mir-9/mir-79 microRNA precursor family

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miR-9 microRNA secondary structure and sequence conservation.
Symbol mir-9
Rfam RF00237
miRBase family MIPF0000014
HUGO 31641
OMIM 611186
Other data
RNA type microRNA
Domain(s) Eukaryota;
SO {{{SO}}}
PDB structures PDBe

The miR-9 microRNA (homologous to miR-79), is a short non-coding RNA gene involved in gene regulation. The mature ~21nt miRNAs are processed from hairpin precursor sequences by the Dicer enzyme. The dominant mature miRNA sequence is processed from the 5' arm of the mir-9 precursor, and from the 3' arm of the mir-79 precursor. The mature products are thought to have regulatory roles through complementarity to mRNA.[1] In vertebrates, miR-9 is highly expressed in the brain, and is suggested to regulate neuronal differentiation.[2] A number of specific targets of miR-9 have been proposed, including the transcription factor REST and its partner CoREST.[3]

Species distribution[edit]

miR-9 has been identified in Drosophila (MI0000129[permanent dead link]),[4] mouse (MI0000720) and human (MI0000466),[5] and the related miR-79 in C. elegans (MI0000050[permanent dead link]) [6] and Drosophila melanogaster (MI0000374).[7]

Role in disease[edit]

microRNAs have been implicated in human cancer in a number of studies. It has been shown that human miR-9 expression levels are reduced in many breast cancer samples due to hypermethylation an epigenetic modification.[8] Hildebrandt et al. show that two genes encoding for has-miR-9 are significantly hypermethylated in clear cell renal carcinoma tumours.[9]


  1. ^ Ambros V (2001). "microRNAs: tiny regulators with great potential". Cell. 107 (7): 823–6. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00616-X. PMID 11779458. 
  2. ^ Delaloy C, Liu L, Lee JA, Su H, Shen F, Yang GY, Young WL, Ivey KN, Gao FB (2010). "MicroRNA-9 coordinates proliferation and migration of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (4): 323–35. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2010.02.015. PMC 2851637Freely accessible. PMID 20362537. 
  3. ^ Packer AN, Xing Y, Harper SQ, Jones L, Davidson BL (2008). "The bifunctional microRNA miR-9/miR-9* regulates REST and CoREST and is downregulated in Huntington's disease". J Neurosci. 28 (53): 14341–6. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2390-08.2008. PMID 19118166. 
  4. ^ Lagos-Quintana M, Rauhut R, Lendeckel W, Tuschl T (2001). "Identification of novel genes coding for small expressed RNAs". Science. 294 (5543): 853–8. doi:10.1126/science.1064921. PMID 11679670. 
  5. ^ Lagos-Quintana M, Rauhut R, Yalcin A, Meyer J, Lendeckel W, Tuschl T (2002). "Identification of tissue-specific microRNAs from mouse". Curr. Biol. 12 (9): 735–9. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00809-6. PMID 12007417. 
  6. ^ Lau NC, Lim LP, Weinstein EG, Bartel DP (2001). "An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans". Science. 294 (5543): 858–62. doi:10.1126/science.1065062. PMID 11679671. 
  7. ^ Sempere LF, Sokol NS, Dubrovsky EB, Berger EM, Ambros V (2003). "Temporal regulation of microRNA expression in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by hormonal signals and broad-Complex gene activity". Dev. Biol. 259 (1): 9–18. doi:10.1016/S0012-1606(03)00208-2. PMID 12812784. 
  8. ^ Lehmann U, Hasemeier B, Christgen M, et al. (2007). "Epigenetic inactivation of microRNA gene hsa-mir-9-1 in human breast cancer". The Journal of Pathology. 214 (1): 17–24. doi:10.1002/path.2251. PMID 17948228. 
  9. ^ Hildebrandt MA, Gu J, Lin J, Ye Y, Tan W, Tamboli P, Wood CG, Wu X (2010). "Hsa-miR-9 methylation status is associated with cancer development and metastatic recurrence in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma". Oncogene. 29 (42): 5724–8. doi:10.1038/onc.2010.305. PMID 20676129. 

Further reading[edit]

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ Kutty RK, Samuel W, Jaworski C, Duncan T, Nagineni CN, Raghavachari N, Wiggert B, Redmond TM (2010). "MicroRNA expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells: increased expression of microRNA-9 by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide". Mol Vis. 16: 1475–86. PMC 2925906Freely accessible. PMID 20806079. 
  2. ^ Delaloy C, Gao FB (2010). "A new role for microRNA-9 in human neural progenitor cells". Cell Cycle. 9 (15): 2913–4. doi:10.4161/cc.9.15.12699. PMID 20676037. 
  3. ^ Laneve P, Gioia U, Andriotto A, Moretti F, Bozzoni I, Caffarelli E (2010). "A minicircuitry involving REST and CREB controls miR-9-2 expression during human neuronal differentiation". Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (20): 6895–905. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq604. PMC 2978373Freely accessible. PMID 20624818. 
  4. ^ Almeida MI, Reis RM, Calin GA (2010). "MYC-microRNA-9-metastasis connection in breast cancer". Cell Res. 20 (6): 603–4. doi:10.1038/cr.2010.70. PMID 20502442. 
  5. ^ Uchida N (2010). "MicroRNA-9 controls a migratory mechanism in human neural progenitor cells". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (4): 294–6. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2010.03.010. PMID 20362531. 
  6. ^ Wang K, Long B, Zhou J, Li PF (2010). "miR-9 and NFATc3 regulate myocardin in cardiac hypertrophy". J Biol Chem. 285 (16): 11903–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.098004. PMC 2852927Freely accessible. PMID 20177053. 
  7. ^ Khew-Goodall Y, Goodall GJ (2010). "Myc-modulated miR-9 makes more metastases". Nat Cell Biol. 12 (3): 209–11. doi:10.1038/ncb0310-209. PMID 20173743. 
  8. ^ Ma L, Young J, Prabhala H, Pan E, Mestdagh P, Muth D, Teruya-Feldstein J, Reinhardt F, Onder TT, Valastyan S, Westermann F, Speleman F, Vandesompele J, Weinberg RA (2010). "miR-9, a MYC/MYCN-activated microRNA, regulates E-cadherin and cancer metastasis". Nat Cell Biol. 12 (3): 247–56. doi:10.1038/ncb2024. PMC 2845545Freely accessible. PMID 20173740. 
  9. ^ Wan HY, Guo LM, Liu T, Liu M, Li X, Tang H (2010). "Regulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB1 by microRNA-9 in human gastric adenocarcinoma". Mol Cancer. 9 (1): 16. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-9-16. PMC 2835654Freely accessible. PMID 20102618. 
  10. ^ Guo LM, Pu Y, Han Z, Liu T, Li YX, Liu M, Li X, Tang H (2009). "MicroRNA-9 inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth through regulation of NF-kappaB1". FEBS J. 276 (19): 5537–46. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07237.x. PMID 19702828. 
  11. ^ Tan HX, Wang Q, Chen LZ, Huang XH, Chen JS, Fu XH, Cao LQ, Chen XL, Li W, Zhang LJ (2010). "MicroRNA-9 reduces cell invasion and E-cadherin secretion in SK-Hep-1 cell". Med Oncol. 27 (3): 654–60. doi:10.1007/s12032-009-9264-2. PMID 19572217. 
  12. ^ Hsu PY, Deatherage DE, Rodriguez BA, Liyanarachchi S, Weng YI, Zuo T, Liu J, Cheng AS, Huang TH (2009). "Xenoestrogen-induced epigenetic repression of microRNA-9-3 in breast epithelial cells". Cancer Res. 69 (14): 5936–45. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4914. PMC 2855843Freely accessible. PMID 19549897. 
  13. ^ Luo H, Zhang H, Zhang Z, Zhang X, Ning B, Guo J, Nie N, Liu B, Wu X (2009). "Down-regulated miR-9 and miR-433 in human gastric carcinoma". J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 28 (1): 82. doi:10.1186/1756-9966-28-82. PMC 2739520Freely accessible. PMID 19531230. 
  14. ^ Denli AM, Cao X, Gage FH (2009). "miR-9 and TLX: chasing tails in neural stem cells". Nat Struct Mol Biol. 16 (4): 346–7. doi:10.1038/nsmb0409-346. PMID 19343066. 
  15. ^ Zhao C, Sun G, Li S, Shi Y (2009). "A feedback regulatory loop involving microRNA-9 and nuclear receptor TLX in neural stem cell fate determination". Nat Struct Mol Biol. 16 (4): 365–71. doi:10.1038/nsmb.1576. PMC 2667220Freely accessible. PMID 19330006. 
  16. ^ Bazzoni F, Rossato M, Fabbri M, Gaudiosi D, Mirolo M, Mori L, Tamassia N, Mantovani A, Cassatella MA, Locati M (2009). "Induction and regulatory function of miR-9 in human monocytes and neutrophils exposed to proinflammatory signals". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 (13): 5282–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810909106. PMC 2664036Freely accessible. PMID 19289835. 
  17. ^ Packer AN, Xing Y, Harper SQ, Jones L, Davidson BL (2008). "The bifunctional microRNA miR-9/miR-9* regulates REST and CoREST and is downregulated in Huntington's disease". J Neurosci. 28 (53): 14341–6. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2390-08.2008. PMID 19118166. 
  18. ^ Shibata M, Kurokawa D, Nakao H, Ohmura T, Aizawa S (2008). "MicroRNA-9 modulates Cajal-Retzius cell differentiation by suppressing Foxg1 expression in mouse medial pallium". J Neurosci. 28 (41): 10415–21. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3219-08.2008. PMID 18842901. 
  19. ^ Chao TF, Zhang Y, Yan XQ, Yin B, Gong YH, Yuan JG, Qiang BQ, Peng XZ (2008). "[MiR-9 regulates the expression of CBX7 in human glioma]". Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 30 (3): 268–74. PMID 18686603. 
  20. ^ Pietrzykowski AZ, Friesen RM, Martin GE, Puig SI, Nowak CL, Wynne PM, Siegelmann HT, Treistman SN (2008). "Posttranscriptional regulation of BK channel splice variant stability by miR-9 underlies neuroadaptation to alcohol". Neuron. 59 (2): 274–87. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.05.032. PMC 2714263Freely accessible. PMID 18667155. 
  21. ^ Nass D, Rosenwald S, Meiri E, Gilad S, Tabibian-Keissar H, Schlosberg A, Kuker H, Sion-Vardy N, Tobar A, Kharenko O, Sitbon E, Lithwick Yanai G, Elyakim E, Cholakh H, Gibori H, Spector Y, Bentwich Z, Barshack I, Rosenfeld N (2009). "MiR-92b and miR-9/9* are specifically expressed in brain primary tumors and can be used to differentiate primary from metastatic brain tumors". Brain Pathol. 19 (3): 375–83. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3639.2008.00184.x. PMC 2728890Freely accessible. PMID 18624795. 
  22. ^ Delaloy C, Gao FB (2008). "microRNA-9 multitasking near organizing centers". Nat Neurosci. 11 (6): 625–6. doi:10.1038/nn0608-625. PMC 4446695Freely accessible. PMID 18506136. 
  23. ^ Leucht C, Stigloher C, Wizenmann A, Klafke R, Folchert A, Bally-Cuif L (2008). "MicroRNA-9 directs late organizer activity of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary". Nat Neurosci. 11 (6): 641–8. doi:10.1038/nn.2115. PMID 18454145. 
  24. ^ Laios A, O'Toole S, Flavin R, Martin C, Kelly L, Ring M, Finn SP, Barrett C, Loda M, Gleeson N, D'Arcy T, McGuinness E, Sheils O, Sheppard B, O' Leary J (2008). "Potential role of miR-9 and miR-223 in recurrent ovarian cancer". Mol Cancer. 7 (1): 35. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-7-35. PMC 2383925Freely accessible. PMID 18442408. 
  25. ^ Lehmann U, Hasemeier B, Christgen M, Müller M, Römermann D, Länger F, Kreipe H (2008). "Epigenetic inactivation of microRNA gene hsa-mir-9-1 in human breast cancer". J Pathol. 214 (1): 17–24. doi:10.1002/path.2251. PMID 17948228. 
  26. ^ Plaisance V, Abderrahmani A, Perret-Menoud V, Jacquemin P, Lemaigre F, Regazzi R (2006). "MicroRNA-9 controls the expression of Granuphilin/Slp4 and the secretory response of insulin-producing cells". J Biol Chem. 281 (37): 26932–42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M601225200. PMID 16831872.