the Palazzo Braschi. The Viminale was commissioned in 1911 by Giovanni Giolitti. The architect was Manfredo Manfredi, who was instructed to design a fitting structure for a government headquarters. The Viminale was officially inaugurated on 9 July 1925. The building has five stories and hundreds of rooms linked by a series of hallways. Notable aspects include the imposing triple arched entrance of the Palazzo della Presidenza, the staircase of honour of the Palazzo degli Uffici, the chamber of the Council of Ministers, and entrance to the stairway leading to the piano nobile, with wooden, marble, and stucco decoration.

In 1961, the headquarters of the Office of Prime Minister was separated from the Ministry of thee Interior and transferred to Palazzo Chigi, where it remains today.

Italian Ministers of Interior[edit]

Kingdom of Italy[edit]

Parties
  • 1861–1900:

  Historical Right   Historical Left

  • 1900–1922:

  Liberals   Radical Party   Reform Socialist Party   Military

  • 1922–1943:

  National Fascist Party (sole legal party)

  • 1943–1946:

  Liberal Party   Christian Democracy   Labour Democratic Party   Action Party   Socialist Party   Independent

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of office Political Party
Riccio G. - ritratto di Marco Minghetti.jpg Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
17 March 1861 1 September 1861 Historical Right
Bettino Ricasoli.jpg Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
1 September 1861 3 March 1862 Historical Right
Urbano Rattazzi-lookingleft.jpg Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
3 March 1862 8 December 1862 Historical Left
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Ubaldino Peruzzi
(1822–1891)
8 December 1862 27 September 1864 Historical Left
Bettino Ricasoli.jpg Giovanni Lanza
(1810–1882)
27 September 1864 1 September 1865 Historical Right
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Giuseppe Natoli
(1815–1867)
1 September 1865 4 December 1865 Historical Right
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Desiderato Chiaves
(1825–1895)
15 December 1865 20 June 1866 Historical Right
Bettino Ricasoli.jpg Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
29 June 1866 10 April 1867 Historical Right
Urbano Rattazzi-lookingleft.jpg Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
10 April 1967 27 October 1867 Historical Left
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Filippo Antonio Gualtiero
(1819–1874)
27 October 1867 17 January 1868 Historical Right
Carlo Cadorna iii.jpg Carlo Cadorna
(1809–1881)
17 January 1868 10 September 1868 Historical Right
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Gerolamo Cantelli
(1815–1884)
10 September 1868 13 May 1869 Historical Right
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Luigi Ferraris
(1813–1900)
13 May 1869 22 October 1869 Historical Right
Rudini.jpg Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì
(1839–1908)
22 October 1869 14 December 1869 Historical Right
Bettino Ricasoli.jpg Giovanni Lanza
(1810–1882)
14 December 1869 9 July 1873 Historical Right
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Gerolamo Cantelli
(1815–1884)
10 July 1873 25 March 1876 Historical Right
Giovanni Nicotera.jpg Giovanni Nicotera
(1826–1894)
26 March 1876 26 December 1877 Historical Left
Francesco Crispi.jpg Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
26 December 1877 7 March 1878 Historical Left
Agostino Depretis.jpg Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
7 March 1878 28 March 1878 Historical Left
Giuseppe Zanardelli iii.jpg Giuseppe Zanardelli
(1826–1903)
28 March 1878 19 December 1878 Historical Left
Agostino Depretis.jpg Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
19 December 1878 14 July 1879 Historical Left
Exposition universelle de 1900 - portraits des commissaires généraux-Tommaso Villa.jpg Tommaso Villa
(1832–1915)
14 July 1879 25 November 1879 Historical Left
Agostino Depretis.jpg Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
25 November 1879 4 April 1887 Historical Left
Francesco Crispi.jpg Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
4 April 1887 6 February 1891 Historical Left
Giovanni Nicotera.jpg Giovanni Nicotera
(1826–1894)
9 February 1891 5 May 1892 Historical Left
Giovanni Giolitti.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 May 1892 28 November 1893 Historical Left
Francesco Crispi.jpg Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
15 May 1892 28 November 1893 Historical Left
Rudini.jpg Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì
(1839–1908)
9 March 1896 29 June 1898 Historical Right
Luigi Pelloux.png Luigi Pelloux
(1839–1924)
29 June 1898 23 June 1900 Military
Luigi Pelloux.png Giuseppe Saracco
(1821–1907)
24 June 1900 14 February 1901 Liberals
Giovanni Giolitti.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 February 1901 20 June 1903 Liberals
Giuseppe Zanardelli iii.jpg Giuseppe Zanardelli
(1826–1903)
21 June 1903 2 November 1903 Liberals
Giovanni Giolitti.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
3 November 1903 15 March 1905 Liberals
Tommaso Tittoni 01.jpg Tommaso Tittoni
(1855–1931)
15 March 1905 27 March 1905 Liberals
Alessandro Fortis.jpg Alessandro Fortis
(1842–1909)
28 March 1905 7 February 1906 Liberals
Sidney sonnino.jpg Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
8 February 1906 29 May 1906 Liberals
Giovanni Giolitti.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
30 May 1906 10 December 1910 Liberals
Sidney sonnino.jpg Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
11 December 1909 31 March 1910 Liberals
Luigi Luzzatti.jpg Luigi Luzzatti
(1841–1927)
1 April 1910 29 March 1911 Liberals
Giovanni Giolitti.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
30 March 1911 20 March 1914 Liberals
Antonio Salandra.png Antonio Salandra
(1853–1931)
21 March 1914 18 June 1916 Liberals
VittorioEmanuelleOrlando28379v cropped.jpg Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
(1860–1952)
19 June 1916 23 June 1919 Liberals
Francesco Saverio Nitti.jpg Francesco Saverio Nitti
(1868–1953)
24 June 1919 15 June 1920 Radical Party
Giovanni Giolitti.jpg Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 June 1920 4 July 1921 Liberals
Ivanoe Bonomi portrait.png Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
4 July 1921 26 February 1922 Reform Socialist Party
FACTA Luigi.gif Luigi Facta
(1861–1930)
26 February 1922 1 August 1922 Liberals
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Paolino Taddei
(1860–1925)
1 August 1922 31 October 1922 Liberals
Mussolini biografia.jpg Benito Mussolini
(1883–1945)
31 October 1922 17 June 1924 National Fascist Party
Luigi Federzoni-Pd-italy-132.jpg Luigi Federzoni
(1878–1967)
17 June 1924 6 November 1926 National Fascist Party
Mussolini biografia.jpg Benito Mussolini
(1883–1945)
6 November 1926 25 July 1943 National Fascist Party
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Bruno Fornaciari
(1881–1959)
26 July 1943 25 July 1943 Independent
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Umberto Ricci
(1878–1957)
9 August 1943 11 February 1944 Independent
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Vito Reale
(1883–1953)
11 February 1944 17 April 1944 Italian Liberal Party
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Salvatore Aldisio
(1890–1964)
22 April 1944 8 June 1944 Christian Democracy
Ivanoe Bonomi portrait.png Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
18 June 1944 19 June 1945 Labour Democratic Party
Ferruccio Parri.jpg Ferruccio Parri
(1890–1981)
21 June 1945 8 December 1945 Action Party
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg Giuseppe Romita
(1887–1958)
10 December 1945 14 July 1946 Italian Socialist Party

Italian Republic[edit]

Parties
  • 1946-1993:

  Christian Democracy

  • Since 1994:

  Lega Nord   Democratic Party of the Left   The Olive Tree   Forza Italia   New Centre-Right   Independent   Democratic Party

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of office Political Party
Alcide de Gasperi 2.jpg Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
13 July 1946 2 February 1947 Christian Democracy
Mario Scelba.jpg Mario Scelba
(1901–1991)
2 February 1947 16 July 1953 Christian Democracy
Amintore Fanfani.jpg Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
16 July 1953 18 January 1954 Christian Democracy
Giulio Andreotti, ca 1987.jpg Giulio Andreotti
(1919-2013)
18 January 1954 10 February 1954 Christian Democracy
Mario Scelba.jpg Mario Scelba
(1901–1991)
10 February 1954 6 July 1955 Christian Democracy
Fernando Tambroni-1.jpg Fernando Tambroni
(1901–1963)
6 July 1955 15 February 1959 Christian Democracy
Antonio Segni (1891-1972).jpg Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
15 February 1959 23 March 1960 Christian Democracy
Emblem of Italy.svg Giuseppe Spataro
(1897–1978)
23 March 1960 26 July 1960 Christian Democracy
Mario Scelba.jpg Mario Scelba
(1901–1991)
26 July 1960 21 February 1962 Christian Democracy
Paolo Emilio Taviani.jpg Paolo Emilio Taviani
(1912–2001)
21 February 1962 21 June 1963 Christian Democracy
Mariano Rumor-1.jpg Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
21 June 1963 4 December 1963 Christian Democracy
Paolo Emilio Taviani.jpg Paolo Emilio Taviani
(1912–2001)
4 December 1963 24 June 1968 Christian Democracy
Franco Restivo.jpg Franco Restivo
(1911–1976)
24 June 1968 17 February 1972 Christian Democracy
Mariano Rumor-1.jpg Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
17 February 1972 7 July 1973 Christian Democracy
Paolo Emilio Taviani.jpg Paolo Emilio Taviani
(1912–2001)
7 July 1973 23 November 1974 Christian Democracy
Emblem of Italy.svg Luigi Gui
(1914–2010)
23 November 1974 12 February 1976 Christian Democracy
Aldo Moro headshot.jpg Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
12 February 1976 29 July 1976 Christian Democracy
Cossiga Francesco.jpg Francesco Cossiga
(1928–2010)
29 July 1976 11 May 1978 Christian Democracy
Giulio Andreotti, ca 1987.jpg Giulio Andreotti
(1919-2013)
11 May 1978 13 June 1978 Christian Democracy
Virginio Rognoni.jpg Virginio Rognoni
(1924- )
13 June 1978 4 August 1983 Christian Democracy
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro 3.jpg Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
(1918-2012)
4 August 1983 28 July 1987 Christian Democracy
Amintore Fanfani.jpg Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
28 July 1987 13 April 1988 Christian Democracy
Antonio Gava.jpg Antonio Gava
(1930–2008)
13 April 1988 16 October 1990 Christian Democracy
Emblem of Italy.svg Vincenzo Scotti
(1933- )
16 October 1990 28 June 1992 Christian Democracy
Nicola Mancino.jpg Nicola Mancino
(1931- )
28 June 1992 10 May 1994 Christian Democracy
Roberto Maroni, Premio lotta alla mafia, 2010.jpg Roberto Maroni
(1955- )
10 May 1994 17 January 1995 Lega Nord
Emblem of Italy.svg Antonio Brancaccio
(1933-1995)
17 January 1995 8 June 1995 Independent
Emblem of Italy.svg Giovanni Rinaldo Coronas
(1919–2008)
8 June 1995 17 May 1996 Independent
Presidente Napolitano.jpg Giorgio Napolitano
(1925- )
17 May 1996 21 October 1998 Democratic Party of the Left
Emblem of Italy.svg Rosa Russo Jervolino
(1936- )
21 October 1998 22 December 1999 The Olive Tree
Enzo bianco.jpg Enzo Bianco
(1951- )
22 December 1999 11 June 2001 The Olive Tree
ClaudioScajola-aCogoletoCropped.jpg Claudio Scajola
(1948- )
11 June 2001 3 July 2002 Forza Italia
Emblem of Italy.svg Giuseppe Pisanu
(1937- )
3 July 2002 17 May 2006 Forza Italia
Giuliano Amato - Festival Economia 2013.JPG Giuliano Amato
(1938- )
17 May 2006 8 May 2008 The Olive Tree
Roberto Maroni, Premio lotta alla mafia, 2010.jpg Roberto Maroni
(1955- )
8 May 2008 16 November 2011 Lega Nord
Annamaria Cancellieri - Quirinale.jpg Anna Maria Cancellieri
(1943- )
16 November 2011 28 April 2013 Independent
Angelino Alfano EPP cropped.png Angelino Alfano
(1970- )
28 April 2013 12 December 2016 New Centre-Right
Marco Minniti 6.jpg Marco Minniti 12 December 2016 incumbent Democratic Party

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Contatti." Ministry of Interior. Retrieved on 30 March 2011. "Piazza del Viminale n. 1 - 00184 Roma"
  2. ^ Legislative decree 30 July 1999, nº 300, art. 14.

External links[edit]