Minuscule 131

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Minuscule 131
New Testament manuscript
Text New Testament (except Revelation)
Date 15th-century
Script Greek
Now at Vatican Library
Size 23.5 cm by 17.5 cm
Type Caesarean text-type
Category III
Note remarkable variations, member of f1

Minuscule 131 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 467 (Soden),[1] is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment leaves. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 15th-century.[2] It has marginalia.


The codex contains the text of the New Testament except the Book of Revelation on 233 parchment leaves (size 23.5 cm by 17.5 cm). The text is written in two columns per page, 37 lines per page.[2]

The text of the Gospels is divided according to the Ammonian Sections (in Mark 234 sections – the last numbered section in 16:9), but there is no references to the Eusebian Canons.[3]

The manuscript contains Epistula ad Carpianum, the Eusebian tables, tables of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) before each Gospel (unusual arrangement – Matt 74, Mark 46, Luke 57),[4] liturgical books with hagiograpies (synaxaria and Menologion), subscriptions at the end, with numbers of στιχοι.[3] Lectionary markings and incipits were added by a later hand.[3]

It contains many errors of iotacism and many remarkable variations.[4]

The order of books is usual for Greek manuscripts: Gospels, Acts, Catholic epistles, and Pauline epistles.[3] The Epistle to the Hebrews stands before 1 Timothy.[4]


The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Caesarean text-type in the Gospels. It belongs to the textual family f1. This was confirmed by the Claremont Profile Method.[5]

Kurt Aland placed it in Category III.[6]

The manuscript contains many corrections made by prima manu.[4]

In 1 Corinthians 2:4 it has singular reading πειθοις ανθρωπινης σοφιας και λογοις for πειθοις σοφιας λογοις (plausible words of wisdom).[7]

John 5:1 it reads η σκηνοπηγια for εορτη των Ιουδαιων; the reading is not supported by any known Greek manuscript, or version.[8]


Birch dated the manuscript to the 11th-century, Gregory to the 14th or 15th-century. The INTF dated it to the 15th-century[2].

The manuscript was given to Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590).[4] It was examined by Birch (about 1782) and Scholz. According to Scholz it has the Book of Revelation and he assigned to it the siglum 66r. Gregory saw it in 1886.[3]

It is currently housed at the Vatican Library (Vat. gr. 360), at Rome.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 53. 
  2. ^ a b c d K. Aland, M. Welte, B. Köster, K. Junack (1994). Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 54. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 156. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 212. 
  5. ^ Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of Manuscript Evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 55. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4. 
  6. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. 
  7. ^ UBS3, p. 581.
  8. ^ Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland and Kurt Aland (eds), Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1991), p. 259 [further NA26]

Further reading[edit]