Minor-planet moon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Minor planet moon)
Jump to: navigation, search
243 Ida and its moon Dactyl
Three images of (66391) and its orbiting moon
Animation of (357439)Animation of (136617), a trinary asteroid

A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite. It is thought that many asteroids and Kuiper belt objects may possess moons, in some cases quite substantial in size. Discoveries of minor-planet moons (and binary objects, in general) are important because the determination of their orbits provides estimates on the mass and density of the primary, allowing insights of their physical properties that is generally not otherwise possible.[1]

The first modern era mention of the possibility of an asteroid satellite was in connection with an occultation of the bright star Gamma Ceti by the minor planet (6) Hebe in 1977. The observer, amateur astronomer Paul D. Maley, detected an unmistakable 0.5 second disappearance of this naked eye star from a site near Victoria, Texas. Many hours later, several observations were reported in Mexico attributed to the occultation by (6) Hebe itself. Although not confirmed this documents the first formally documented case of a suspected companion of an asteroid.[2] As of October 2016, there are over 300 minor planets known to have moons.[3]

Terminology[edit]

In addition to the terms satellite and moon, the term "binary" (binary minor planet) is sometimes used for minor planets with moons, and "triple" for minor planets with two moons. If one object is much bigger it can be referred to as the primary and its companion as secondary. The term double asteroid is sometimes used for systems in which the asteroid and its moon are roughly the same size, while binary tends to be used independently from the relative sizes of the components. When binary minor planets are similar in size, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) refers to them as "binary companions" instead of referring to the smaller body as a satellite.[4] A good example of a true binary is the 90 Antiope system, identified in August 2000.[5] Small satellites are often referred to as moonlets.[1][6]

Discovery milestones[edit]

As of February 2017, over 330 moons of minor planets have been discovered.[3] These consist of:

Prior to the era of the Hubble Space Telescope and space probes reaching the outer Solar System, attempts to detect satellites around asteroids were limited to optical observations from Earth. For example, in 1978, stellar occultation observations were claimed as evidence of a satellite for the asteroid 532 Herculina.[8] However, later more-detailed imaging by the Hubble Telescope did not reveal a satellite, and the current consensus is that Herculina does not have a significant satellite.[9] There were other similar reports of asteroids having companions (usually referred to as satellites) in the following years. Also, a letter in Sky & Telescope magazine[citation needed] at this time pointed to apparently simultaneous impact craters on Earth (for example, the Clearwater Lakes in Quebec), suggesting that these craters were caused by pairs of gravitationally-bound objects.

In 1993, the first asteroid moon was confirmed when the Galileo probe discovered the small Dactyl orbiting 243 Ida in the asteroid belt. The second was discovered around 45 Eugenia in 1998.[10] In 2001, 617 Patroclus and its same-sized companion Menoetius became the first known binary asteroids in the Jupiter trojans.[11] The first trans-Neptunian binary after Pluto–Charon, 1998 WW31, was optically resolved in 2002.[12]

Triple systems[edit]

Triple minor planets, or trinary minor planets, are known since 2005, when the asteroid 87 Sylvia was discovered to have two satellites, making it the first known triple system.[13] This was followed by the discovery of a second moon orbiting 45 Eugenia.[14] Also in 2005, the dwarf planet Haumea was discovered to have two moons, making it the second trans-Neptunian object after Pluto known to have more than one moon.[15]

Additionally, 216 Kleopatra[16] and 93 Minerva[17] were discovered to be trinary asteroids in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Since the first few trinary asteroids were discovered, more continue to be discovered at a rate of about one a year. Most recently discovered was a third moon orbiting the belt asteroid 130 Elektra, bringing the number of known trinary asteroids in the asteroid belt up to 6.

Parent body Minor-planet moon
Designation Orbital class Designation Discovery
date
Announcement
date
Announcement
of trinary
134340 Pluto TNO Charon 1978/06/22 1978/07/07 2005/10/31
45 Eugenia Asteroid belt Petit-Prince 1998/11/01 1999/03/20 2007/03/07
87 Sylvia Asteroid belt Romulus 2001/02/18 2005/08/11 2005/08/11
107 Camilla Asteroid belt S/2001 (107) 1 2001/03/01 2001/03/19 2016/08/07
47171 Lempo TNO S/2001 (47171) 1 2001/12/08 2002/01/10 2009/10/??
3749 Balam Asteroid belt S/2002 (3749) 1 2002/02/08 2002/02/13 2008/03/12
130 Elektra Asteroid belt S/2003 (130) 1 2003/08/15 2003/08/17 2014/12/16
45 Eugenia Asteroid belt S/2004 (45) 1 2004/02/14 2007/03/07 2007/03/07
87 Sylvia Asteroid belt Remus 2004/08/09 2005/08/11 2005/08/11
136108 Haumea TNO Hiʻiaka 2005/01/26 2008/09/17 2008/09/17
134340 Pluto TNO Nix 2005/05/15 2005/10/31 2005/10/31
134340 Pluto TNO Hydra 2005/05/15 2005/10/31 2005/10/31
136108 Haumea TNO Namaka 2005/06/30 2008/09/17 2008/09/17
3749 Balam Asteroid belt S/2007 (3749) 1 2007/07/15 2008/03/12 2008/03/12
(153591) 2001 SN263 Amor Beta 2008/02/12 2008/02/12 2008/02/12
(153591) 2001 SN263 Amor Gamma 2008/02/12 2008/02/12 2008/02/12
216 Kleopatra Asteroid belt Alexhelios 2008/09/19 2011/02/18 2011/02/18
216 Kleopatra Asteroid belt Cleoselene 2008/09/19 2011/02/18 2011/02/18
2577 Litva Mars-crosser S/2009 (2577) 1 2009/02/28 2009/03/11 2013/12/22
(136617) 1994 CC Apollo Beta 2009/06/12 2009/06/19 2009/06/19
(136617) 1994 CC Apollo Gamma 2009/06/12 2009/06/19 2009/06/19
47171 Lempo TNO S/2009 (47171) 1 2009/10/?? 2009/10/?? 2009/10/??
93 Minerva Asteroid belt Aegis 2009/08/16 2013/12/17 2013/12/17
93 Minerva Asteroid belt Gorgoneion 2009/08/16 2013/12/17 2013/12/17
134340 Pluto TNO Kerberos 2011/06/28 2013/07/02 2005/10/31
2577 Litva Mars-crosser S/2012 (2577) 1 2012/06/22 2013/12/22 2013/12/22
134340 Pluto TNO Styx 2012/06/26 2013/07/02 2005/10/31
130 Elektra Asteroid belt S/2014 (130) 1 2014/12/06 2014/12/16 2014/12/16
107 Camilla Asteroid belt S/2016 (107) 1 2015/05/29 2016/08/07 2016/08/07

Commonality[edit]

The data about the populations of binary objects are still patchy. In addition to the inevitable observational bias (dependence on the distance from Earth, size, albedo and separation of the components) the frequency appears to be different among different categories of objects. Among asteroids, an estimated 2% would have satellites. Among trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), an estimated 11% are thought to be binary or multiple objects, and the majority of the large TNOs have at least one satellite, including all four IAU-listed dwarf planets.

More than 50 binaries are known in each of the main groupings: near-Earth asteroids, belt asteroids, and trans-Neptunian objects, not including numerous claims based solely on light-curve variation.

Two binaries have been found so far among centaurs with semi-major axes smaller than Neptune.[18] Both are double ring systems around 2060 Chiron and 10199 Chariklo, discovered in 1994–2011 and 2013 respectively.

Origin[edit]

The origin of minor-planet moons is not currently known with certainty, and a variety of theories exist. A widely accepted theory is that minor-planet moons are formed from debris knocked off of the primary by an impact. Other pairings may be formed when a small object is captured by the gravity of a larger one.

Formation by collision is constrained by the angular momentum of the components, i.e. by the masses and their separation. Close binaries fit this model (e.g. PlutoCharon). Distant binaries however, with components of comparable size, are unlikely to have followed this scenario, unless considerable mass has been lost in the event.

The distances of the components for the known binaries vary from a few hundreds of kilometres (243 Ida, 3749 Balam) to more than 3000 km (379 Huenna) for the asteroids. Among TNOs, the known separations vary from 3,000 to 50,000 km.[18]

Populations and classes[edit]

What is "typical" for a binary system tends to depend on its location in the Solar System (presumably because of different modes of origin and lifetimes of such systems in different populations of minor planets).[19]

  • Among near-Earth asteroids, satellites tend to orbit at distances of the order of 3–7 primary radii, and have diameters two to several times smaller than the primary. Since these binaries are all inner-planet crossers, it is thought that tidal stresses that occurred when the parent object passed close to a planet may be responsible for the formation of many of them, although collisions are thought to also be a factor in the creation of these satellites.
  • Among main-belt asteroids, the satellites are usually much smaller than the primary (a notable exception being 90 Antiope), and orbit around 10 primary radii away. Many of the binary systems here are members of asteroid families, and a good proportion of satellites are expected to be fragments of a parent body whose disruption after an asteroid collision produced both the primary and satellite.
  • Among trans-Neptunian objects, it is common for the two orbiting components to be of comparable size, and for the semi-major axis of their orbits to be much larger − about 100 to 1000 primary radii. A significant proportion of these binaries are expected to be primordial.
  • Among the dwarf planets, it is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself.[20]
    • Pluto has five known moons. Its largest moon Charon is more than half the size of Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In fact, each orbits the common barycenter between them, with Pluto's orbit entirely enclosed by Charon's; thus they form a binary system informally referred to as a double dwarf planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx, are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system.
    • Haumea has two moons with radii estimated around 155 km (Hiʻiaka) and 85 km (Namaka).
    • Makemake has one known moon, S/2015 (136472) 1, estimated to be some 160 kilometers (100 mi) in diameter.
    • Eris has one known moon, Dysnomia. Its radius, based on its brightness, is estimated to be roughly between 150 and 350 km.[21]

List of minor planets with moons[edit]

Near-Earth objects[edit]

There are 62 known near-Earth asteroids with moons (17 Amor type, 37 Apollo type, 7 Aten type, and 1 Atira type) with a total of 64 moons.

Name Type Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours)
1862 Apollo Apollo 1.55 ± 0.07 S/2005 (1862) 1 0.08 ± 0.06 3.75 ± 0.25 27.36 ± 0.24
1866 Sisyphus Apollo 8.48 ± 1.27 S/1985 (1866) 1 ? ? ?
3671 Dionysus Amor 1.43 ± 0.2 S/1997 (3671) 1 0.29 ± 0.05 3.4 ± 0.6 27.744 ± 0.0096
5143 Heracles Apollo 3.6 ± 1.2 S/2011 (5143) 1 0.6 ± 0.3 4 15.5 ± 1.5
5381 Sekhmet Aten 1 ± 0.05 S/2003 (5381) 1 0.3 ± 0.05 1.54 ± 0.12 12.5 ± 0.288
(5646) 1990 TR Amor 2.68 ± 0.51 S/2012 (5646) 1 0.48 ± 0.11 5.1 19.4712 ± 0.0096
7088 Ishtar Amor 1.39 S/2006 (7088) 1 0.58 2.8 20.6496 ± 0.0192
(7888) 1993 UC Apollo 2.72 S/2013 (7888) 1 ? ? ?
(31345) 1998 PG Amor 0.9 ± 0.2 S/2001 (31345) 1 0.27 1.4 14.0064 ± 0.00096
(35107) 1991 VH Apollo 1.04 ± 0.2 S/1997 (35107) 1 0.42 ± 0.08 3.26 ± 0.035 32.64 ± 0.0192
(53110) 1999 AR7 Amor 1.4 S/2015 (53110) 1 >0.6 3.8 31.32 ± 0.0192
65803 Didymos Amor 0.75 ± 0.1 S/2003 (65803) 1 0.17 ± 0.03 1.18 ± 0.03 11.8992 ± 0.0048
(66063) 1998 RO1 Aten 0.8 ± 0.15 S/2001 (66063) 1 0.38 ± 0.08 1.2 ± 0.03 14.5392 ± 0.0192
(66391) 1999 KW4 Aten 1.317 ± 0.04 S/2001 (66391) 1 0.451 ± 0.027 2.548 ± 0.015 17.4216 ± 0.036
69230 Hermes Apollo 0.6 ± 0.12 S/2003 (69230) 1 0.54 ± 0.12 1.1 13.8936 ± 0.00408
(85938) 1999 DJ4 Apollo 0.43 ± 0.08 S/2004 (85938) 1 0.21 ± 0.05 0.8 17.7312 ± 0.0096
(88710) 2001 SL9 Apollo 0.96 S/2001 (88710) 1 0.2 1.6 16.3992 ± 0.0192
(136617) 1994 CC Apollo 0.62 ± 0.06 Beta
(S/2009 (136617) 1)
0.113 ± 0.03 1.729 ± 0.0008 29.832 ± 0.7896
Gamma
(S/2009 (136617) 2)
0.08 ± 0.03 6.130 ± 0.108 201.024 ± 9.696
(136993) 1998 ST49 Apollo 0.69 ± 0.08 S/2012 (136993) 1 0.08 ± 0.04 ? ?
(137170) 1999 HF1 Aten 3.64 ± 0.73 S/1999 (137170) 1 0.84 ± 0.2 7.3 ± 1.8 14.01696 ± 0.00408
(138095) 2000 DK79 Amor 2.18 S/2013 (138095) 1 ? ? ?
(153591) 2001 SN263 Amor 2.6 Gamma
(S/2008 (153591) 2)
0.46 3.804 ± 0.002 16.464 ± 0.03816
Beta
(S/2008 (153591) 1)
1.06 16.633 ± 0.163 149.4 ± 2.2872
(153958) 2002 AM31 Apollo 0.45 ± 0.05 S/2012 (153958) 1 0.11 1.5 26.304
(162000) 1990 OS Apollo 0.3 ± 0.02 S/2003 (162000) 1 0.05 ± 0.02 0.6 21 ± 3
(162483) 2000 PJ5 Aten 0.55 S/2005 (162483) 1 0.28 1.05 ± 0.1 14.16 ± 0.0408
163693 Atira Atira 4.8 S/2017 (163693) 1 1 ? ?
(164121) 2003 YT1 Apollo 1.1 ± 0.2 S/2004 (164121) 1 0.21 ± 0.06 3.93 ± 0.8 36.696 ± 1.8
(175706) 1996 FG3 Apollo 1.69 ± 0.22 S/1998 (175706) 1 0.49 ± 0.08 3 ± 0.6 16.1508 ± 0.000192
(185851) 2000 DP107 Apollo 0.8 ± 0.16 S/2000 (185851) 1 0.3 ± 0.15 2.62 ± 0.16 42.192 ± 0.0048
(190166) 2005 UP156 Amor 1.02 S/2017 (190166) 1 ? ? 40.572
(190208) 2006 AQ Amor 1.06 S/2015 (190208) 1 ? ? ?
(226514) 2003 UX34 Apollo 0.25 S/2017 (226514) 1 0.1 ? ?
(276049) 2002 CE26 Apollo 3.46 ± 0.35 S/2004 (276049) 1 0.3 ± 0.1 4.7 ± 0.2 15.6 ± 0.096
(285263) 1998 QE2 Amor 3.2 ± 0.3 S/2013 (285263) 1 0.8 ± 0.08 6.212 ± 0.1 31.3104 ± 0.0096
(311066) 2004 DC Apollo 0.36 S/2006 (311066) 1 0.07 0.75 ± 0.045 23.04
(348400) 2005 JF21 Amor 1.2 S/2015 (348400) 1 ? ? ?
(357439) 2004 BL86 Apollo 0.32 S/2015 (357439) 1 0.07 0.5 14.4
(363027) 1998 ST27 Aten 0.8 S/2001 (363027) 1 0.12 4.5 ± 0.5 98.4
(363067) 2000 CO101 Apollo 0.62 S/2009 (363067) 1 0.04 0.61 7.2
(363599) 2004 FG11 Apollo 0.15 ± 0.03 S/2012 (363599) 1 <0.08 0.25 ± 0.05 20 ± 0.408
(374851) 2006 VV2 Apollo 1.06 ± 0.05 S/2007 (374851) 1 >0.3 1.5 5.52
(385186) 1994 AW1 Amor 0.94 S/1994 (385186) 1 0.46 2 22.3296 ± 0.096
(399307) 1991 RJ2 Amor 0.5 S/2014 (399307) 1 0.24 0.86 15.91704 ± 0.00096
(399774) 2005 NB7 Apollo 0.5 ± 0.1 S/2008 (399774) 1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.6 15.2808 ± 0.0096
(410777) 2009 FD Apollo 0.15 ± 0.03 S/2015 (410777) 1 0.09 ± 0.03 0.25 14.4
(450894) 2008 BT18 Apollo 0.6 S/2008 (450894) 1 >0.2 1.5 28.8
(452561) 2005 AB Amor >1.9 S/2005 (2005 AB) 1 0.46 3.4 17.9304 ± 0.0096
(461852) 2006 GY2 Apollo 0.4 S/2006 (2006 GY2) 1 0.08 0.5 11.7 ± 0.192
1994 CJ1 Apollo <0.15 S/2014 (1999 CJ1) 1 <0.15 0.525 30
1994 XD Apollo 0.6 ± 0.15 S/2005 (1994 JD) 1 >0.15 0.6 ± 0.3 17.976 ± 0.006
2000 UG11 Apollo 0.26 ± 0.03 S/2000 (2000 UG11) 1 0.13 ± 0.03 0.426 ± 0.027 18.4 ± 0.144
2002 BM26 Amor 0.6 ± 0.0.3 S/2002 (2002 BM26) 1 0.1 ± 0.03 1.4 25.8 ± 0.288
2002 KK8 Amor 0.5 ± 0.02 S/2002 (2002 KK8) 1 0.1 ± 0.02 ? ?
2003 SS84 Apollo 0.12 ± 0.02 S/2003 (2003 SS83) 1 0.06 ± 0.02 0.27 24
2005 YQ96 Aten 0.27 S/2014 (2005 YQ96) 1 ? ? ?
2007 DT103 Apollo 0.3 S/2007 (2007 DT103) 1 >0.08 0.45 13.44
2007 LE Apollo 0.5 S/2012 (2007 LE) 1 0.18 1.4 33.504 ± 0.48
2008 DG17 Apollo 0.38 S/2013 (2008 DG17) 1 ? ? ?
2013 WT44 Apollo 1 ± 0.1 S/2014 (2013 WT44) 1 ? ? ?
2014 WZ120 Apollo 0.34 S/2014 (2014 WZ120) 1 0.11 ? 13.66512 ± 0.006
2014 YB35 Apollo 0.73 S/2015 (2014 YB35) 1 ? ? ?
2015 TD144 Apollo 0.1 S/2015 (2015 TD144) 1 ? ? ?

Mars crossers[edit]

There are 22 Mars-crossing asteroids with moons with a total of 23 moons.

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours)
1139 Atami 6 S/2005 (1139) 1 5 >15 26.736
1727 Mette 10.18 S/2013 (1727) 1 2.14 21 20.9904 ± 0.0192
2044 Wirt 6.46 ± 0.58 S/2006 (2044) 1 1.62 ± 0.19 12 18.9696 ± 0.0096
2449 Kenos 6.2 S/2015 (2449) 1  ? ? ?
2577 Litva 4 S/2009 (2577) 1 1.4 21 35.88 ± 0.0096
S/2012 (2577) 1 1.2 378 5136
3873 Roddy 7.25 ± 0.24 S/2012 (3873) 1 1.96 ± 0.16 14 19.2408 ± 0.0192
5261 Eureka 1.19 S/2011 (5261) 1 0.46 2.1 16.9296 ± 0.0096
(5407) 1992 AX 3.9 ± 1 S/2001 (5407) 1 0.78 ± 0.21 5.8 13.5192 ± 0.00096
7369 Gavrilin 7.54 S/2007 (7369) 1 2.41 27 49.128 ± 0.0192
8373 Stephengould 5.29 S/2010 (8373) 1 1.43 15 34.152 ± 0.096
12008 Kandrup 3.4 ± 0.4 S/2016 (12008) 1 2.6 ± 0.4  ? 32.904
(15700) 1987 QD 4.15 S/2010 (15700) 1  ? ? ?
(16635) 1993 QO 4.61 S/2007 (16635) 1 1.24 12 32.256 ± 0.0288
26074 Carlwirtz 3.62 S/2013 (26074) 1  ? 6.1 16.1112 ± 0.0192
26471 Tracybecker 5.61 ± 0.41 S/2009 (26471) 1 2.05 ± 0.19 18 39.288 ± 0.0004
(32039) 2000 JO23 3.96 S/2007 (32039) 1 1.27 53 360
(34706) 2001 OP83 3.48 S/2005 (34706) 1 0.98 7 20.76 ± 0.0096
(51356) 2000 RY76 3.23 S/2012 (51356) 1 0.68 13 62.04 ± 0.048
(53432) 1999 UT55 2.55 S/2013 (53432) 1 0.59 4 14.1 ± 0.0096
(99913) 1997 CZ5 6.77 S/2010 (99913) 1.29 11 14.6808
(114319) 2002 XD58 2.62 S/2005 (114319) 1  ? ? ?
(218144) 2002 RL66 3.46 S/2010 (218144) 1  ? ? ?

Asteroid belt[edit]

There are 136 asteroids with 143 moons in the asteroid belt. Asteroids with light blue backgrounds are double asteroids, with similarly-sized components, and a barycenter outside of the larger object. very light blue asteroids might be double asteroids, but due to errors in their size and orbit, it is uncertain.

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours) Barycenter (m from
center of primary)
22 Kalliope (215×180×150) Linus 28 ± 2 1,095 ± 11 86.304 ± 0.024 5211 ± 1435
41 Daphne (239x183x153) S/2008 (41) 1 <2 443 26.4 0.6727 ± 0.1378
45 Eugenia (305×220×145) S/2004 (45) 1
(Eugenia II)
5 ± 1 610.59 ± 0.06 43.032 ± 0.0192 8.713 ± 6.213
Petit-Prince
(Eugenia I)
7 ± 2 1,164.42 ± 0.03 110.808 ± 0.0168 45.59 ± 45.52
87 Sylvia (385×265×230) Remus
(Sylvia II)
10.6 ± 1.6 701.64 ± 0.02 32.952 ± 0.24 35.72 ± 20.87
Romulus
(Sylvia I)
10.8 ± 5.6 1,351.35 ± 0.01 87.696 ± 0.576 72.76 ± 139.7
90 Antiope 110±16 S/2000 (90) 1 87.8 ± 1 171 ± 1 16.5048 ± 0.000096 79530 ± 3441
93 Minerva 140 Gorgoneion
(Minerva II)
3.2 ± 0.9 375 ± 16 26.7528 ± 0.0144 4.328 ± 4.464
Aegis
(Minerva I)
3.6 ± 1.0 623.5 ± 10 57.744 ± 0.048 10.25 ± 10.09
107 Camilla (285×205×170) ± 20 S/2016 (107) 1 3.5 ± 0.5 340 12 1.381 ± 0.7178
S/2001 (107) 1 16 ± 6 1,250 ± 10 89.328 ± 0.072 484.8 ± 635.0
115 Thyra[22] 75 ± 6 S/2016 (115) 1 ? ? ? ?
121 Hermione (254×125) S/2002 (121) 1 32 747 ± 11 61.512 ± 0.0504 3724 ± 413.1
130 Elektra (215×155) S/2014 (130) 1 5.2 ±1.2 460 26.4 8.216 ± 6.395
S/2003 (130) 1 7 ± 3 1,318 ± 25 126.192 ± 0.1272 57.42 ± 85.86
216 Kleopatra 217×94×81 Cleoselene
(Kleopatra II)
6.9 ±1.6 454 ± 6 29.76 ± 0.48 60.61 ± 53.53
Alexhelios
(Kleopatra I)
8.9 ± 1.6 678 ± 13 55.68 ± 0.48 194.2 ± 139.0
243 Ida (59.8×25.4×18.6) Dactyl (Ida I) (1.6×1.4×1.2) 108 36.96 9.572 ± 0.1064
283 Emma 148.1 ± 4.6 S/2003 (283) 1 9 ± 5 581 ± 3.6 80.472 ± 0.02232 173.2 ± 338.4
317 Roxane 19 S/2009 (317) 1 5.3 257 336 4793 ± 85.28
379 Huenna 92.3 ± 1.7 S/2003 (379) 1 5.8 ± 1.2 3,336 ± 54.9 2102.4 ± 0.624 972.3 ± 722.5
578 Happelia 69.29 ± 2.1 S/2017 (578) 1 >3.0 >80 ? ?[23]
702 Alauda 194.73 ± 3.2 Pichi üñëm 3.51 ± 0.9 1,227 ± 24 117.936 ± 0.168 6.441 ± 5.770
762 Pulcova 137.1 ± 3.2 S/2000 (762) 1 19 ± 7 703 ± 14 106.512 ± 0.024 1690 ± 2071
809 Lundia 6.9 ± 2.4 S/2005 (809) 1 6.1 ± 2.1 15.8 15.4176 ± 0.00096 6456 ± 6197
854 Frostia 6.35 ± 0.16 S/2004 (854) 1 4.6 17 37.728 ± 0.00096 4682 ± 256.6
939 Isberga (14.5×11.8×11.1) S/2006 (939) 1 (3.8×3.5×3.5) 33 ± 4.5 26.6304 ± 0.000096 788.2 ± 878.9
1052 Belgica 9.79 ± 0.08 S/2012 (1052) 1 3.53 34 47.256 ± 0.0192 1522 ± 35.66
1089 Tama 10.7 ± 0.5 S/2003 (1089) 1 7.33 20.7 ± 1.3 16.4448 ± 0.00096 5036 ± 853.6
1313 Berna 10.6 ± 0.24 S/2004 (1313) 1 8.37 25 25.464 ± 0.00096 8248 ± 375.5
1333 Cevenola 17.15 ± 0.24 S/2008 (1333) 1 ? ? ? ?
1338 Duponta 7.68 ± 0.06 S/2007 (1338) 1 1.77 ± 0.15 14 17.5704 ± 0.0096 169.3 ± 46.62
1453 Fennia 6.96 ± 0.39 S/2007 (1453) 1 1.95 ± 0.18 15 22.9896 ± 0.0096 322.8 ± 143.8
1509 Esclangona 7.76 ± 0.57 S/2003 (1509) 1 2.57 140 552 4907 ± 1060
1717 Arlon 9.13 ± 0.17 S/2006 (1717) 1 ? 17 18.2352 ?
1798 Watts 6.64 ± 0.19 S/2017 (1798) 1 ? ? ? ?
1830 Pogson 7.89 ± 0.11 S/2007 (1830) 1 2.52 18 24.24 ± 0.0048 568.0 ± 23.19
2006 Polonskaya 4.51 ± 0.16 S/2005 (2006) 1 0.99 8.5 19.1496 ± 0.0192 88.97 ± 9.408
2047 Smetana 3 ± 0.15 S/2012 (2047) 1 0.63 ± 0.07 6.3 22.4304 ± 0.0192 57.81 ± 28.39
2121 Sevastopol 8.62 ± 0.04 S/2010 (2121) 1 3.54 ± 0.17 26 37.104 1684 ± 248.9
2131 Mayall 8.28 ± 0.07 S/2009 (2131) 1 2.15 18 23.4792 ± 0.0096 309.7 ± 7.722
2242 Balaton 5.85 S/2015 (2242) 1 >1.49 9 12.96 ± 0.0096 >139.2
2343 Siding Spring 5.11 S/2015 (2343) 1 >0.97 7 11.78904 ± 0.00288 >47.55
2478 Tokai 8.1 ± 0.02 S/2007 (2478) 1 5.83 21 25.896 ± 0.00696 5704 ± 30.77
2486 Metsähovi[24] 8.42 ± 0.03 S/2007 (2486) 1 ? ? ? ?
2535 Hameenlinna 10.2 S/2016 (2535) 1 >2.2 ?[25] 21.2304 ± 0.0096 >193.2
2623 Zech 7.92 S/2014 (2623) 1 ? ? ? ?
2691 Sersic 5 ± 0.11 S/2011 (2691) 1 2.15 ± 0.11 12 26.808 ± 0.0096 883.8 ± 180.2
2754 Efimov 6.46 S/2006 (2754) 1 1.29 10 14.7648 ± 0.0096 79.00
2815 Soma 6.95 ± 0.09 S/2011 (2815) 1 1.74 ± 0.14 13 17.916 ± 0.00192 200.9 ± 55.7
2825 Crosby S/2017 (2825) 1 ? ? ? ?
3034 Climenhaga 9.97 S/2009 (3034) 1 ? 19 18.9552 ± 0.00096 ?
3073 Kursk 6.69 S/2007 (3073) 1 1.67 22 44.952 ± 0.0192 337.0
3169 Ostro (4.4×3.4×3.2) S/2005 (3169) 1 (4.8×2.6×2.4) 5.2 6.5088 ± 0.00096 2060 ± 134.7
3309 Brorfelde 4.88 ± 0.08 S/2005 (3309) 1 1.27 ± 0.1 9 18.48 ± 0.0096 155.9 ± 43.95
3433 Fehrenbach 7.4 S/2015 (3433) 1 2.3 14 19.6656 ± 0.0048 408.1
3673 Levy 6.17 ± 0.15 S/2007 (3673) 1 1.73 ± 0.19 13 21.6 280.4 ± 111.5
3703 Volkonskaya 3.46 ± 0.1 S/2003 (3703) 1 1.39 7.8 24 474.9 ± 38.76
3749 Balam 3.95 S/2008 (3749) 1 1.66 20 33.384 ± 0.00096 1382
S/2002 (3749) 1 1.84 289 ± 13 1464 ± 264 26530
3782 Celle 5.44 ± 0.21 S/2003 (3782) 1 2.34 ± 0.11 18 ± 1 36.576 ± 0.0288 1327 ± 393.2
3792 Preston 5.16 ± 0.17 S/2016 (3792) 1 ? ? 46.8 ?
3841 Dicicco 6.02 S/2014 (3841) 1 >1.67 12 21.6288 ± 0.0192 >250.8
3868 Mendoza 9.13 ± 0.05 S/2009 (3868) 1 2.01 ± 0.18 20 24.384 211.2 ± 59.77
3905 Doppler 6.27 S/2013 (3905) 1 4.83 26 50.808 ± 0.096 8157
3951 Zichichi 6.38 ± 0.2 S/2006 (3951) 1 2.11 16 27.6 ± 0.0096 558.6 ± 50.84
3982 Kastel' 6.79 ± 0.36 S/2005 (3982) 1 ? ? ? ?
4029 Bridges 7.8 ± 0.07 S/2006 (4029) 1 1.87 ± 0.16 13 16.3104 ± 0.0096 176.7 ± 49.63
4272 Entsuji 7.56 S/2015 (4272) 1 1.36 13 15.9456 ± 0.0072 75.24
4296 van Woerkom 7.3 S/2016 (4296) 1 2.2 ? ? ?
4383 Suruga 6.33 ± 0.09 S/2013 (4383) 1 1.33 ± 0.13 11 16.3872 ± 0.00096 101.1 ± 33.87
4440 Tchantches 2.03 ± 0.57 S/2005 (4440) 1 0.51 ± 0.16 3.8 18.6912 ± 0.048 59.32 ± 162.8
4492 Debussy 14.6 ± 0.59 S/2004 (4492) 1 9.39 31 26.616 ± 0.00096 6514 ± 625.0
4514 Vilen 6.09 S/2015 (4514) 1 >1.58 11 16.8504 ± 0.0096 >188.8
4541 Mizuno 6.29 ± 1.34 S/2015 (4541) 1 ? ? ? ?
4607 Seilandfarm 7.12 ± 0.12 S/2009 (4607) 1 2.06 19 31.632 ± 0.0192 453.0 ± 22.44
4666 Dietz 6.83 ± 0.29 S/2015 (4666) 1 ? 12 16.632 ?
4674 Pauling 4.46 ± 0.05 S/2004 (4674) 1 1.41 250 3120 7657 ± 249.7
4765 Wasserburg 1.76 ± 0.48 S/2013 (4675) 1 0.28 ± 0.08 2.9 15.9696 ± 0.0196 11.63 ± 30.53
4786 Tatianina 3.22 ± 0.2 S/2006 (4786) 1 0.61 ± 0.1 6.6 21.6696 ± 0.0096 44.57 ± 31.42
4868 Knushevia 1.52 ± 0.32 S/2015 (4868) 1 >0.2 2.1 11.922 ± 0.00288 >4.773
4951 Iwamoto 4.39 ± 0.02 S/2007 (4951) 1 3.34 31 118.008 ± 0.192 9478 ± 89.94
5112 Kusaji 3.27 ± 0.13 S/2016 (5112) 1 1.01 ± 0.08 7 20.74 ± 0.01 200.4 ± 70.34
5425 Vojtech 6.89 ± 0.13 S/2015 (5425) 1 1.52 ± 0.14 16 25.4304 ± 0.0196 170.0 ± 56.42
5426 Sharp 2.033 ± 0.34 S/2014 (5426) 1 ? 4.5 24.2208 ± 0.0196 ?
5474 Gingasen 5.05 ± 0.48 S/2008 (5474) 1 ? ? ? ?
5477 Holmes 2.95 ± 0.13 S/2005 (5477) 1 1.09 ± 0.08 6.7 24.432 ± 0.0192 321.7 ± 109.2
5481 Kiuchi 7.52 S/2008 (5481) 1 2.48 15 20.8992 ± 0.0096 519.4
5536 Honeycutt 9.45 S/2016 (5536) 1 2.7 15 16.3248 ± 0.0048 435.3
5674 Wolff 4.72 S/2015 (5674) 1 >3.78 30 93.696 ± 0.192 >10180
5872 Sugano 6.06 S/2016 (5872) 1 >1.82 11 18.84 ± 0.024 >290.1
5899 Jedicke 2.54 ± 0.16 S/2010 (5899) 1 0.81 4.4 16.6992 ± 0.096 138.2 ± 25.60
5905 Johnson 4.45 ± 0.07 S/2005 (5905) 1 1.78 ± 0.18 9.3 21.7848 ±0.00048 559.4 ± 184.9
(6016) 1991 PA11 3.526 S/2016 (6016) 1 0.69 ± 0.11 7 21.3312 ± 0.0192 55.08 ± 35.39
6084 Bascom 5.96 ± 0.21 S/2006 (6084) 1 2.2 ± 0.14 20 43.512 957.7 ± 272.6
6186 Zenon 6 S/2017 (6186) 1 ? ? ? ?
6244 Okamoto 6.69 S/2006 (6244) 1 1.67 13 20.3208 ± 0.0096 199.1
(6265) 1985 TW3 4.81 ± 0.1 S/2007 (6265) 1 1.16 ± 0.1 8 15.8592 ± 0.0096 110.7 ± 35.29
(6369) 1983 UC 4.9 S/2013 (6369) 1 1.7 15? 39.84 601.3?
6615 Plutarchos 3.14 ± 0.04 S/2007 (6615) 1 ? 9.7 40.032 ± 0.096 ?
6708 Bobbievaile 8.02 ± 0.02 S/2009 (6708) 1 4.57 19 24.696 2967 ± 18.73
7187 Isobe 6.05 ± 1.46 S/2012 (7187) 1 ? ? ? ?
7225 Huntress 6.54 ± 0.22 S/2007 (7225) 1 1.37 ± 0.14 10 14.6712 ± 0.0096 91.09 ± 37.34
7958 Leakey 2.82 ± 0.16 S/2012 (7958) 1 0.85 ± 0.1 10 50.28 ± 0.072 266.5 ± 139.4
8026 Johnmckay 1.69 ± 0.24 S/2010 (8026) 1 ? ? ? ?
8116 Jeanperrin 4.53 ± 0.08 S/2007 (8116) 1 1.49 13 36.144 ± 0.0192 446.7 ± 22.87
8306 Shoko 3.21 S/2013 (8306) 1 1.28 9.4 36.192 ± 0.0408 560.5
8474 Rettig 4.5 S/2015 (8474) 1 >3.9 14 30.54 ± 0.0096 >5520
9069 Hovland 3 S/2004 (9069) 1 0.9 7.8 30.336 ± 0.0096 205.1
9260 Edwardolson 3.98 ± 0.35 S/2005 (9260) 1 1.07 ± 0.15 7.2 17.784 ± 0.00288 137.2 ± 97.47
9617 Grahamchapman 2.74 ± 0.37 S/2006 (9617) 1 0.74 ± 0.13 5.2 19.3848 ± 0.0048 100.5 ± 103.1
9783 Tensho-kan 5.1 S/2013 (9783) 1 1.8 13? 29.568 547.5?
10123 Fideoja 3.3 S/2013 (10123) 1 1.2 13? 56.448 596.4
10208 Germanicus 3.23 ± 0.18 S/2007 (10208) 1 1.48 ± 0.11 13 58.56 ± 0.0192 1141 ± 410.8
(11217) 1999 JC4 3.3 S/2013 (11217) 1 ? 6.2 19.1712 ± 0.0096 ?
11264 Claudiomaccone <4 S/2003 (11264) 1 >1.24 6 15.1104 ± 0.0096 >173.6
12326 Shirasaki 3.8 S/2016 (12326) 1 ? ? ? ?
13123 Tyson 10.87 ± 2.26 S/2015 (12123) 1 ? ? ? ?
15268 Wendelinefroger 33.83 S/2008 (15268) 1 1.03 8.7 25.08 ± 0.0192 166.0
(15430) 1998 UR31 3.74 ± 0.03 S/2010 (15430) 1 ? 8.2 23.9592 ?
(15822) 1994 TV15 1.69 ± 0.3 S/2010 (15822) 1 0.32 ± 0.07 3.3 20.1312 ± 0.0096 22.25 ± 32.39
16525 Shumarinaiko 5.18 ± 0.15 S/2013 (16525) 1 0.83 ± 0.11 8.1 14.4096 ± 0.0048 33.19 ± 16.30
17246 Christophedumas 4.5 S/2004 (17246) 1 1 228 2160 2475
17260 Kušnirák 4.62 S/2006 (17260) 1 1.2 7.4 14.7576 ± 0.00288 127.4
(18890) 2000 EV26 3.86 S/2014 (18890) 1 >1.04 6 14.2896 ± 0.0096 >115.1
19204 Joshuatree 5.44 S/2015 (19204) 1 ? 12 20 ?
20325 Julianoey 4.94 ± 1.01 S/2014 (20325) 1 ? ? ? ?
21436 Chaoyichi 1.8 S/2014 (21436) 1 0.6 ? ? ?
22899 Alconrad 5.54 ± 0.46 S/2003 (22899) 1 1.23 182 1344 1970 ± 496
(24465) 2000 SX155 3.1 S/2016 (24465) 1 0.68 3.6 9.252 ± 0.00096 37.6
(26416) 1999 XM84 4.56 S/2015 (26416) 1 ? ? 39.288 ± 0.0096 ?
(27568) 2000 PT6 1.82 ± 0.42 S/2013 (26578) 1 ? 3.1 16.356 ± 0.00288 ?
(27675) 1981 CH 5.089 ± 0.2 S/2017 (27675) 1 ? ? ? ?
(31450) 1999 CU9 10.4 S/2015 (31450) 1 2.3 39 53.472 ± 0.072 417.3
32008 Adriángalád 4.23 S/2007 (32008) 1 1.69 13 40.248 ± 0.0192 779.4
(43008) 1999 UD31 2.4 S/2014 (43008) 1 0.8 ? ? ?
(44620) 1999 RS43 0.66 S/2014 (44620) 1 0.2 2 ? 54.15
46829 McMahon 3.06 S/2015 (46829) 1 1.22 5.4 16.83312 ± 0.00196 321.8
52316 Daveslater 3.26 S/2012 (52316) 1 0.52 4.9 13.4352 ± 0.00408 19.81
(69406) 1995 SX48 3.12 ± 0.02 S/2013 (69406) 1 0.59 ± 0.06 5.3 16.1112 ± 0.0196 35.60 ± 11.52
(76818) 2000 RG79 3.6 S/2005 (76818) 1 1.33 5.6 14.124 ± 0.000096 268.8
79472 Chiorny 3.79 S/2012 (79472) 1 ? 9 25.944 ± 0.0192 ?
(80218) 1999 VO123 0.28 S/2012 (80218) 1 0.08 0.9 33.12 20.51

Jupiter trojans[edit]

There are 18 Jupiter trojans with known moons.

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours)
617 Patroclus 121.8 ± 3.2 Menoetius (Patroclus I) 98 ± 10 680 ± 20 102.792 ± 0.096
624 Hektor (363×207) Skamandrios (Hektor I) 12 ± 3 957.5 ±55.3 71.161896 ± 0.006912
(9807) 1997 SJ4 24.68 ± 1.79 S/2016 (9807) 1  ?  ? 330
(13331) 1998 SU52 17.68 S/2016 (13331) 1  ?  ? 180
(16152) 1999 YN12 16.18 ± 0.65 S/2016 (16152) 1  ?  ? 11.47 ± 0.22
(17365) 1978 VF11 32.6 ± 0.61 S/2005 (17365) 1 27.5 ± 2.25 43 12.672 ± 0.0192
(21593) 1998 VL27 21.922 ± 1.292 S/2016 (21593) 1  ?  ?  ?
(22056) 2000 AU31 24.78 ± 0.49 S/2016 (22056) 1  ?  ? 358
(23958) 1998 VD30 46.00 ± 1.19 S/2016 (23958) 1  ?  ? >300
(24357) 2000 AC115 21.85 ± 0.50 S/2016 (24357) 1  ?  ? 131
29314 Eurydamas 32 S/2005 (29314) 1 24 41 15.036 ± 0.0072
(39270) 2001 AH11 17 S/2016 (39270) 1  ?  ? 82
(39289) 2001 CT28 13.386 ± 1.365 S/2016 (39289) 1  ?  ?  ?
(63239) 2001 BD25 19.45 ± 0.78 S/2016 (63239) 1  ?  ? 60
(65223) 2002 EU34 15 S/2016 (65223) 1  ?  ? 252
(65227) 2002 ES46 13.58 ± 1.51 S/2016 (65227) 1  ?  ? 230
(65240) 2002 EU106 13.5 S/2016 (65240) 1  ?  ? 230
(129602) 1997 WA12 15.74 ± 0.96 S/2016 (129602) 1  ?  ? 43

Centaurs[edit]

There are only 2 centaurs with satellites, both of which are ring systems instead of moons.

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours)
10199 Chariklo[26] 248±18 rings 2013C1R 6.3±0.11 390.6±3.3 16.65?
2013C2R 3.4±0.14 404.8±3.3 17.56?
2060 Chiron 233±14 rings ring 1 3 324±10 33.84
ring 2 7

Trans-Neptunian objects[edit]

There are 81 trans-Neptunian objects with moons, with a total of 87 moons.

Name Type Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km)
134340 Pluto Plutino 2379.8 ± 0.8 Charon (Pluto I) 1212 ± 6 19,573 ± 2
Styx (Pluto V) 10.5 ± 2 42,657 ± 78
Nix (Pluto II) 39 ± 1 48,694 ± 3
Kerberos (Pluto IV) 12 ± 3 57,783 ± 19
Hydra (Pluto III) 42 ± 5 64,738 ± 3
(26308) 1998 SM165 Plutino 268 ± 28 S/2001 (26308) 1 81 ± 14 11,377 ± 8
38628 Huya Plutino 406 ± 16 S/2012 (38628) 1 213 ± 30 1740 ± 80
42355 Typhon SDO 162 ± 7 Echidna (Typhon I) 89 ± 6 1,580 ± 20
47171 Lempo Plutino 272+17
−19
S/2001 (47171) 1 132+8
−9
7,411 ± 12
S/2009 (47171) 1 251+16
−17
867 ± 11
(48639) 1995 TL8 SDO 176 S/2002 (48639) 1 80 420 ± 300
50000 Quaoar Cubewano 1070 ± 38 Weywot (Quaoar I) 81 ± 11 13,800 ± 1,000
(55637) 2002 UX25 Cubewano 665 ± 29 S/2007 (55637) 1 210 ± 30 4770 ± 40
58534 Logos Cubewano 82 ± 18 Zoe (Logos I) 67 8,217 ± 42
(60458) 2000 CM114 SDO 167 S/2006 (60458) 1 128 2,200 ± 200
(60621) 2000 FE8 2:5 resonance 146 S/2007 (60621) 1 111 1,180 ± 80
65489 Ceto SDO 223 ± 10 Phorcys (Ceto I) 171 ± 10 1,840 ± 44
66652 Borasisi Cubewano 126+25
−51
Pabu (Borasisi I) 103+20
−42
4,528 ± 12
79360 Sila–Nunam Cubewano 249+30
−31
Nunam 236+28
−29
2,777 ± 19
(80806) 2000 CM105 Cubewano 160 S/2005 (80806) 1 121 2,700 ± 300
(82075) 2000 YW134 SDO 216 S/2005 (82075) 1 75 1900 ± 300
(82157) 2001 FM185 2:3 resonance 138 S/2008 (82157) 1 120 3130 ± 90
88611 Teharonhiawako Cubewano 178+33
−36
Sawiskera (Teharonhiawako I) 129+24
−26
27,670 ± 120
90482 Orcus Plutino 917 ± 25 Vanth (Orcus I) 276 ± 17 9,006 ± 16
(119067) 2001 KP76 4:7 resonance 153 S/2007 (119067) 1 146 8,900 ± 100
(119979) 2002 WC19 1:2 resonance 440 S/2007 (119979) 1 139 4,090 ± 90
120347 Salacia Cubewano 854 ± 45 Actaea (Salacia I) 286 ± 24 5,619 ± 87
(123509) 2000 WK183 Cubewano 106 ± 24 S/2007 (123509) 1 101 2,366 ± 28
(134860) 2000 OJ67 Cubewano 138 ± 32 S/2003 (134860) 1 108 ± 25 2,270 ± 30
136108 Haumea Cubewano 1379 ± 57 Hiʻiaka (Haumea I) 320 49,880 ± 198
Namaka (Haumea II) 160 25,657 ± 91
136199 Eris SDO 2326 ± 12 Dysnomia (Eris I) 514 ± 221 37,580 ± 260
136472 Makemake Cubewano 1434x1422 S/2015 (136472) 1 175 ± 75 >21,100
(139775) 2001 QG298 Plutino 135 S/2004 (139775) 1 117 172
148780 Altjira Cubewano 246+38
−139
S/2007 (148780) 1 221+34
−125
9,904 ± 56
(160091) 2000 OL67 Cubewano 153 S/2007 (160091) 1 116 7,800
(160256) 2002 PD149 Cubewano 186 S/2007 (160256) 1 155 24,400 ± 300
174567 Varda Cubewano 705+81
−75
Ilmarë (Varda I) 361+42
−38
4,800 ± 20
(182933) 2002 GZ31 SDO 195 S/2006 (182933) 1 123 2,060 ± 270
(208996) 2003 AZ84 Plutino 723 ± 64 S/2005 (208996) 1 72 ± 12 7,200 ± 300
(225088) 2007 OR10 3:10 resonance 1535 ± 75 S/2010 (225088) 1 300 15,000
(229762) 2007 UK126 SDO 590 ± 76 S/2008 (229762) 1 103 3,600 ± 1,300
(275809) 2001 QY297 Cubewano 169+16
−80
S/2006 (275809) 1 154+15
−73
9,960 ± 31
(303712) 2005 PR21 Cubewano 227 S/2007 (303712) 1 137 3,600 ± 300
341520 Mors-Somnus Plutino 102 S/2007 (341520) 1 97 21,040 ± 70
(364570) 2006 JZ81 Cubewano 122+20
−12
S/2006 (364570) 1 78+13
−8
33,000 ± 2,000
385446 Manwë 4:7 resonance 160+24
−44
Thorondor (Manwë I) 92+14
−26
6,674 ± 41
1998 WV24 Plutino 110 S/2007 (1998 WV24) 1 96 1,420 ± 60
1998 WW31 Cubewano 148 S/2000 (1998 WW31) 1 123 22,620 ± 40
1999 OJ4 Cubewano? 75 ± 17 S/2002 (1999 OJ4) 1 82 ± 16 3,267 ± 60
1999 RT214 Cubewano 100 S/2006 (1999 RT214) 1 69 3,310 ± 30
1999 RY214 Cubewano 125 S/2008 (1999 RY214) 1 76 1,500 ± 200
1999 XY143 Cubewano 213 S/2008 (199 XY143) 1 179 2,670 ± 70
2000 CF105 Cubewano 63.6+1.2
−1.6
S/2002 (2000 CF105) 1 50 ± 2 33,300 ± 550
2000 CQ114 Cubewano 132 S/2003 (2000 CQ114) 1 115 6,930 ± 40
2000 QL251 1:2 Resonance 148 ± 34 S/2006 (2000 QL251) 1 143 ± 33 5,002 ± 27
2000 WT169 Cubewano 205 S/2008 (2000 WT169) 1 168 2,600 ± 100
2001 FL185 Cubewano 142 S/2006 (2001 FL185) 1 88 1,900 ± 400
2001 QC298 Cubewano 235+21
−23
S/2002 (2001 QC298) 1 192+17
−19
3,813 ± 15
2001 QQ322 Cubewano 171 S/2007 (2001 QQ322) 1 196 3,890 ± 90
2001 QW322 Cubewano 128+2
−4
S/2001 (2001 QW322) 1 126+3
−5
102,100 ± 700
2001 RZ143 Cubewano 108 S/2001 (2001 RZ143) 1 90 1,560 ± 30
2001 XP254 3:5 Resonance 108 S/2008 (2001 XP254) 1 77 1,200 ± 100
2001 XR254 Cubewano 171+32
−55
S/2005 (2001 XR254) 1 140+26
−45
2,780 ± 20
2002 VF130  ? 121 S/2008 (2002 VF130) 1 105 22,400 ± 100
2002 VT130 Cubewano 251 S/2008 (2002 VT130) 1 205 2,490 ± 80
2002 XH91 Cubewano 298 S/2008 (2002 XH91) 1 185 19,900 ± 100
2003 FE128 1:2 Resonance 178 S/2010 (2003 FE128) 1 131 2,140 ± 50
2003 HG57 Cubewano 156 S/2010 (2003 HG57) 1 156 13,200 ± 50
2003 QY90 SDO 81 ± 19 S/2003 (2003 QY90) 1 80 8,549 ± 95
2003 QA91 Cubewano 188 ± 24 S/2006 (2003 QA91) 1 180 ± 35 1,900 ± 100
2003 QR91 Cubewano 207 ± 21 S/2007(?) (2003 QR91) 1 189 ± 29 1,790 ± 60
2003 TJ58 Cubewano 65 ± 15 S/2006 (2003 TJ58) 1 51 ± 12 3,840 ± 50
2003 UN284 Cubewano 124+6
−10
S/2003 (2003 UN284) 1 83+5
−7
54,000 ± 2,000
2003 WU188 Cubewano 178 S/2007(?) (2003 WU188) 1 129 1,300 ± 100
2003 YS179 Cubewano 126 S/2008 (2003 YS179) 1 110 7,830 ± 90
2003 YU179 Cubewano 146 S/2008 (2003 YU179) 1 80 2,000 ± 200
2004 KH19 Plutino 179 S/2011(?) (2004 KH19) 1 129 13,000
2004 PB108 Cubewano 243 ± 57 S/2006 (2004 PB108) 1 132 ± 31 10,400 ± 84
2005 EF298 Cubewano 138 S/2009 (2005 EF298) 1 105 7,700 ± 100
2005 EO304 Cubewano 152.4+2
−1.8
S/2005 (2005 EO304) 1 78+1.5
−1.4
69,800 ± 2,050
2005 GD187 Cubewano 123 S/2009 (2005 GD187) 1 102 7,600 ± 300
2005 VZ122 Cubewano 124 S/2008 (2005 VZ122) 1 49 2,300 ± 300
2006 BR284 Cubewano 89.8+0.8
−1
S/2006 (2006 BR284) 1 71 ± 1.5 25,300 ± 300
2006 CH69 Cubewano 100+12
−10
S/2004 (2006 CH69) 1 82+10
−8
27,000 ± 1,000
2006 SF369 1:3 Resonance 144 S/2007 (2006 SF369) 1 141 3,120 ± 80
HST5  ? 135 S/2005 (hst5) 1 135 16,400 ± 1,600

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dr. William J. Merline & Maria Martinez (2000-10-26). "Astronomers Image Double Asteroid". SwRI Press Release. Retrieved 2009-10-20.  (mentions both 90 Antiope and 762 Pulcova)
  2. ^ Dunham, David W.; Maley, Paul D. (December 1977). "Possible Observation of a Satellite of a Minor Planet". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 5: 16–17. Bibcode:1977MPBu....5...16D. 
  3. ^ a b c Wm. Robert Johnston (2009-10-16). "Asteroids with Satellites". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  4. ^ "Satellites and Companions of Minor Planets". IAU / Minor Planet Center. 2009-09-17. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
  5. ^ "90 Antiope: Raw Keck Image". SWrI Press Release. August 2000. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  6. ^ "IAUC 8732: S/2006 (624) 1". Retrieved 2011-01-08.  (Satellite Discovery)
  7. ^ Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.; et al. (2008). "Multiple Asteroid Systems: New Techniques to Study New Worlds" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  8. ^ Satellite of Minor Planet 532 Herculina Discovered During Occultation. David W. Dunham, The Minor Planet Bulletin, Volume 6, p.13–14 (December 1978) ADS archive copy
  9. ^ Storrs, Alex Weiss; Zellner; Burleson; Sichitiu; Wells; Kowal; Tholen (1999). "Imaging observations of asteroids with Hubble Space Telescope" (PDF). Icarus. 137 (2): 260–268. Bibcode:1999Icar..137..260S. doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6047. 
  10. ^ "Astronomers Discover Moon Orbiting Asteroid". SwRI. 1998. Retrieved 2009-10-21.  (Eugenia AO image)
  11. ^ Merline, W. J. (2001). "IAUC 7741: 2001fc; S/2001 (617) 1; C/2001 T1, C/2001 T2". 
  12. ^ Chiang, E.; Lithwick, Y.; Buie, M.; Grundy, W.; Holman, M.; A Brief History of Trans-Neptunian Space, to appear in Protostars and Planets V (August 2006) Final preprint on arXiv
  13. ^ Daniel W. E. Green (2005-08-11). "IAUC 8582: Sats OF (87)". International Astronomical Union Circular. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
  14. ^ Daniel W. E. Green (2007-03-07). "IAUC 8817: S/2004 (45) 1". International Astronomical Union Circular. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
  15. ^ Franck Marchis (Principal Investigator, SETI Institute, UC Berkeley). "Franck Marchis Web Page". Department of Astronomy (University of California at Berkeley). Archived from the original on 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  16. ^ Franck Marchis (Principal Investigator, SETI Institute, UC Berkeley) (2008-09-19). "Two Companions Found Near Dog-Bone Asteroid". SETI Institute. Retrieved 2009-10-26. 
  17. ^ Franck Marchis (2009-08-21). "The discovery of a new triple asteroid – (93) Minerva". Cosmic Diary Blog. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  18. ^ a b Noll, Keith S. "Solar System binaries", Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, Proceedings of the 229th Symposium of the IAU, Rio de Janeiro, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 2006., pp. 301–318 Preprint
  19. ^ T. Michałowski; et al. (2004). "Eclipsing binary asteroid 90 Antiope". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 423 (3): 1159. Bibcode:2004A&A...423.1159M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20040449. 
  20. ^ Bieryla, Allyson; Parker, J. W. (December 2006). "Search for Satellites around Ceres". 2007 AAS/AAPT Joint Meeting, American Astronomical Society Meeting 209, #25.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 38: 933. Bibcode:2006AAS...209.2502B. 
  21. ^ Santos-Sanz, P.; et al. (2012). ""TNOs are Cool": A Survey of the Transneptunian Region IV. Size/albedo characterization of 15 scattered disk and detached objects observed with Herschel Space Observatory-PACS". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 541: A92. Bibcode:2012A&A...541A..92S. arXiv:1202.1481Freely accessible [astro-ph.EP]. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118541. 
  22. ^ Lehtinen, K; Bach, U; Muinonen, K; Poutanen, M; Petrov, L (2 May 2016). "Asteroid sizing by radiogalaxy occultation at 5 GHz". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 822 (2): L21. Bibcode:2016ApJ...822L..21L. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/822/2/L21. Retrieved 28 October 2016. 
  23. ^ "Happelia satellite". www.asteroidoccultation.com. Retrieved 12 March 2017. 
  24. ^ http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/cbet/000800/CBET000860.txt CBET 860
  25. ^ Green, Daniel. "CBET 4262". IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Retrieved 11 March 2016. 
  26. ^ Braga-Ribas, F.; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Snodgrass, C.; Roques, F.; Vieira-Martins, R.; et al. (April 2014). "A ring system detected around the Centaur (10199) Chariklo" (PDF). Nature. 508 (7494): 72–75. Bibcode:2014Natur.508...72B. arXiv:1409.7259Freely accessible. doi:10.1038/nature13155. Retrieved 11 October 2017. 
  • Asteroids with Satellites web page, maintained up to date by W. Robert Johnston; and references therein. (last accessed 13-03-2007)
  • The VOBAD database a web page built and designed by F. Marchis and his collaborators (UC-Berkeley/SETI Institute) which contains the parameters of 169 multiple asteroid systems (last update May 9, 2009)

External links[edit]