Minor-planet moon

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243 Ida and its moon Dactyl as imaged by Galileo in 1993
762 Pulcova and satellite as seen with adaptive optics in 2000

A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite. It is thought that many asteroids and Kuiper belt objects may possess moons, in some cases quite substantial in size. Discoveries of minor-planet moons (and binary objects, in general) are important because the determination of their orbits provides estimates on the mass and density of the primary, allowing insights of their physical properties that is generally not otherwise possible.[1] As of April 2015, there are over 225 minor planets known to have moons.[2]

Terminology[edit]

In addition to the terms satellite and moon, the term "binary" (binary minor planet) is sometimes used for minor planets with moons, and "triple" for minor planets with two moons. If one object is much bigger it can be referred to as the primary and its companion as secondary. The term double asteroid is sometimes used for systems in which the asteroid and its moon are roughly the same size, while binary tends to be used independently from the relative sizes of the components. When binary minor planets are similar in size, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) refers to them as "binary companions" instead of referring to the smaller body as a satellite.[3] A good example of a true binary is the 90 Antiope system, identified in August 2000.[4] Small satellites are often referred to as moonlets.[1][5]

Discovery milestones[edit]

As of August 2015, over 270 moons of minor planets have been discovered.[2] These consist of:

Prior to the era of the Hubble telescope and space probes reaching the outer Solar System, attempts to detect satellites around asteroids were limited to optical observations from Earth. For example, in 1978, stellar occultation observations were claimed as evidence of a satellite for the asteroid 532 Herculina.[7] However, later more-detailed imaging by the Hubble Telescope did not reveal a satellite, and the current consensus is that Herculina does not have a significant satellite.[8] There were other similar reports of asteroids having companions (usually referred to as satellites) in the following years. Also, a letter in Sky & Telescope magazine[citation needed] at this time pointed to apparently simultaneous impact craters on Earth (for example, the Clearwater Lakes in Quebec), suggesting that these craters were caused by pairs of gravitationally-bound objects.

In 1993, the first asteroid moon was confirmed when the Galileo probe discovered the small Dactyl orbiting 243 Ida in the asteroid belt. The second was discovered around 45 Eugenia in 1998.[9] In 2001, 617 Patroclus and its same-sized companion Menoetius became the first known binary asteroids in the Jupiter trojans.[10] The first trans-Neptunian binary, 1998 WW31, was optically resolved in 2002.[11]

Triple systems[edit]

In 2005, the asteroid 87 Sylvia was discovered to have two satellites, making it the first known triple asteroid.[12] This was followed by the discovery of a second moon orbiting 45 Eugenia.[13] Also in 2005, the Kuiper belt object (KBO) Haumea was discovered to have two moons, making it the second KBO after Pluto known to have more than one moon.[14]

Additionally, 216 Kleopatra[15] and 93 Minerva[16] were discovered to be trinary asteroids in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Since the first few trinary asteroids were discovered, more continue to be discovered at a rate of about one a year. Most recently discovered was a third moon orbiting the Main-belt asteroid 130 Elektra, bringing the number of known trinary asteroids in the asteroid belt up to 6.

List of triple asteroids:

Parent body Parent body orbit Satellite name Discovery date Announcement date Announcement of trinary
134340 Pluto TNO Charon 1978/06/22 1978/07/07 2005/10/31
45 Eugenia Asteroid belt Petit-Prince 1998/11/01 1999/03/20 2007/03/07
87 Sylvia Asteroid belt Romulus 2001/02/18 2005/08/11 2005/08/11
(47171) 1999 TC36 TNO S/2001 (47171) 1 2001/12/08 2002/01/10 2009/??/??
3749 Balam Asteroid belt S/2002 (3749) 1 2002/02/08 2002/02/13 2008/03/12
130 Elektra Asteroid belt S/2003 (130) 1 2003/08/15 2003/08/17 2014/12/16
45 Eugenia Asteroid belt S/2004 (45) 1 2004/02/14 2007/03/07 2007/03/07
87 Sylvia Asteroid belt Remus 2004/08/09 2005/08/11 2005/08/11
136108 Haumea TNO Hi'iaka 2005/01/26 2008/09/17 2008/09/17
134340 Pluto TNO Nix 2005/05/15 2005/10/31 2005/10/31
134340 Pluto TNO Hydra 2005/05/15 2005/10/31 2005/10/31
136108 Haumea TNO Namaka 2005/06/30 2008/09/17 2008/09/17
3749 Balam Asteroid belt S/2007 (3749) 1 2007/07/15 2008/03/12 2008/03/12
(153591) 2001 SN263 Amor Beta 2008/02/12 2008/02/12 2008/02/12
(153591) 2001 SN263 Amor Gamma 2008/02/12 2008/02/12 2008/02/12
216 Kleopatra Asteroid belt Alexhelios 2008/09/19 2011/02/18 2011/02/18
216 Kleopatra Asteroid belt Cleoselene 2008/09/19 2011/02/18 2011/02/18
2577 Litva Mars-crosser S/2009 (2577) 1 2009/02/28 2009/03/11 2013/12/22
(136617) 1994 CC Apollo Beta 2009/06/12 2009/06/19 2009/06/19
(136617) 1994 CC Apollo Gamma 2009/06/12 2009/06/19 2009/06/19
(47171) 1999 TC36 TNO S/2009 (47171) 1 2009/??/?? 2009/??/?? 2009/??/??
93 Minerva Asteroid belt Aegis 2009/08/16 2013/12/17 2013/12/17
93 Minerva Asteroid belt Gorgoneion 2009/08/16 2013/12/17 2013/12/17
134340 Pluto TNO Kerberos 2011/06/28 2013/07/02 2005/10/31
2577 Litva Mars-crosser S/2012 (2577) 1 2012/06/22 2013/12/22 2013/12/22
134340 Pluto TNO Styx 2012/06/26 2013/07/02 2005/10/31
130 Elektra Asteroid belt S/2014 (130) 1 2014/12/06 2014/12/16 2014/12/16

Commonality[edit]

The data about the populations of binary objects are still patchy. In addition to the inevitable observational bias (dependence on the distance from Earth, size, albedo and separation of the components) the frequency appears to be different among different categories of objects. Among asteroids, an estimated 2% would have satellites. Among trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), an estimated 11% are believed to be binary or multiple objects, but three of the four known large TNO (75%) have at least one satellite.

More than 50 binaries are known in each of the main groupings: near-Earth asteroids, main-belt asteroids, and trans-Neptunians, not including numerous claims based solely on light-curve variation.

Two binaries have been found so far among centaurs with semi-major axes smaller than Neptune.[17] Both are double ring systems around 2060 Chiron and 10199 Chariklo, discovered in 1994-2011 and 2013 respectively.

Origin[edit]

The origin of minor-planet moons is not currently known with certainty, and a variety of theories exist. A widely accepted theory is that minor-planet moons are formed from debris knocked off of the primary by an impact. Other pairings may be formed when a small object is captured by the gravity of a larger one.

Formation by collision is constrained by the angular momentum of the components, i.e. by the masses and their separation. Close binaries fit this model (e.g. PlutoCharon). Distant binaries however, with components of comparable size, are unlikely to have followed this scenario, unless considerable mass has been lost in the event.

The distances of the components for the known binaries vary from a few hundreds of kilometres (243 Ida, 3749 Balam) to more than 3000 km (379 Huenna) for the asteroids. Among TNOs, the known separations vary from 3,000 to 50,000 km.[17]

Populations[edit]

What is "typical" for a binary system tends to depend on its location in the Solar System (presumably because of different modes of origin and lifetimes of such systems in different populations of minor planets).[18]

  • Among near-Earth asteroids, satellites tend to orbit at distances of the order of 3–7 primary radii, and have diameters two to several times smaller than the primary. Since these binaries are all inner-planet crossers, it is thought that tidal stresses that occurred when the parent object passed close to a planet may be responsible for the formation of many of them, although collisions are thought to also be a factor in the creation of these satellites.
  • Among main-belt asteroids, the satellites are usually much smaller than the primary (a notable exception being 90 Antiope), and orbit around 10 primary radii away. Many of the binary systems here are members of asteroid families, and a good proportion of satellites are expected to be fragments of a parent body whose disruption after an asteroid collision produced both the primary and satellite.
  • Among trans-Neptunian objects, it is common for the two orbiting components to be of comparable size, and for the semi-major axis of their orbits to be much larger − about 100 to 1000 primary radii. A significant proportion of these binaries are expected to be primordial.

Dwarf planets[edit]

Among the dwarf planets, it is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself.[19]

Pluto has five known moons. Its largest moon Charon is more than half the size of Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In fact, each orbits the common barycenter between them, with Pluto's orbit entirely enclosed by Charon's; thus they form a binary system informally referred to as a double dwarf planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx, are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system.

Haumea has two moons with radii estimated around 155 km (Hiʻiaka) and 85 km (Namaka).

Makemake has no known moons. A satellite having 1% Makemake's brightness would have been detected if it had been located at an angular distance from Makemake farther than 0.4 arcseconds (0.0001 degrees; 2 microradians).[20]

Eris has one known moon, Dysnomia. Its radius, based on its brightness, is estimated to be roughly between 150 and 350 km.[21]

List of minor planets with moons[edit]

Near-Earth objects[edit]

(357439) 2004 BL86 and its moon
Radar images of asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4 and its moon. The 'streaks' on the image are the moon's trail as it moved while the images were created.
Near-Earth encounter of asteroid (136617) 1994 CC in June 2009, showing two moons

There are 55 known near-Earth asteroids with moons (14 Amor, 34 Apollo, and 7 Aten) with a total of 57 moons.

Name Type Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km)
1862 Apollo Apollo 1.55 ± 0.07 S/2005 (1862) 1 0.08 ± 0.06 3.75 ± 0.25
1866 Sisyphus Apollo 8.48 ± 1.27 S/1985 (1866) 1  ?  ?
3671 Dionysus Amor 1.43 ± 0.2 S/1997 (3671) 1 0.29 ± 0.05 3.4 ± 0.6
5143 Heracles Apollo 3.6 ± 1.2 S/2011 (5143) 1 0.6 ± 0.3 4
5381 Sekhmet Aten 1 ± 0.05 S/2003 (5381) 1 0.3 ± 0.05 1.54 ± 0.12
(5646) 1990 TR Amor 2.68 ± 0.51 S/2012 (5646) 1 0.48 ± 0.11 5.1
7088 Ishtar Amor 1.39 S/2006 (7088) 1 0.58 2.8
(7888) 1993 UC Apollo 2.72 S/2013 (7888) 1  ?  ?
(31345) 1998 PG Amor 0.9 ± 0.2 S/2001 (31345) 1 0.27 1.4
(35107) 1991 VH Apollo 1.04 ± 0.2 S/2001 (35107) 1 0.42 ± 0.08 3.26 ± 0.035
65803 Didymos Amor 0.75 ± 0.1 S/2003 (65803) 1 0.17 ± 0.03 1.18 ± 0.03
(66063) 1998 RO1 Aten 0.8 ± 0.15 S/2001 (66063) 1 0.38 ± 0.08 1.2 ± 0.03
(66391) 1999 KW4 Aten 1.317 ± 0.04 S/2001 (66391) 1 0.451 ± 0.027 2.548 ± 0.015
69230 Hermes Apollo 0.6 ± 0.12 S/2003 (69230) 1 0.54 ± 0.12 1.1
(85938) 1999 DJ4 Apollo 0.43 ± 0.08 S/2004 (85938) 1 0.21 ± 0.05 0.8
(88710) 2001 SL9 Apollo 0.96 S/2001 (88710) 1 0.2 1.6
(136617) 1994 CC Apollo 0.62 ± 0.06 Beta
(S/2009 (136617) 1)
0.113 ± 0.03 1.729 ± 0.0008
Gamma
(S/2009 (136617) 2)
0.08 ± 0.03 6.130 ± 0.108
(136993) 1998 ST49 Apollo 0.69 ± 0.08 S/2012 (136993) 1 0.08 ± 0.04  ?
(137170) 1999 HF1 Aten 3.64 ± 0.73 S/1999 (137170) 1 0.84 ± 0.2 7.3 ± 1.8
(138095) 2000 DK79 Amor 2.18 S/2013 (138095) 1  ?  ?
(153591) 2001 SN263 Amor 2.6 Gamma
(S/2008 (153591) 2)
0.46 3.804 ± 0.002
Beta
(S/2008 (153591) 1)
1.06 16.633 ± 0.163
(153958) 2002 AM31 Apollo 0.45 ± 0.05 S/2012 (153958) 1 0.11 1.5
(162000) 1990 OS Apollo 0.3 ± 0.02 S/2003 (162000) 1 0.05 ± 0.02 0.6
(162483) 2000 PJ5 Aten 0.55 S/2005 (162483) 1 0.28 1.05 ± 0.1
(164121) 2003 YT1 Apollo 1.1 ± 0.2 S/2004 (164121) 1 0.21 ± 0.06 3.93 ± 0.8
(175706) 1996 FG3 Apollo 1.69 ± 0.22 S/1998 (175706) 1 0.49 ± 0.08 3 ± 0.6
(185851) 2000 DP107 Apollo 0.8 ± 0.16 S/2000 (185851) 1 0.3 ± 0.15 2.62 ± 0.16
(190208) 2006 AQ Amor 1.06 S/2015 (190208) 1  ?  ?
(276049) 2002 CE26 Apollo 3.46 ± 0.35 S/2004 (276049) 1 0.3 ± 0.1 4.7 ± 0.2
(285263) 1998 QE2 Amor 3.2 ± 0.3 S/2013 (285263) 1 0.8 ± 0.08 6.212 ± 0.1
(311066) 2004 DC Apollo 0.36 S/2006 (311066) 1 0.07 0.75 ± 0.045
(357439) 2004 BL86 Apollo 0.32 S/2015 (357439) 1 0.07 0.5
(363027) 1998 ST27 Aten 0.8 S/2001 (363027) 1 0.12 4.5 ± 0.5
(363067) 2000 CO101 Apollo 0.62 S/2009 (363067) 1 0.04 0.61
(363599) 2004 FG11 Apollo 0.15 ± 0.03 S/2012 (363599) 1 <0.08 0.25 ± 0.05
(374851) 2006 VV2 Apollo 1.06 ± 0.05 S/2007 (374851) 1 >0.3 1.5
(385186) 1994 AW1 Amor 0.94 S/1994 (385186) 1 0.46 2
(399307) 1991 RJ2 Amor 0.5 S/2014 (399307) 1 0.24 0.86
(399774) 2005 NB7 Apollo 0.5 ± 0.1 S/2008 (399774) 1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.6
1994 CJ1 Apollo <0.15 S/2014 (1999 CJ1) 1 <0.15 0.525
1994 XD Apollo 0.6 ± 0.15 S/2005 (1994 JD) 1 >0.15 0.6 ± 0.3
2000 UG11 Apollo 0.26 ± 0.03 S/2000 (2000 UG11) 1 0.13 ± 0.03 0.426 ± 0.027
2002 BM26 Amor 0.6 ± 0.0.3 S/2002 (2002 BM26) 1 0.1 ± 0.03 1.4
2002 KK8 Amor 0.5 ± 0.02 S/2002 (2002 KK8) 1 0.1 ± 0.02  ?
2003 SS84 Apollo 0.12 ± 0.02 S/2003 (2003 SS83) 1 0.06 ± 0.02 0.27
2005 AB Amor >1.9 S/2005 (2005 AB) 1 0.46 3.4
2005 YQ96 Aten 0.27 S/2014 (2005 YQ96) 1  ?  ?
2006 GY2 Apollo 0.4 S/2006 (2006 GY2) 1 0.08 0.5
2007 DT103 Apollo 0.3 S/2007 (2007 DT103) 1 >0.08 0.45
2007 LE Apollo 0.5 S/2012 (2007 LE) 1 0.18 1.4
2008 BT18 Apollo 0.6 S/2008 (2008 BT18) 1 >0.2 1.5
2008 DG17 Apollo 0.38 S/2013 (2008 DG17) 1  ?  ?
2013 WT44 Apollo 1 ± 0.1 S/2014 (2013 WT44) 1  ?  ?
2014 WZ120 Apollo 0.34 S/2014 (2014 WZ120) 1 0.11  ?
2014 YB35 Apollo 0.73 S/2015 (2014 YB35) 1  ?  ?

Mars crossers[edit]

There are 21 Mars-crossing asteroids with moons with a total of 22 moons.

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km)
1139 Atami 6 S/2005 (1139) 1 5 >15
1727 Mette 10.18 S/2013 (1727) 1 2.14 21
2044 Wirt 6.46 ± 0.58 S/2006 (2044) 1 1.62 ± 0.19 12
2449 Kenos 6.2 S/2015 (2449) 1  ?  ?
2577 Litva 4 S/2009 (2577) 1 1.4 21
S/2012 (2577) 1 1.2 378
3873 Roddy 7.25 ± 0.24 S/2012 (3873) 1 1.96 ± 0.16 14
5261 Eureka 1.19 S/2011 (5261) 1 0.46 2.1
(5407) 1992 AX 3.9 ± 1 S/2001 (5407) 1 0.78 ± 0.21 5.8
7369 Gavrilin 7.54 S/2007 (7369) 1 2.41 27
8373 Stephengould 5.29 S/2010 (8373) 1 1.43 15
(15700) 1987 QD 4.15 S/2010 (15700) 1  ?  ?
(16635) 1993 QO 4.61 S/2007 (16635) 1 1.24 12
26074 Carlwirtz 3.62 S/2013 (26074) 1  ? 6.1
(26471) 2000 AS152 5.61 ± 0.41 S/2009 (26471) 1 2.05 ± 0.19 18
(32039) 2000 JO23 3.96 S/2007 (32039) 1 1.27 53
(34706) 2001 OP83 3.48 S/2005 (34706) 1 0.98 7
(51356) 2000 RY76 3.23 S/2012 (51356) 1 0.68 13
(53432) 1999 UT55 2.55 S/2013 (53432) 1 0.59 4
(99913) 1997 CZ5 6.77 S/2010 (99913) 1.29 11
(114319) 2002 XD58 2.62 S/2005 (114319) 1  ?  ?
(218144) 2002 RL66 3.46 S/2010 (218144) 1  ?  ?

Asteroid belt[edit]

There are 104 asteroids with 110 moons in the asteroid belt.

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km)
22 Kalliope (215×180×150) Linus 28 ± 2 1,095 ± 11
41 Daphne (239x183x153) S/2008 (41) 1 <2 443
45 Eugenia (305×220×145) Petit-Prince (Eugenia I) 7 ± 2 1,164.42 ± 0.03
S/2004 (45) 1 5 ± 1 610.59 ± 0.06
87 Sylvia (385×265×230) Remus (Sylvia II) 10.6 ± 1.6 701.64 ± 0.02
Romulus (Sylvia I) 10.8 ± 5.6 1,351.35 ± 0.01
90 Antiope 110±16 S/2000 (90) 1 87.8 ± 1 171 ± 1
93 Minerva 140 Aegis (Minerva I) 3.6 ± 1.0 623.5 ± 10
Gorgoneion (Minerva II) 3.2 ± 0.9 375 ± 16
107 Camilla (285×205×170) ± 20 S/2001 (107) 1 16 ± 6 1,250 ± 10
121 Hermione (254×125) S/2002 (121) 1 32 747 ± 11
130 Elektra (215×155) S/2003 (130) 1 7 ± 3 1,318 ± 25
S/2014 (130) 1 5.2 ±1.2 460
216 Kleopatra 217×94×81 Alexhelios (Kleopatra I) 8.9 ± 1.6 678 ± 13
Cleoselene (Kleopatra II) 6.9 ±1.6 454 ± 6
243 Ida (59.8×25.4×18.6) Dactyl (Ida I) (1.6×1.4×1.2) 108
283 Emma 148.1 ± 4.6 S/2003 (283) 1 9 ± 5 581 ± 3.6
317 Roxane 19 S/2009 (317) 1 5.3 257
379 Huenna 92.3 ± 1.7 S/2003 (379) 1 5.8 ± 1.2 3,336 ± 54.9
702 Alauda 194.73 ± 3.2 Pichi üñëm 3.51 ± 0.9 1,227 ± 24
762 Pulcova 137.1 ± 3.2 S/2000 (762) 1 19 ± 7 703 ± 14
809 Lundia 6.9 ± 2.4 S/2005 (809) 1 6.1 ± 2.1 15.8
854 Frostia 13.7 ± 5.6 S/2004 (854) 1 4.6 17
939 Isberga (14.5×11.8×11.1) S/2006 (939) 1 (3.8×3.5×3.5) 33 ± 4.5
1052 Belgica 9.79 ± 0.08 S/2012 (1052) 1 3.53 34
1089 Tama 10.7 ± 0.5 S/2003 (1089) 1 7.33 20.7 ± 1.3
1313 Berna 10.6 ± 0.24 S/2004 (1313) 1 8.37 25
1333 Cevenola 17.15 ± 0.24 S/2008 (1333) 1  ?  ?
1338 Duponta 7.68 ± 0.06 S/2007 (1338) 1 1.77 ± 0.15 14
1453 Fennia 6.96 ± 0.39 S/2007 (1453) 1 1.95 ± 0.18 15
1509 Esclangona 7.76 ± 0.57 S/2003 (1509) 1 2.57 140
1717 Arlon 9.13 ± 0.17 S/2006 (1717) 1  ? 17
1830 Pogson 7.89 ± 0.11 S/2007 (1830) 1 2.52 18
2006 Polonskaya 4.51 ± 0.16 S/2005 (2006) 1 0.99 8.5
2047 Smetana 3 ± 0.15 S/2012 (2047) 1 0.63 ± 0.07 6.3
2121 Sevastopol 8.62 ± 0.04 S/2010 (2121) 1 3.54 ± 0.17 26
2131 Mayall 8.28 ± 0.07 S/2009 (2131) 1 2.15 18
2478 Tokai 8.1 ± 0.02 S/2007 (2478) 1 5.83 21
2486 Metsähovi[22] 8.42 ± 0.03 S/2007 (2486) 1  ?  ?
2623 Zech 7.92 S/2014 (2623) 1  ?  ?
2691 Sersic 5 ± 0.11 S/2011 (2691) 1 2.15 ± 0.11 12
2754 Efimov 6.46 S/2006 (2754) 1 1.29 10
2815 Soma 6.95 ± 0.09 S/2011 (2815) 1 1.74 ± 0.14 13
3034 Climenhaga 9.97 S/2009 (3034) 1  ? 19
3073 Kursk 6.69 S/2007 (3073) 1 1.67 22
3169 Ostro (4.4×3.4×3.2) S/2005 (3169) 1 (4.8×2.6×2.4) 5.2
3309 Brorfelde 4.88 ± 0.08 S/2005 (3309) 1 1.27 ± 0.1 9
3673 Levy 6.17 ± 0.15 S/2007 (3673) 1 1.73 ± 0.19 13
3703 Volkonskaya 3.46 ± 0.1 S/2003 (3703) 1 1.39 7.8
3749 Balam 3.95 S/2002 (3749) 1 1.84 289 ± 13
S/2008 (3749) 1 1.66 20
3782 Celle 5.44 ± 0.21 S/2003 (3782) 1 2.34 ± 0.11 18 ± 1
3841 Dicicco 6.02 S/2014 (3841) 1 >1.67 12
3868 Mendoza 9.13 ± 0.05 S/2009 (3868) 1 2.01 ± 0.18 20
3905 Doppler 6.27 S/2013 (3905) 1 4.83 26
3951 Zichichi 6.38 ± 0.2 S/2006 (3951) 1 2.11 16
3982 Kastel 6.79 ± 0.36 S/2005 (3982) 1  ?  ?
4029 Bridges 7.8 ± 0.07 S/2006 (4029) 1 1.87 ± 0.16 13
4383 Suruga 6.33 ± 0.09 S/2013 (4383) 1 1.33 ± 0.13 11
4440 Tchantches 2.03 ± 0.57 S/2005 (4440) 1 0.51 ± 0.16 3.8
4492 Debussy 14.6 ± 0.59 S/2004 (4492) 1 9.39 31
4514 Vilen 6.09 S/2015 (4514) 1 >1.58 11
4541 Mizuno 6.29 ± 1.34 S/2015 (4541) 1  ?  ?
4607 Seilandfarm 7.12 ± 0.12 S/2009 (4607) 1 2.06 19
4674 Pauling 4.46 ± 0.05 S/2004 (4674) 1 1.41 250
4675 Ohboke 1.76 ± 0.48 S/2013 (4675) 1 0.28 ± 0.08 2.9
4786 Tatianina 3.22 ± 0.2 S/2006 (4786) 1 0.61 ± 0.1 6.6
4868 Knushevia 1.52 ± 0.32 S/2015 (4868) 1 >0.2 2.1
4951 Iwamoto 4.39 ± 0.02 S/2007 (4951) 1 3.34 31
5426 Sharp 2.033 ± 0.34 S/2014 (5426) 1  ? 4.5
5474 Gingasen 5.05 ± 0.48 S/2008 (5474) 1  ?  ?
5477 Holmes 2.95 ± 0.13 S/2005 (5477) 1 1.09 ± 0.08 6.7
5481 Kiuchi 7.52 S/2008 (5481) 1 2.48 15
5899 Jedicke 2.54 ± 0.16 S/2010 (5899) 1 0.81 4.4
5905 Johnson 4.45 ± 0.07 S/2005 (5905) 1 1.78 ± 0.18 9.3
6084 Bascom 5.96 ± 0.21 S/2006 (6084) 1 2.2 ± 0.14 20
6244 Okamoto 6.69 S/2006 (6244) 1 1.67 13
(6265) 1985 TW3 4.81 ± 0.1 S/2007 (6265) 1 1.16 ± 0.1 8
6615 Plutarchos 3.14 ± 0.04 S/2007 (6615) 1  ? 9.7
6708 Bobbievaile 8.02 ± 0.02 S/2009 (6708) 1 4.57 19
7187 Isobe 6.05 ± 1.46 S/2012 (7187) 1  ?  ?
7225 Huntress 6.54 ± 0.22 S/2007 (7225) 1 1.37 ± 0.14 10
7958 Leakey 2.82 ± 0.16 S/2012 (7958) 1 0.85 ± 0.1 10
8026 Johnmckay 1.69 ± 0.24 S/2010 (8026) 1  ?  ?
8116 Jeanperrin 4.53 ± 0.08 S/2007 (8116) 1 1.49 13
8306 Shoko 3.21 S/2013 (8306) 1 1.28 9.4
8474 Rettig 4.5 S/2015 (8474) 1 >3.9 14
9069 Hovland 3 S/2004 (9069) 1 0.9 7.8
9260 Edwardolson 3.98 ± 0.35 S/2005 (9260) 1 1.07 ± 0.15 7.2
9617 Grahamchapman 2.74 ± 0.37 S/2006 (9617) 1 0.74 ± 0.13 5.2
10208 Germanicus 3.23 ± 0.18 S/2007 (10208) 1 1.48 ± 0.11 13
(11217) 1999 JC4 3.3 S/2013 (11217) 1  ? 6.2
11264 Claudiomaccone <4 S/2003 (11264) 1 >1.24 6
15268 Wendelinefroger 3.83 S/2008 (15268) 1 1.03 8.7
(15430) 1998 UR31 3.74 ± 0.03 S/2010 (15430) 1  ? 8.2
(15822) 1994 TV15 1.69 ± 0.3 S/2010 (15822) 1 0.32 ± 0.07 3.3
16525 Shumarinaiko 5.18 ± 0.15 S/2013 (16525) 1 0.83 ± 0.11 8.1
(17246) 2000 GL74 4.5 S/2004 (17246) 1 1 228
(17260) 2000 JQ58 4.62 S/2006 (17260) 1 1.2 7.4
(18890) 2000 EV26 3.86 S/2014 (18890) 1 >1.04 6
(20325) 1998 HO27 4.94 ± 1.01 S/2014 (20325) 1  ?  ?
(22899) 1999 TO14 5.54 ± 0.46 S/2003 (22899) 1 1.23 182
(26416) 1999 XM84 4.56 S/2015 (26416) 1  ?  ?
(27568) 2000 PT6 1.82 ± 0.42 S/2013 (26578) 1  ? 3.1
(32008) 2000 HM53 4.23 S/2007 (32008) 1 1.69 13
(46829) 1998 OS14 3.06 S/2015 (46829) 1 1.22 5.4
(52316) 1992 BD 3.26 S/2012 (52316) 1 0.52 4.9
(69406) 1995 SX48 3.12 ± 0.02 S/2013 (69406) 1 0.59 ± 0.06 5.3
(76818) 2000 RG79 3.6 S/2005 (76818) 1 1.33 5.6
(79472) 1998 AX4 3.79 S/2012 (79472) 1  ? 9

Jupiter trojans[edit]

There are 4 Jupiter trojans with known moons.

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km)
617 Patroclus 121.8 ± 3.2 Menoetius (Patroclus I) 98 ± 10 680 ± 20
624 Hektor (363×207) S/2006 (624) 1 12 ± 3 957.5 ±55.3
(17365) 1978 VF11 32.6 ± 0.61 S/2005 (17365) 1 27.5 ± 2.25 43
29314 Eurydamas 32 S/2005 (29314) 1 24 41

Centaurs[edit]

There are only 2 centaurs with satellites, both of which are ring systems instead of moons.

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km)
10199 Chariklo 248±18 rings 2013C1R 6.16±0.11 390.6±3.3
2013C2R 7.17±0.14 404.8±3.3
2060 Chiron 233±14 rings ring 1 3 324±10
ring 2 7

Trans-Neptunian objects[edit]

There are 79 Trans-Neptunian objects with moons, with a total of 85 moons.

Name Type Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km)
134340 Pluto Plutino 2306 ± 20 Charon (Pluto I) 1207.2 ± 2.8 19,573 ± 2
Styx (Pluto V) 18 ±10 42,487 ± 81
Nix (Pluto II) 93 ± 47 48,841 ± 23
Kerberos (Pluto IV) 29 ±15 57,731 ± 28
Hydra (Pluto III) 115 ±57 64,736 ± 10
(26308) 1998 SM165 Plutino 268 ± 28 S/2001 (26308) 1 81 ± 14 11,377 ± 8
38628 Huya Plutino 406 ± 16 S/2012 (38628) 1 213 ± 30 1740 ± 80
42355 Typhon SDO 162 ± 7 Echidna (Typhon I) 89 ± 6 1,580 ± 20
(47171) 1999 TC36 Plutino 272+17
19
S/2001 (47171) 1 132+8
9
7,411 ± 12
S/2009 (47171) 1 251+16
17
867 ± 11
(48639) 1995 TL8 SDO 176 S/2002 (48639) 1 80 420 ± 300
50000 Quaoar Cubewano 1070 ± 38 Weywot (Quaoar I) 81 ± 11 13,800 ± 1,000
(55637) 2002 UX25 Cubewano 665 ± 29 S/2007 (55637) 1 210 ± 30 4770 ± 40
58534 Logos Cubewano 82 ± 18 Zoe (Logos I) 67 8,217 ± 42
(60458) 2000 CM114 SDO 167 S/2006 (60458) 1 128 2,200 ± 200
(60621) 2000 FE8 2:5 resonance 146 S/2007 (60621) 1 111 1,180 ± 80
65489 Ceto SDO 223 ± 10 Phorcys (Ceto I) 171 ± 10 1,840 ± 44
66652 Borasisi Cubewano 126+25
51
Pabu (Borasisi I) 103+20
42
4,528 ± 12
79360 Sila–Nunam Cubewano 249+30
31
Nunam 236+28
29
2,777 ± 19
(80806) 2000 CM105 Cubewano 160 S/2005 (80806) 1 121 2,700 ± 300
(82075) 2000 YW134 SDO 216 S/2005 (82075) 1 75 1900 ± 300
(82157) 2001 FM185 2:3 resonance 138 S/2008 (82157) 1 120 3130 ± 90
88611 Teharonhiawako Cubewano 178+33
36
Sawiskera (Teharonhiawako I) 129+24
26
27,670 ± 120
90482 Orcus Plutino 917 ± 25 Vanth (Orcus I) 276 ± 17 9,006 ± 16
(119067) 2001 KP76 4:7 resonance 153 S/2007 (119067) 1 146 8,900 ± 100
(119979) 2002 WC19 1:2 resonance 440 S/2007 (119979) 1 139 4,090 ± 90
120347 Salacia Cubewano 854 ± 45 Actaea (Salacia I) 286 ± 24 5,619 ± 87
(123509) 2000 WK183 Cubewano 106 ± 24 S/2007 (123509) 1 101 2,366 ± 28
(134860) 2000 OJ67 Cubewano 138 ± 32 S/2003 (134860) 1 108 ± 25 2,270 ± 30
136108 Haumea Cubewano 1379 ± 57 Hiʻiaka (Haumea I) 320 49,880 ± 198
Namaka (Haumea II) 160 25,657 ± 91
136199 Eris SDO 2326 ± 12 Dysnomia (Eris I) 514 ± 221 37,580 ± 260
(139775) 2001 QG298 Plutino 135 S/2004 (139775) 1 117 172
148780 Altjira Cubewano 246+38
139
S/2007 (148780) 1 221+34
125
9,904 ± 56
(160091) 2000 OL67 Cubewano 153 S/2007 (160091) 1 116 7,800
(160256) 2002 PD149 Cubewano 186 S/2007 (160256) 1 155 24,400 ± 300
174567 Varda Cubewano 705+81
75
Ilmarë (Varda I) 361+42
38
4,800 ± 20
(182933) 2002 GZ31 SDO 195 S/2006 (182933) 1 123 2,060 ± 270
(208996) 2003 AZ84 Plutino 723 ± 64 S/2005 (208996) 1 72 ± 12 7,200 ± 300
(229762) 2007 UK126 SDO 590 ± 76 S/2008 (229762) 1 103 3,600 ± 1,300
(275809) 2001 QY297 Cubewano 169+16
80
S/2006 (275809) 1 154+15
73
9,960 ± 31
(303712) 2005 PR21 Cubewano 227 S/2007 (303712) 1 137 3,600 ± 300
341520 Mors-Somnus Plutino 102 S/2007 (341520) 1 97 21,040 ± 70
(364570) 2006 JZ81 Cubewano 122+20
12
S/2006 (364570) 1 78+13
8
33,000 ± 2,000
385446 Manwë 4:7 resonance 160+24
44
Thorondor (Manwë I) 92+14
26
6,674 ± 41
1998 WV24 Plutino 110 S/2007 (1998 WV24) 1 96 1,420 ± 60
1998 WW31 Cubewano 148 S/2000 (1998 WW31) 1 123 22,620 ± 40
1999 OJ4 Cubewano? 75 ± 17 S/2002 (1999 OJ4) 1 82 ± 16 3,267 ± 60
1999 RT214 Cubewano 100 S/2006 (1999 RT214) 1 69 3,310 ± 30
1999 RY214 Cubewano 125 S/2008 (1999 RY214) 1 76 1,500 ± 200
1999 XY143 Cubewano 213 S/2008 (199 XY143) 1 179 2,670 ± 70
2000 CF105 Cubewano 63.6+1.2
1.6
S/2002 (2000 CF105) 1 50 ± 2 33,300 ± 550
2000 CQ114 Cubewano 132 S/2003 (2000 CQ114) 1 115 6,930 ± 40
2000 QL251 1:2 Resonance 148 ± 34 S/2006 (2000 QL251) 1 143 ± 33 5,002 ± 27
2000 WT169 Cubewano 205 S/2008 (2000 WT169) 1 168 2,600 ± 100
2001 FL185 Cubewano 142 S/2006 (2001 FL185) 1 88 1,900 ± 400
2001 QC298 Cubewano 235+21
23
S/2002 (2001 QC298) 1 192+17
19
3,813 ± 15
2001 QQ322 Cubewano 171 S/2007 (2001 QQ322) 1 196 3,890 ± 90
2001 QW322 Cubewano 128+2
4
S/2001 (2001 QW322) 1 126+3
5
102,100 ± 700
2001 RZ143 Cubewano 108 S/2001 (2001 RZ143) 1 90 1,560 ± 30
2001 XP254 3:5 Resonance 108 S/2008 (2001 XP254) 1 77 1,200 ± 100
2001 XR254 Cubewano 171+32
55
S/2005 (2001 XR254) 1 140+26
45
2,780 ± 20
2002 VF130  ? 121 S/2008 (2002 VF130) 1 105 22,400 ± 100
2002 VT130 Cubewano 251 S/2008 (2002 VT130) 1 205 2,490 ± 80
2002 XH91 Cubewano 298 S/2008 (2002 XH91) 1 185 19,900 ± 100
2003 FE128 1:2 Resonance 178 S/2010 (2003 FE128) 1 131 2,140 ± 50
2003 HG57 Cubewano 156 S/2010 (2003 HG57) 1 156 13,200 ± 50
2003 QY90 SDO 81 ± 19 S/2003 (2003 QY90) 1 80 8,549 ± 95
2003 QA91 Cubewano 188 ± 24 S/2006 (2003 QA91) 1 180 ± 35 1,900 ± 100
2003 QR91 Cubewano 207 ± 21 S/2007(?) (2003 QR91) 1 189 ± 29 1,790 ± 60
2003 TJ58 Cubewano 65 ± 15 S/2006 (2003 TJ58) 1 51 ± 12 3,840 ± 50
2003 UN284 Cubewano 124+6
10
S/2003 (2003 UN284) 1 83+5
7
54,000 ± 2,000
2003 WU188 Cubewano 178 S/2007(?) (2003 WU188) 1 129 1,300 ± 100
2003 YS179 Cubewano 126 S/2008 (2003 YS179) 1 110 7,830 ± 90
2003 YU179 Cubewano 146 S/2008 (2003 YU179) 1 80 2,000 ± 200
2004 KH19 Plutino 179 S/2011(?) (2004 KH19) 1 129 13,000
2004 PB108 Cubewano 243 ± 57 S/2006 (2004 PB108) 1 132 ± 31 10,400 ± 84
2005 EF298 Cubewano 138 S/2009 (2005 EF298) 1 105 7,700 ± 100
2005 EO304 Cubewano 152.4+2
1.8
S/2005 (2005 EO304) 1 78+1.5
1.4
69,800 ± 2,050
2005 GD187 Cubewano 123 S/2009 (2005 GD187) 1 102 7,600 ± 300
2005 VZ122 Cubewano 124 S/2008 (2005 VZ122) 1 49 2,300 ± 300
2006 BR284 Cubewano 89.8+0.8
1
S/2006 (2006 BR284) 1 71 ± 1.5 25,300 ± 300
2006 CH69 Cubewano 100+12
10
S/2004 (2006 CH69) 1 82+10
8
27,000 ± 1,000
2006 SF369 1:3 Resonance 144 S/2007 (2006 SF369) 1 141 3,120 ± 80
HST5  ? 135 S/2005 (hst5) 1 135 16,400 ± 1,600

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dr. William J. Merline & Maria Martinez (2000-10-26). "Astronomers Image Double Asteroid". SwRI Press Release. Retrieved 2009-10-20.  (mentions both 90 Antiope and 762 Pulcova)
  2. ^ a b c Wm. Robert Johnston (2009-10-16). "Asteroids with Satellites". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  3. ^ "Satellites and Companions of Minor Planets". IAU / Minor Planet Center. 2009-09-17. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
  4. ^ "90 Antiope: Raw Keck Image". SWrI Press Release. August 2000. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  5. ^ "IAUC 8732: S/2006 (624) 1". Retrieved 2011-01-08.  (Satellite Discovery)
  6. ^ Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P. et al. (2008). "Multiple Asteroid Systems: New Techniques to Study New Worlds" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  7. ^ Satellite of Minor Planet 532 Herculina Discovered During Occultation. David W. Dunham, The Minor Planet Bulletin, Volume 6, p.13–14 (December 1978) ADS archive copy
  8. ^ Storrs, Alex Weiss; Zellner; Burleson; Sichitiu; Wells; Kowal; Tholen (1999). "Imaging observations of asteroids with Hubble Space Telescope" (PDF). Icarus 137 (2): 260–268. Bibcode:1999Icar..137..260S. doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6047. 
  9. ^ "Astronomers Discover Moon Orbiting Asteroid". SwRI. 1998. Retrieved 2009-10-21.  (Eugenia AO image)
  10. ^ Merline, W. J. (2001). "IAUC 7741: 2001fc; S/2001 (617) 1; C/2001 T1, C/2001 T2". 
  11. ^ Chiang, E.; Lithwick, Y.; Buie, M.; Grundy, W.; Holman, M.; A Brief History of Trans-Neptunian Space, to appear in Protostars and Planets V (August 2006) Final preprint on arXiv
  12. ^ Daniel W. E. Green (2005-08-11). "IAUC 8582: Sats OF (87)". International Astronomical Union Circular. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
  13. ^ Daniel W. E. Green (2007-03-07). "IAUC 8817: S/2004 (45) 1". International Astronomical Union Circular. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
  14. ^ Franck Marchis (Principal Investigator, SETI Institute, UC Berkeley). "Franck Marchis Web Page". Department of Astronomy (University of California at Berkeley). Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  15. ^ Franck Marchis (Principal Investigator, SETI Institute, UC Berkeley) (2008-09-19). "Two Companions Found Near Dog-Bone Asteroid". SETI Institute. Retrieved 2009-10-26. 
  16. ^ Franck Marchis (2009-08-21). "The discovery of a new triple asteroid – (93) Minerva". Cosmic Diary Blog. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  17. ^ a b Noll, Keith S. "Solar System binaries", Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, Proceedings of the 229th Symposium of the IAU, Rio de Janeiro, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 2006., pp. 301–318 Preprint
  18. ^ T. Michałowski et al. (2004). "Eclipsing binary asteroid 90 Antiope". Astronomy & Astrophysics 423 (3): 1159. Bibcode:2004A&A...423.1159M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20040449. 
  19. ^ Bieryla, Allyson; Parker, J. W. (December 2006). "Search for Satellites around Ceres". 2007 AAS/AAPT Joint Meeting, American Astronomical Society Meeting 209, #25.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 38: 933. Bibcode:2006AAS...209.2502B. 
  20. ^ Brown, M. E.; Van Dam, M. A.; Bouchez, A. H.; Le Mignant, D.; Campbell, R. D.; Chin, J. C. Y.; Conrad, A.; Hartman, S. K.; Johansson, E. M.; Lafon, R. E.; Rabinowitz, D. L. Rabinowitz; Stomski, P. J., Jr.; Summers, D. M.; Trujillo, C. A.; Wizinowich, P. L. (2006). "Satellites of the Largest Kuiper Belt Objects" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 639 (1): L43–L46. arXiv:astro-ph/0510029. Bibcode:2006ApJ...639L..43B. doi:10.1086/501524. Retrieved 2011-10-19.  edit
  21. ^ Santos-Sanz, P. et al. (2012). ""TNOs are Cool": A Survey of the Transneptunian Region IV. Size/albedo characterization of 15 scattered disk and detached objects observed with Herschel Space Observatory-PACS". arXiv:1202.1481 [astro-ph.EP]. 
  22. ^ http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/cbet/000800/CBET000860.txt CBET 860
  • Asteroids with Satellites web page, maintained up to date by W. Robert Johnston; and references therein. (last accessed 13-03-2007)
  • The VOBAD database a web page built and designed by F. Marchis and his collaborators (UC-Berkeley/SETI Institute) which contains the parameters of 169 multiple asteroid systems (last update May 9, 2009)

External links[edit]