Miopanthera is an extinct genus of Pseudaelurus-grade felids.
The genus Miopanthera was first proposed in 1938 by Kretzoi for the species Pseudaelurus lorteti. P. lorteti had previously been described as such in 1899, upon the discovery of fossils in Europe. However, Kretzoi's proposal was largely ignored by later authors. A 2010 review of the Felidae proposed splitting the genus Pseudaelurus in three, and suggested assigning P. lorteti to the genus Styriofelis alongside P. turnauensis.
Another species, Felis pamiri, was described in 1965 based on a snout fragment found in Turkey. The locality at which it was found was estimated to be from the late Miocene, about 9.9 Ma. After its original description, no further material was assigned to the species.
In 2017, a review of the species Felis pamiri concluded that it was likely closely related to S. lorteti, and reassigned both species to the genus Miopanthera. The paper also noted that the species Panthera blytheae, which had been described not long before, lacked features that assigned it specifically to the genus Panthera, but that further examination of the material had the potential to clarify Miopanthera's relation to the modern panthrin (Panthera and Neofelis) cats.
Miopanthera lorteti ranged in size from that of a large caracal, to the size of a small leopard. Miopanthera pamiri, which is known only from fragmentary, though nicely intact, material from a single individual, is theorized to have been similar in size to a large lynx or a small puma.
M. pamiri is believed to have evolved from the earlier M. lorteti. Due to certain features, it is also considered likely that Miopanthera was in some way ancestral to the modern Panthera lineage.
- Kretzoi, M. (1938). "Die Raubtiere von Gombaszög nebst einer Übersicht der Gesamtfauna". Ann Mus Nat Hunga r. 31: 88–157.
- Werdelin, Lars; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D.W.; Loveridge, A.J. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Ozansoy, F. (1965). "Etude des gisements continentaux et des Mammifères du Cénozoïque de 9 Turquie" [Study of the continental deposits and mammals of the Cenozoic of Turkey]. Mém Soc géol Fr (in French). 44: 1–92.
- Geraads, Denis; Peigné, Stéphane (2017). "Re-appraisal of 'Felis' pamiri Ozansoy 1959 (Carnivora, Felidae) from the upper Miocene of Turkey: the earliest pantherin cat?". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 24 (4): 415–425. doi:10.1007/s10914-016-9349-6.