Minuscule 44

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Minuscule 44
New Testament manuscript
Text Gospels
Date 12th century
Script Greek
Found 1760-1770, Athos
Now at British Library
Size 30.7 cm by 24 cm
Type Byzantine text-type
Category V
Note marginalia

Minuscule 44 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 239 (von Soden),[1] is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment leaves. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 12th century. It has complex contents and full marginalia.


The codex contains complete text of the four Gospels on 259 leaves with size 30.7 cm by 24 cm. The text is written in one column per page, 21-22 lines per page.[2][3] In Gospel of Matthew verses 16:2b-3 (signs of the times) are omitted.[4]

The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια (chapters), whose numbers are given at the margin, and their τιτλοι (titles of chapters) at the top of the pages. There is also another division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections (in Mark 234 sections, the last numbered section in 16:9), with references to the Eusebian Canons.[4]

It contains liturgical books with hagiographies (synaxaria and Menologion), pictures, lectionary markings at the margin (for liturgical use), subscriptions at the end of the Gospels, and numbers of στιχοι.[5]

It is a palimpsest. The text of minuscule 395 is the upper text of the palimpsest. The lower text is unidentified, written in two columns with 30 lines in column.[4]


The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family Family E.[6] Aland placed it in Category V.[7]

According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents textual family Kx in Luke 1, Luke 10, and Luke 20. It belongs to the textual cluster 1434 in Luke 20.[6]


The manuscript was dated by Scholz to the 11th century. Gregory dated it to the 12th century.[4] Currently it has been assigned by the INTF to the 12th century.[2][3]

The codex was brought from Athos to England by César de Missy (1703-1775), French chaplain of George III, King of England, who spent his life in collecting materials for an edition of the New Testament. It was examined by Amelotte, Simon, Wetstein in 1746, Scholz, and Bloomfield (1860). Wettstein gave a collation, but very imperfect.[5]

It was added to the list of the New Testament manuscripts by Wettstein. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1883.[4]

It is currently housed in at the British Library (Additional Manuscripts 4949), at London.[2][3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 49. 
  2. ^ a b c K. Aland, M. Welte, B. Köster, K. Junack, "Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments", Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1994, p. 49.
  3. ^ a b c "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 2014-10-19. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 139. 
  5. ^ a b Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 197. 
  6. ^ a b Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of Manuscript Evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 53. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4. 
  7. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. 

External links[edit]