Minnie Two Shoes

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Minnie Two Shoes
Minnie Two Shoes 1971.jpg
Two Shoes in 1971 at age 21
Born(1950-03-24)March 24, 1950
Fort Peck Reservation, Montana
DiedApril 9, 2010(2010-04-09) (aged 60)
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Known forMentor and activist within Native American community
Spouse(s)John Carmichael

Minnie Two Shoes (March 24, 1950 – April 9, 2010) was a publicist for the American Indian Movement from 1970–76 and worked most of her life in journalism and advancing Native American people and causes.

She helped found the Native American Press Association in 1984, which became the Native American Journalists Association in 1990. She co-founded the Wolf Point Traditional Women's Society and edited two magazines: Native Peoples and Aboriginal Voices. She taught college journalism, and owned a production company.[1] She was also a contributing writer for News From Indian Country. She worked with the Wotanin Wowapi at Fort Peck as a writer and columnist for Red Road Home. As a journalist, she wrote about water rights, air quality, the environment, oil, gas and economic development.[2]

Along with other leaders in the American Indian Movement, she was featured in the film The Spirit of Annie Mae.[3] Indeed, she is often cited as being instrumental in uncovering information regarding the 1975 murder of Annie Mae Aquash (Annie Mae Pictou-Aquash).[2][4] She knew Annie Mae personally.[5]

She was highly regarded as a mentor and activist in her community.[6] Ronnie Washines, President of the Native American Journalists Association in 2010, said of her: "She was a sincere advocate of free press, free speech and free food for everyone."[7]

Minnie Two Shoes was an Assiniboine Sioux from the Fort Peck Reservation in Montana. She earned her bachelor's degree in Community Development from Native American Education Service College in Fort Peck in 1983. She also studied at the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Journalism 1987-90 and was a co-founder of the Native American Student Association. She worked as an instructor in Communications at the Fort Peck College 1992-93.[4]

She had five children: daughters Pahinskwe Two Shoes and Tateyumniwi Carmichael and sons Honwe Nupa Two Shoes, Peta Tinda Two Shoes and Makbiya Wambli Carmichael. Her husband, whose death preceded hers, was John Carmichael. She had five sisters: Jackie Ramuer, Marlee Eder, Marie Knowles, Margie Eder and Beverly Ruella; and one brother: Peter Ruella.[8] Minnie Two Shoes died in Minneapolis, Minnesota on April 9, 2010 after battling cancer.[9]


  1. ^ Locke, Deborah. "NAJA Co-Founder Minnie Two Shoes Passes on." The Circle : News from an American Indian Perspective: 14. 2010. Ethnic NewsWatch. Web. 25 Oct. 2012 .
  2. ^ a b Capriccioso, Rob (2010-04-10). "Minnie Two Shoes, 1950-2010". Archived from the original on 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
  3. ^ McGrattan, Alana. "The Spirit of Annie Mae." School Library Journal Nov. 2003: 71. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
  4. ^ a b "Remembering Minnie Two Shoes - Assiniboine Sioux". News from Indian Country. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  5. ^ ""Native America Calling" program aired Wednesday, November 3rd, 1999; Host: Harlan McKosato, Paul DeMain, Minnie Two Shoes, Robert Pictou-Branscombe, Russell Means". Archived from the original on 2012-10-30. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  6. ^ "Remembering Minnie Two Shoes (3/24/1950 - 4/9/2010)". YouTube.
  7. ^ "Remarks about Minnie Two Shoes by Ronnie Washines, President, Native American Journalists Association". Native American Times. 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
  8. ^ "Minnie Two Shoes". Lakota Country Times. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  9. ^ Snell, Lisa (2010-04-22). "Pioneer Native Journalist Dies". Native American Times.