Minnie Two Shoes

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Minnie Two Shoes
Minnie Two Shoes 1971.jpg
Two Shoes in 1971 at age 21
Born(1950-03-24)March 24, 1950
DiedApril 9, 2010(2010-04-09) (aged 60)
Known forMentor and activist within Native American community
SpouseJohn Carmichael

Minnie Two Shoes (March 24, 1950 – April 9, 2010) was a publicist for the American Indian Movement from 1970–76 and worked most of her life in journalism and advancing Native American people and causes.


Minnie Two Shoes was born on March 24, 1950 at the Fort Peck Reservation in Montana. She was an Assiniboine Sioux. She had five sisters; Jackie Ramuer, Marlee Eder, Marie Knowles, Margie Eder and Beverly Ruella and one brother, Peter Ruella.[1]

In 1983, she received a bachelor's degree in Community Development from the Native American Education Service College in Fort Peck. She also studied at the University of Missouri School of Journalism from 1987–90 where she was a co-founder of the Native American Student Association.

In 1984, she helped found the Native American Press Association which became the Native American Journalists Association in 1990. She co-founded the Wolf Point Traditional Women's Society and edited two magazines: Native Peoples and Aboriginal Voices. She was also a contributing writer for News From Indian Country. She worked with the Wotanin Wowapi at Fort Peck as a writer and columnist for Red Road Home. As a journalist, she wrote about water rights, air quality, the environment, oil, gas and economic development.[2]

She worked as an instructor in communications at the Fort Peck College from 1992–93.[3] She also taught college journalism, and owned a production company.[4]

Along with other leaders in the American Indian Movement, she was featured in the 2002 film The Spirit of Annie Mae.[5] Two Shoes knew Annie Mae Aquash (Annie Mae Pictou-Aquash) personally,[6] and is often cited as being instrumental in uncovering information regarding her murder in 1975.[2][3]

She was highly regarded as a mentor and activist in her community.[7] In 2010, Ronnie Washines, President of the Native American Journalists Association, said of her, "She was a sincere advocate of the free press, free speech and free food for everyone."[8]

Two Shoes was married to John Carmichael and together they had five children: daughters Pahinskwe Two Shoes and Tateyumniwi Carmichael and sons Honwe Nupa Two Shoes, Peta Tinda Two Shoes and Makbiya Wambli Carmichael.

On April 9, 2010, Minnie Two Shoes died of cancer in Minneapolis, Minnesota.[9] Her husband predeceased her.


  1. ^ "Minnie Two Shoes". Lakota Country Times. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  2. ^ a b Capriccioso, Rob (2010-04-10). "Minnie Two Shoes, 1950-2010". Archived from the original on 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
  3. ^ a b "Remembering Minnie Two Shoes - Assiniboine Sioux". News from Indian Country. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  4. ^ Locke, Deborah. "NAJA Co-Founder Minnie Two Shoes Passes on." The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective: 14. 2010. Ethnic NewsWatch. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
  5. ^ McGrattan, Alana. "The Spirit of Annie Mae." School Library Journal Nov. 2003: 71. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
  6. ^ ""Native America Calling" program aired Wednesday, November 3rd, 1999; Host: Harlan McKosato, Paul DeMain, Minnie Two Shoes, Robert Pictou-Branscombe, Russell Means". Archived from the original on 2012-10-30. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  7. ^ "Remembering Minnie Two Shoes (3/24/1950 - 4/9/2010)". YouTube.
  8. ^ "Remarks about Minnie Two Shoes by Ronnie Washines, President, Native American Journalists Association". Native American Times. 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
  9. ^ Snell, Lisa (2010-04-22). "Pioneer Native Journalist Dies". Native American Times.