Miqdad ibn Aswad

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Abu Ma'bad

Miqdad ibn Amr al-Bahrani
المقداد بن عمرو ٱلْبَهْرَانِيّ

al-Badri
BornEastern Arabia
Died33 AH
Damascus, Syria / al-Jurf, west of Medina
Burial placeDamascus[1]/al Jufr, Medina[2]
Other namesMiqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi (Arabic: المقداد بن الأسود ٱلْكِنْدِيّ)
Employer(s)Muhammad, Abu Bakar, Umar
OrganizationRashidun caliphate
Known for
SpouseDuba'a bint al-Zubayr ibn Abd al-Muttalib
ChildrenAbdullah ibn Miqdad[3]
Karimah bint Miqdad[3]

Miqdaad ibn Amr al-Bahrani (Arabic: المقداد بن عمرو ٱلْبَهْرَانِيّ, al-Miqdād ibn ʿAmr al-Bahrānīy), better known as al-Miqdaad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi (Arabic: المقداد بن الأسود ٱلْكِنْدِيّ) or simply Miqdaad, was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His kunya was Abu Ma'bad (Arabic: أبو معبد). Miqdaad was born in Eastern Arabia. He became fugitive in his hometown and ran to Mecca, where he served Aswad al-Kindi. Miqdaad managed to gain favor of his master, who in turn adopted him as his son.

Miqdaad later embraced Islam and became one of the early converts of the new religion founded by Muhammad, before he migrated to Medina due to persecution by the Meccan polytheists. Miqdaad stopped using 'Ibn Aswad' as his name and used his real bloodline nisba from his fater, 'Ibn Amr', after Qur'anic verse was revealed to forbid one to abolish his own bloodline. In Medina, Miqdad was known in history as brave companion of Muhammad and stated by Muslim historians as the first Muslim horsemen, Miqdaad participated in all military operations under Muhammad.

After the death of Muhammad, Miqdad continued to serve Islam under the Rashidun, where he was involved heavily in the Muslim conquest of the Levant and later Muslim conquest of Egypt. Miqdad's funeral prayer was led by the caliph.

Biography[edit]

Miqdad was born in Hadhramaut, Yemen to Amr al-Bahrani. He left for Mecca after an incident between him and one of the fellow tribesmen namely Abu Shammar ibn Hajar al-Kindi[1] caused him to become fugitive and run away from his home to Mecca.[2] In Mecca, he served a man named al-Aswad ibn Abd al-Yaghuts al-Kindi, who several times impressed his master and caused al-Aswad to grant favor on him and later adopted him as son, thus caused Miqdad to be more known as al-Miqdad ibn Aswad al-Kindi rather than al-Miqdad ibn Amr.[2]

Under Muhammad[edit]

When Islam was revealed by Muhammad, Miqdad was among the first seven persons who embraced Islam although he hid his new faith from Aswad ibn Abd al-Yaghuts.[1] He later performed the migration to Medina with fellow Muslims to escape the persecutions from the Quraysh tribe.[4] When the Muslims migrated to Medina, Miqdad and Utbah ibn Ghazwan pretended to follow the Meccan polytheists in their effort to chase the Muslims.[5] However, as they caught up with a group of Muslim Muhajirs who escaped Mecca, Miqdad and Utbah immediately broke up with the Meccan and instead joined the Muslims in their escape to Medina.[5]

During the battle of Badr, Miqdad is the only Muslim who rode a horse, while others either rode camels or walked. Miqdad commanded the left flank of Muslim army during this battle.[6] However, in another sources it is recorded that in fact at least three horsemen participated in the Muslim forces, which are Miqdad, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and Marthad ibn abi Marthad.[7] The horse owned by Miqdad was named Ba‘zajah[7] Before the battle, Miqdad spoke to the Prophet by quoting Qur'an:

"O messenger of Allah! go ahead with what you were ordered to. We are with you. I swear by Allah we will never do as Bani Israel did to Moses and say, 'Go with your God and fight. We will stay here. We will not tell you , 'Go with Allah and fight. We are with you!' I swear by Allah, the One who sent you as Prophet on the right path; even if you lead us to Bark al-Ghimad, we will fight along with you until you reach it"[8]

After the battle of Badr, Miqdad and Zubayr both received double the normal soldier's spoils of war due to their participation in battle riding a horse.[Notes 1]

Later, In the battle of Uhud, he was said to serve as an archer[10] Later in the battle of Dhu Qarad when Banu Ghatafan under Abdurrahman al-Faraji came to raid Medina, he along Akhram and Abu Qatadah fought against Abdurrahman al-Faraji. Akhram died in this battle but Miqdad and Abu Qatada manage to avenge their leader and caused the army of Abdurrahman to flee.[6] This record is also found in Waqidi Kitabul Maghazi[11] Up until the death of Muhammad, Miqdad attended all the battles of the Prophet.[12]

For sometimes during his life, Miqdad married with Duba'ah bint Zubayr, one of Muhammad's relative.[13]

During the Caliphate of Umar[edit]

During the first siege of Emesa Miqdad participated as commander of Bali tribe division.[14] Miqdad was known to have participated in this siege under Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah.[7] During the campaign in Levant, Miqdad also served as Quran reciter of the army of Rashidun caliph Abu Bakr[2] This tradition was recorded to be continued on to the time of caliph Umar in battle of Yarmouk, where Miqdad was tasked by Khalid bin al-Walid to recite Quranic verses from Al-Anfal to the rear guards which were led by Said ibn Zayd to boost their morale before the battle[15] Miqdad then was sent by caliph Umar to Egypt during the Muslim conquest of Egypt to aid 'Amr ibn al As as the latter asked for reinforcements, where caliph Umar praised Miqdad in his letter to Amr that Miqdad being equal to 1,000 soldiers in strength[16]

According to Waqidi, during Miqdad's campaign aiding Amr, the Rashidun under Miqdad pacified several areas in al-Gharbia region, starting from Kafr Tanah (area in modern day Dakahlia Governorate), and Tennis.[17] Then Miqdad continued his march leading forty horsemen which included Dhiraar ibn al-Azwar.[18] Then as they reached Damietta, Miqdad found the city was fortified by a man named al-Hammuk, an uncle of Al-Muqawqis.[19] Al-Hammuk fortified the city and closed the gates, as Miqdad besieged the city.[19] As Damietta subdued, Miqdad were appointed to govern the city.[20] The siege continued until the defender of Damietta, Shata, the son of Hammuk, agreed to surrender and converted to Islam.[Notes 2] As Shata now converted to Islam, Miqdad now appointed him to lead the army to conquer the province of Sah, the fortresses in Ashmoun, Lake Burullus, and Dumayra.[21] However, Shata later fell in battle during the capture of Tina castle.[21]

Later, during the siege of Oxyrhynchus in south of Egypt, Miqdad, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Dhiraar ibn al-Azwar and others, leading about 10,000 Companions of the Prophet, with 70 among them were veterans of battle of Badr.[22] They besieged the city for 4 months as Miqdad leading 200 horsemen, while Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam lead 300 horsemen, then Dhiraar, Abdullah ibn Umar, and Uqba ibn Amir al-Juhani each leading 200 horsemen.[22] the Byzantines and their Copt allies showering the Rashidun army, until the overcame the defenders, as Dhiraar, the first emerge, came out from the battle with his entire body covered in blood, while confessed he has slayed about 160 Byzantine soldiers during the battle.[22] Then, the city of Oxyrhyncuhus was renamed into "al-Bahnasa" after being subdued by Rashidun army.[22]

At some point during Umar's reign, when Miqdad in Medina, along with Zubayr, and the caliph's son, Abdullah ibn Umar, went to Khaybar to collect their profit share as they have shareholding of the properties and plantations in Khaybar, which were managed and worked by the Jewish tribes of Khaybar, who had been subdued during the time of Muhammad.[23] However, the Jews in Khaybar refused and instead hurt Abdullah ibn Umar, who suffered broken hand from their harassment.[23] This prompted caliph Umar to expel the entire Jewish tribe from Khaybar, as now the properties in Khaybar were fully owned by the Muslim overlords.[23]

During the Caliphate of Uthman[edit]

After the death of caliph Umar, Miqdad pledge his allegiance to Uthman who had just ascended as caliph.[14] During the reign of caliph Uthman, Miqdad participated in further conquest of Africa where Miqdad was sent along with Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr, Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas, Abdullah bin Abbas, as well as Abu Dhar Al-Ghafari, Miswar bin Makhrama to face the Byzantine army under Gregory in the battle of Sufetula.[24]

Later, Miqdad , Shaddad ibn Aws and Ubadah ibn al-Samit joined the first caliphate naval armada built by Muawiyah to the Conquest of Arwad island in the offshore of Tartus.[25] The mariners that conquered the island of Arwad under Muawiyah later continued their venture to the island of Cyprus.[26] several authorities reported Miqdad was also among this naval enterprise to Cyprus.[27][Notes 3] They departed from Acre.[29]

According to Mahmud Shakir, the armada of Miqdad, Mu'awiyah, and Ubadah met with the naval forces from Africa which were led by Abdallah ibn Sa'd, who arrived in Cyprus before them.[30] Then they joined their forces until they subdued the island of Cyprus from Byzantine garrisons.[30] The Rashidun naval forces pacified almost every Byzantine garrison; which is supported by the evidence of two Greek inscriptions in the Cypriot village of Solois that cite the occurrence of first and second conquest of Cyprus, with around fifty small raids occurred in between.[31] The entire island of Cyprus surrendered for the first time after their capital, Salamis, was surrounded and besieged for an unspecified time.[32]

Before the canonization of Quran codex into one Mushaf under jurisdiction of caliph Uthman, the Qira'at of Miqdad is the one which was adhered by Muslims in Levant,[33] particularly in Homs[34] During his stay in Homs, Miqdad teaching Qur'an in the city.[35]

Later life & death[edit]

As he was dying, Miqdad asked Zubayr ibn al-Awwam to manage and sell one of his estates which was left to his two children. Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, each getting 18,000 dirhams from the endowment, while from the remainder he also asked Zubayr to give each of Muhammad's wives 7,000 dirhams.[36]

Miqdad died in 33 AH in Damascus and is buried there.[4][1] However, Tabari recorded that Miqdad was buried in al-Jurf, a place three miles west of Medina where the caliph Uthman led the ritual prayer of his death.[2]

Personal characteristic[edit]

His skin was dark and his hair was a lot. Miqdad had a dyed beard and wide eyes while his nose was hooked.[2][30]

Miqdad were known as master of archery.[30][37]

Scholarship legacy[edit]

Muğdat mosque in Turkey, built in honor of Miqdad ibn Amr

Hadith that is transmitted by Miqdad became guidance rulings for Muslim scholars to formulate Sharia laws. Shafiʽi school Madhhab scholars cite the Hadith from Ali for the rule of war to take physical action against enemy of the State, based on when Miqdad and Zubayr were brought together with Ali on the instruction from Muhammad to pursue and capture Meccan polytheist spy who are on the way to inform the enemy regarding Muslims strategy.[38] This ruling were codified in Kitab al-Umm which is authored by Al-Shafi'i.[38]

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani recorded in his book regarding the rulings from hadith, Fath al-Bari, the Sunnah which is practiced by Miqdad to throw mud or dust towards the face of flatterers or sychophants.[39] The practice and encouragement of such conduct were also listed by Muhammad al-Bukhari in his book regarding ethics and manners towards peoples who gave praise excessively, which being responded with mud thrown by Miqdad.[40]

In modern time, Muğdat Mosque was built a large mosque in Mersin, Turkey in honor of Miqdad as early Sahabah.[41]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The hadith were included in record of Ibn Manzur record of Miqdad ibn Aswad biography in his book, brief history of Damascus[9]
  2. ^ According to one account, the army which was brought by Miqdad to capture Damietta and lake Burullus amounted 80,000 personnel.[21]
  3. ^ Al-Baladhuri, deemed this authority as weak due to it sourced from Al-Waqidi.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d al Asqalani, Ibn Hajar; Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shafii, Abū ʿAbdillāh; ibn Kathir, Ismail; ibn faisal al-Tamimi al-Darimi, Abu Hatim Muhammad. "Al-Isabah Fi Tamyiz Al-Sahabah by Ibn Hajr; al Istishaab by Shafii; al Bidayah wan Nihayah by Ibn Kathir; Kitab al Sahaba by Ibn Hibban". Islam story. Story of Islam. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f The History of al-Tabari Vol. 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors: al-Tabari's Supplement to His History, Muhammad (January 1998). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions. Suny press. ISBN 0791428192. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b http://muslimscholars.info/manage.php?submit=scholar&ID=248[bare URL]
  4. ^ a b "Miqdad" [Miqdad] (in German). Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  5. ^ a b Abdur Ra'uf Taj al 'Arafin, Mu'awiya; ibn Ali, Ahmad (2007). الفتوحات السبحانية في شرح نظم السيرة النبوية Volume 2 [Volume 2 dari al-Futūḥāt al-subḥānīyah fī sharḥ Naẓm al-sīrah al-Nabawīyah]. Indiana University: مكتبة الرشد ناشرون. p. 253.
  6. ^ a b Atiq, Muhammad. Ringkasan Sirah Nabawiyah: Butir Butir Perjalanan Hidup Rasulullah SAW. Tafaqur. ISBN 9797782883.
  7. ^ a b c Masih, Khalifatul (19 December 2019). "Men of Excellence friday sermon; quoting Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa'd, Vol. 3, p. 86, Dar-e-Ihyaa Al-Turath, Beirut, Lebanon, 1996; Dalail-ul-Nabuwwat Li Al-Behqi, Vol. 3, p. 39, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, 2002; (Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah li Ibn Hisham, p. 452, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, 2001". al Hakam. Al Fazl International. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
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  10. ^ Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 152.
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  13. ^ "al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad ( المقداد بن الأسود الكندي ( رضي الله عنه". muslimscholars.info (in English and Arabic). muslimscholars.info. Retrieved 27 December 2021. المقداد بن الأسود الكندي هو بن عمرو بن ثعلبة بن مالك بن ربيعة بن عامر بن مطرود البهراني وقيل الحضرمي قال بن الكلبي كان عمرو بن ثعلبة أصاب دما في قومه فلحق بحضرموت فحالف كندة فكان يقال له الكندي وتزوج هناك امرأة فولدت له المقداد فلما كبر المقداد وقع بينه وبين أبي شمر بن حجر الكندي فضرب رجله بالسيف وهرب إلى مكة فحالف الأسود بن عبد يغوث الزهري وكتب إلى أبيه فقدم عليه فتبنى الأسود المقداد فصار يقال المقداد بن الأسود وغلبت عليه واشتهر بذلك فلما نزلت ادعوهم لآبائهم قيل له المقداد بن عمرو واشتهرت شهرته بابن الأسود وكان المقداد يكنى أبا الأسود وقيل كنيته أبو عمر وقيل أبو سعيد وأسلم قديما وتزوج ضباعة بنت الزبير بن عبد المطلب ابنة عم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهاجر الهجرتين وشهد بدرا والمشاهد بعدها وكان فارسا يوم بدر حتى إنه لم يثبت أنه كان فيها على فرس غيره وقال زر بن حبيش عن عبد الله بن مسعود أول من أظهر إسلامه سبعة فذكر فيهم وقال مخارق بن طارق عن بن مسعود شهدت مع المقداد مشهدا لأن أكون صاحبه أحب إلي مما عدل به وذكر البغوي من طريق أبي بكر بن عياش عن عاصم عن زر أول منقاتل على فرس في سبيل الله المقداد بن الأسود ومن طريق موسى بن يعقوب الزمعي عن عمته قريبة عن عمتها كريمة بنت المقداد عن أبيها شهدت بدرا على فرس لي يقال لها سبحة ومن طريق يعقوب بن سليمان عن ثابت البناني قال كان المقداد وعبد الرحمن بن عوف جالسين فقال له مالك ألا تتزوج قال زوجني ابنتك فغضب عبد الرحمن وأغلظ له فشكا ذلك للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أنا أزوجك فزوجه بنت عمه ضباعة بنت الزبير بن عبد المطلب وعن المدائني قال كان المقداد طويلا آدم كثير الشعر أعين مقرونا يصفر لحيته وأخرج يعقوب بن سفيان وابن شاهين من طريقه بسنده إلى كريمة زوج المقداد كان المقداد عظيم البطن وكان له غلام رومي فقال له أشق بطنك فأخرج من شحمه حتى تلطف فشق بطنه ثم خاطه فمات المقداد وهرب الغلام وقال أبو ربيعة الإيادي عن عبد الله بن بريدة عن أبيه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إن الله عز وجل أمرني بحب أربعة وأخبرني أنه يحبهم علي والمقداد وأبو ذر وسلمان أخرجه الترمذي وابن ماجة وسنده حسن وروى المقداد عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أحاديث روى عنه علي وأنس وعبيد الله بن عن بن الخيار وهمام بن الحارث وعبد الرحمن بن أبي ليلى وآخرون اتفقوا على أنه مات سنة ثلاث وثلاثين في خلافة عثمان قيل وهو بن سبعين سنةal-Isabah Ibn Hajr - الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة [Companion (RA), Id:9515. - pg:7/14]
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