Minuscule 565

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Minuscule 565
New Testament manuscript
Minuscule 565 (GA).jpg
NameEmpress Theodora's Codex
Date9th century
Now atRussian National Library
Size17.6 cm by 19.2 cm
TypeCaesarean text-type

Minuscule 565 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 93 (Soden),[1] also known as the Empress Theodora's Codex, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, written on purple parchment, dated palaeographically to the 9th century.[2] It was labelled by Scrivener as 473.[3] The manuscript is lacunose. It has marginalia.


The codex is one of only two known purple minuscules (minuscule 1143 is the other) written with gold ink.[4] It contains the text of the four Gospels on 405 purple parchment leaves (17.6 by 19.2 cm) lacunae (Matthew 20:18-26, 21:45-22:9, Luke 10:36-11:2, 18:25-37, 20:24-26, John 11:26-48, 13:2-23, 17:1-12). The text is written in one column per page, 17 lines per page.[2]

The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια (chapters), whose number are given at the margin, and the τιτλοι (titles of chapters) at the top of the pages (in silver uncials). There is also a division according to the Ammonian Sections. There are no references to the Eusebian Canons.[5]

It contains the Eusebian tables (added by later hand). Tables of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) are placed before every Gospel. It has the famous Jerusalem Colophon.[3][5]

The manuscript is similar to Beratinus 2.


Minuscule 565 (Gregory-Aland)

The Greek text of the codex, has been understood as a representative of the so-called Caesarean text-type. Aland placed it in Category III. In Gospel of Mark this manuscript is closely aligned to Codex Koridethi.[6] According to Aland the quality of the text is higher in Gospel of Mark, and lower in Matthew and Luke.[7] In John manuscript 565 is a member of Family 1.

According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents the Alexandrian text in Luke 1 and Kx in Luke 10 and Luke 20.[8]

In John 1:29 it lacks ο Ιωαννης along with manuscripts Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Cyprius, Campianus, Petropolitanus Purpureus, Vaticanus 354, Nanianus, Macedoniensis, Sangallensis, Koridethi, Petropolitanus, Athous Lavrensis, 045, 047, 0141, 8, 9, 1192;[9]

In John 14:14 the entire verse is omitted along with the manuscripts: X f1 1009 1365 76 253 b vgmss syrs, pal arm geo Diatessaron.[10]

It lacks the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:1), with an explanatory note.


The manuscript is dated by the INTF to the 9th century.[11]

The manuscript comes from the area of the Black Sea, in Pontus. In 1829 it was brought to Petersburg. The manuscript was examined and described by Eduard de Muralt[12] (along with the codices 566, 568-572, 574, 575, and 1567). The text of Mark was edited in 1885 by Johannes Engebretsen Belsheim.[13]

The codex now is located at the Russian National Library (Gr. 53) at Saint Petersburg.[2][11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 68.
  2. ^ a b c K. Aland; M. Welte; B. Köster; K. Junack (1994). Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 79.
  3. ^ a b Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 250.
  4. ^ R. Waltz, Minuscule 565 (GA) at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism (2007)
  5. ^ a b Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 203.
  6. ^ Philip W. Comfort, Encountering the Manuscripts. An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism, Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2005, p. 89.
  7. ^ Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1995, p. 133.
  8. ^ Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of Manuscript Evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 63. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4.
  9. ^ The Gospel According to John in the Byzantine Tradition (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: Stuttgart 2007), p. 7
  10. ^ UBS3, p. 390.
  11. ^ a b "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  12. ^ Eduard de Muralt, Catalogue des manuscrits grecs de la Bibliothèque Impériale publique (Petersburg 1864), pp. 29-30.
  13. ^ J. Belsheim, Das Evangelium des Markus, Christiania Videnskabs-Selskabs Forhandlinger 9 (Christiania, 1885).

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]