Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir
|Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir|
|Also known as||
|Created by||Thomas Astruc|
|Written by||Thomas Astruc
|Theme music composer||Jeremy Zag and Noam Kaniel; Lyrics by Alain Garcia|
|Opening theme||"It's Ladybug!", performed by Wendy Child and Cash Callaway|
|Ending theme||"It's Ladybug!" (instrumental)|
|Country of origin||France|
|No. of seasons||1|
|No. of episodes||26 + special (list of episodes)|
|Running time||22 minutes|
|First shown in||South Korea|
|Original release||1 September 2015– present|
Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir (French: Miraculous, les aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir; also known as Miraculous Ladybug or Miraculous) is a French CGI action/adventure animated series produced by Zagtoon and Method Animation. The series features two Parisian teenagers, Marinette Dupain-Cheng and Adrien Agreste, who transform into the superheroes Ladybug and Cat Noir, respectively, to protect the city from supervillains.
Prior to its debut in France on 19 October 2015 on TF1, the series was first shown in South Korea on 1 September 2015 on EBS1. In the United States, the series debuted on Nickelodeon on 6 December. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the show premiered on 30 January 2016 on Disney Channel. On 20 November 2015, producer Jeremy Zag announced that a second and third season were in progress. On 20 December 2016, Zag announced that Netflix had acquired the U.S. video-on-demand streaming rights to Miraculous for seasons 1-3, including the English premiere of the Christmas Special, and a planned launch of Season 2 in 2017.
Set in modern-day Paris, the series focuses on teenagers[a] Marinette Dupain-Cheng and Adrien Agreste. When evil arises, Marinette transforms into her secret superhero persona Ladybug, while Adrien transforms into his superhero persona Cat Noir, using powerful objects known as the Miraculous. Oblivious to each other's true identities, the two work together to protect Paris from the mysterious villain Hawk Moth, who covets and attempts to steal their powers by using his akuma, butterflies infused with black energy, to transform everyday citizens into supervillains.
Conception and creation
The series is based on an original concept created by French animator Thomas Astruc, who was inspired by a meeting with a certain lady, Japanese anime, and "decades of comics binge reading". In an interview with Nolife, Astruc said he was working as an animator on the show W.I.T.C.H. when he met a woman who had a T-shirt with a ladybug on it. They began to share drawings, some of which were ladybug-themed. Astruc also noted that Marinette's hair was styled after the woman. They also worked on the cartoon A.T.O.M. around 2004–05. Astruc first drew Ladybug on sticky notes and remarked how strong the Ladybug character was, but despite this, he had no memory of seeing any ladybug-themed superheroes in comics.
Astruc had intended to make Ladybug a comic book series until he met Jeremy Zag, who loved the project and wanted to produce it as a cartoon; Zag was 25 at the time and not originally from the cartoon industry. In developing Cat Noir, Astruc said that ladybugs represented good luck, so it was natural to partner her with a black cat character with bad luck powers. Cat Noir was a tribute to comics characters like Catwoman, so it was like having Catwoman and Spider-Man in the same show but reversed. In 2010, the show was announced at Cannes' MIPCOM with French production groups Univergroup Pictures and Onyx Films heading the project and working with Method Animation and Zagtoon. Aton Soumache of Onyx and Method said that they want "to create a glamourous superhero character with a real European flair with Paris as [the] backdrop." The producers had also planned to animate it in stereoscopic 3D.
A character named Félix was originally going to have the role of Cat Noir, but he was later scrapped in favor of Adrien because the creative team felt that Félix was a cliché of a male anime protagonist, and that Adrien would allow them to tell more interesting stories. In September 2015, Astruc indicated that he was open to revisiting the character of Félix, but abandoned it by February 2016, writing that the character was a poor idea.
In June 2012, Toei Animation in Japan was announced as a co-producer. Toei Animation had released a Pretty Cure film that was set in Paris, and was interested in expanding their international audience. Even after the production was moved to CGI animation, Toei remained as co-producer, with executive producers from the company being credited.
On 21 November 2012, a memorandum of understanding between Zagtoon, Method Animation, SAMG Animation and SK Broadband was announced: together, the companies would invest $50 million USD through 2017 into five projects. The first of these projects developed into Miraculous, which received an investment of $10 million. As a part of the deal, SK Broadband would have exclusive rights in South Korea for video on demand release, available to the subscribers of the company's IPTV platform B TV.
When Toei Animation joined as a co-producer in June 2012, it was also announced that the show would be drawn in a colourful manga-like style. Later in September, Toei released a traditionally-animated promotional video for Ladybug. The video featured Marinette as Ladybug and a (now-scrapped) different character named Félix as Cat Noir.
The anime concept was successful; however, there were concerns about the marketability of traditional 2D, and the difficulty in animating Ladybug's costume of red with black spots, as it caused some strobing effects. Executive producer Jared Wolfson said that Zag wanted the animation to be cinematic and epic, unique and different, and said that they are continuing to partner with Toei as it brings in the Asian inspiration and that a 2D version might be a potential product.
The aforementioned problem with 2D animation was resolved by moving to CGI animation; the switch also allowed for easier implementation of mobile camera angles. SAMG Animation, a CGI animation studio located in South Korea which officially joined in the production in November 2012, produced modeling and animation. Astruc and assistant director Wilfried Pain instructed the animators not to improvise scenes so that they could keep things consistent and understandable. Pain estimated about 350-400 shots are used in a typical 20-minute episode; with 10 panels per shot, that makes up to 4000 panels an episode. Wolfson said that the show's animation brings dynamic camera angles and texturing. A trailer with the new CGI-animated style was released in October 2013.
Themes, writing and process
The concept for the show originally dealt with political themes, geared towards teens and young adults. However, after failing to gain traction with networks, it was retooled for a younger target audience.:40 Astruc said that he is delighted that the show is able to reach younger and older people.
Each episode takes around 3 months to write, from scratch to final validation of broadcasters. Assistant director Wilfried Pain said that each episode is composed of two parts: a sitcom aspect where the characters have to speak for themselves, and an action element where the camera is always moving.
The music was done by Noam Kaniel, who had also worked on Power Rangers. The theme song was written by Kaniel and Zag. The English lyrics were done by Alain Garcia and performed by Wendy Child and Cash Callaway.
- Marinette Dupain-Cheng a.k.a. Ladybug (voiced by Cristina Vee in English version, Anouck Hautbois in French version) is an aspiring fashion designer at Collège Françoise-Dupont. Marinette is sweet, joyful, and a bit awkward, but respected by her peers. She has a big crush on Adrien, whom she can barely speak to out of nervousness and embarrassment; her best friend Alya is often seen trying to help Marinette declare her love to him, although it ends in disaster. As the secretly chosen keeper of the Ladybug Miraculous, she can transform into the superheroine "Ladybug" with the help of her Kwami, Tikki, to defend Paris with her crime-fighting partner Cat Noir. Her special superpower, Lucky Charm, creates an object and allows her to identify other key objects that she can use with the created object to defeat the villains. Among the superheroes that use Miraculous, she is responsible for capturing and purifying the akuma butterflies. As Ladybug, she brushes off Cat Noir's advances, unaware that Cat Noir's alter-ego is the object of her own affections. Astruc describes Ladybug as a positive character who brings happiness, like a candy, and like Amélie Poulain crossed with Spider-Man. Her transformation call is "Tikki, Spots On!" (French: Tikki, transforme-moi !, "Tikki, transform me!")
- Adrien Agreste a.k.a. Cat Noir (voiced by Bryce Papenbrook in English version, Benjamin Bollen in French version) is Marinette's classmate and a popular fashion model for his father's clothing company. As the secretly chosen keeper of the Black Cat Miraculous, he transforms into the superhero "Cat Noir" (French: Chat Noir, "black cat") with the help of his Kwami, Plagg, to assist Ladybug in saving Paris. Adrien is kind and well-liked, and hangs out often with his best friend Nino. Though his family is wealthy, he laments his poor relationship with his stern father, Gabriel; his mother, meanwhile, has disappeared.[b] He is in love with Ladybug, despite not knowing her true identity, and tries to impress her, although he makes bad jokes and cat-themed puns as Cat Noir, which frequently annoy her. His special ability, Cataclysm, allows him to destroy an object that he touches with a swipe of his paw.[c][d] His transformation call is "Plagg, Claws Out!" (French: Plagg, transforme-moi !, "Plagg, transform me!")
- Hawk Moth (French: le Papillon, lit. "the butterfly"; voiced by Keith Silverstein in English version, Antoine Tomé in French version) is a mysterious villain who has the power to create new super-villains with his akuma, which are butterflies that he corrupts with his dark power. He preys on people who are at a point of weakness and appeals to their negative emotions, such as fear, sadness, anger or jealousy. In exchange for granting them powers to exact revenge on those who have wronged them, he asks his villains to steal Ladybug and Cat Noir's Miraculouses for him, so that he may use both to gain immense power. He possesses the Moth Miraculous. Long believed to be lost, its original purpose is to create superheroes, but because Hawk Moth has it, he is able to use both Miraculous and its Kwami Nooroo as the source of his power.
- Tikki (voiced by Mela Lee in English version, Marie Nonnenmacher in French version) is Marinette's Kwami who allows her to transform into Ladybug. Tikki is a small floating magical humanoid with a large head, big eyes, and a red body with large black spots on her head, resembling a ladybug. She believes strongly in Marinette and gives her advice to be the best she can be, regardless of transformation. When asked by Marinette whether she is over 5000 years old, Tikki replies that she is older than that, and had watched over every Ladybug since the beginning.[e] During her charge's transformation as Ladybug, she inhabits the Ladybug Miraculous, a pair of shiny black earrings that Marinette wears. One of the two strongest of the Miraculouses, it has the power of creation. Astruc has written on Twitter that Tikki means "happiness".
- Plagg (voiced by Max Mittelman in English version, Thierry Kazazian in French version) is Adrien's Kwami who enables him to transform into Cat Noir. Plagg looks much like Tikki, but with a black body, green eyes and pointed ears, resembling a black cat. Unlike Tikki, however, Plagg is sarcastic and lazy. His favorite food is camembert, a stinky cheese. During his charge's transformation as Cat Noir, he inhabits the Black Cat Miraculous, a large silver ring that Adrien wears on his right hand. One of the two strongest of the Miraculouses, it has the power of destruction. Astruc has written on Twitter that Plagg means "plague".
- Alya Césaire (voiced by Carrie Keranen in English version, Fanny Bloc in French version) is Marinette's best friend who typically wears a plaid shirt and black glasses. She constantly helps Marinette with her problems, most of which pertain to Marinette attempting, and failing, to speak to Adrien; she is often seen encouraging and helping her to talk to him. She aspires to be a journalist and is in charge of the school blog. She is a big fan of superheroes and like her peers, is a massive fan of Ladybug; she even operates a fansite known as the Ladyblog, but like everyone else, is unaware of Marinette's superhero identity. In the episode "Lady Wifi", she is influenced by Hawk Moth and becomes the supervillain Lady Wifi. Alya's family name is Césaire, her family originally from Martinique, a French overseas territory in the Caribbean. Her mother works as a chef at the Grand Paris hotel.
- Chloé Bourgeois (voiced by Selah Victor in English version, Marie Chevalot in French version) is the mayor's daughter and a classmate of Marinette and Adrien. Chloé is extremely mean, snobby, spoiled and thinks the world revolves around her. She often bullies and ridicules her classmates, resulting in the latter's sadness and despair and becoming a target for Hawk Moth's transforming them into akumatized villains. She has an unrequited crush on Adrien, and often tries to charm and kiss him, much to his discomfort, and resulting in a constant rivalry with Marinette for his affections. Like the other students, she has no knowledge of Ladybug's identity, and is a big fan of Ladybug, often trying to take pictures with her; she even has a Ladybug costume. In the episode "Antibug", she herself is influenced by Hawk Moth and becomes the supervillain Antibug, who wants revenge on Ladybug for pushing her aside. In the episode "Ladybug & Cat Noir - Origins, Part 1", it is revealed that she has been classmates with Marinette for 4 consecutive years.[f]
- Nino Lahiffe (voiced by Benjamin Diskin in English version, Alexandre Nguyen in French version) is Adrien's best friend who dresses in skate punk fashion, typically seen with headphones around his neck and a cap on his head. He DJs at the school's radio station. Nino is fond of Marinette, but ultimately discovers that he has more in common with Alya.[g] In the episode "The Bubbler", he is influenced by Hawk Moth and becomes the supervillain the Bubbler. When asked about Alya and Nino's ethnicity, Astruc wrote on Twitter that one of them was from Réunion, and later wrote that Alya was from Martinique.
- Tom Dupain and Sabine Cheng are Marinette's parents who operate the renowned bakery that the family lives above. Tom is a burly French man who is very passionate about his baking and loves to play video games with his daughter. Sabine is a petite Chinese woman who runs the storefront, and is known for her love and warmth towards her family and her city.
- Sabrina Raincomprix is Chloé's only friend and her assistant. Chloé often treats Sabrina as her lackey: Sabrina does Chloé's homework for her and runs her errands, and in return, Chloé charms her with expensive, fashionable clothing. She has orange hair and wears glasses. In the episode "Antibug", Sabrina is angry at Chloé for ignoring her, and becomes influenced by Hawk Moth, turning into the Vanisher supervillain who is invisible to the human eye. Astruc wrote on Twitter that Chloé, Sabrina and another classmate named Alix were originally intended to become a trio as a reference to the title characters in another French animated series, Totally Spies!.
Astruc has said that the show has reached over 120 countries. Disney Channel has had broadcasting rights in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, having to do with participation from The Walt Disney Company France: specifically, it acquired cable and satellite television rights in Europe, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, and free-to-air rights in Spain, Germany, Russia and Turkey.
South Korea was the first country to premiere Ladybug, with girl group Fiestar to sing its translated theme song. It aired on 1 September 2015 on EBS1, and ran for 13 episodes until November 2015, with repeats through February 2016, and its second half of the season airing from 1 March 2016. SK Broadband, having participated in the production, provided the episodes on video on demand exclusively to subscribers of their IPTV platform B TV, about a half-hour following the South Korean broadcast of each one on EBS1. Disney Channel in South Korea has also aired the series as of 7 December 2015.
In France, the series premiered on 19 October 2015 on the Tfou programming block on TF1. In Canada, the French version of the series was premiered on 9 January 2016 on Télé-Québec, a provincial public service television network in Quebec.
The series debuted on Nickelodeon in the United States on 6 December 2015. Other English-language premieres are as follows: In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the show premiered on 30 January 2016 on Disney Channel In Australia, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation released the show on its ABC iview streaming service on 1 January 2016, and premiered the show on its linear channel ABC3 on 22 March 2016. In New Zealand, the show premiered on 27 April 2016 on TVNZ's TV2. In English Canada, the series premiered on Family Channel on 1 November 2016.
|First aired||Last aired|
|1||26||19 October 2015||30 October 2016|
||The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Kimberly Cooper, a blog writer who has contributed to news media such as The Huffington Post, wrote that the show has inspired teens and adults to create and propagate Miraculous remixes, and liked that the show featured multiracial characters as with the film Big Hero 6 which had won an Oscar. She "quickly realized there was a far cooler and broader Miraculous movement underway". Caitlin Donovan of entertainment website Epicstream listed it as one of her top 10 animated series of 2015. She wrote that "The characters are so charming that the tropey aspects of the show are merely a lot of fun, rather than irritating." with creative fights and good CGI animation. She wrote that "Marinette is an adorable lead who is genuinely awkward as a civilian, but confident as a superhero, which makes for an interesting contrast." Ella Anders of BSCKids wrote that the show stands out because of "how it meshes both the magical girl and superhero genera together". Robert Lloyd of the Los Angeles Times described the show as "clever, romantic, fun, the way some of us prefer our superhero stories". He found the characters to "have the look of extruded plastic common to CGI cartoons" but that , but "within these limits the design is lovely and the animation elegant, and a lot of work has gone into the staging and execution of the action scenes".
The North American Precis Syndicate called the show "authentic and aspirational – a story of today's modern everygirl superhero who comes to life. The series, about a young girl who taps into her superhero powers and innocent optimism to save Paris from the evil Hawk Moth, will no doubt inspire today's youth to try to save the day, each and every day in their own way". Andrea Reiher of Zap2It wrote that the "storylines are rich with family, friends, adventure, intrigue, villains, creativity and more, delivering themes that are relatable and relevant to kids and preteens" and anticipated it would be a huge hit on Nickelodeon.
Several media reviewers have anticipated Miraculous-brand toys to be among the hot superheroine properties for 2016. Zag has partnered with Bandai to release Miraculous-based toys, as well as deals to make Miraculous-brand clothing and other merchandise.
- "Le Pharaon". Miraculous: Les Aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir. Season 1. Episode 3 (in French). 8 March 2016. Event occurs at 00:48. TF1.
(Alya, after picking up Ladybug's history book) Ladybug dropped a book! It's a (French: classe de troisième, equivalent of ninth grade) history book; I'm in a good position to know! I have the exact same one at home! Could our favorite masked vigilante be a (French: collégienne, equivalent of middle school) in real life?In the English version "The Pharaoh", Alya says that it's a tenth-grade history book, and suspects that Ladybug could be a high schooler, conflicting with the French version. As Astruc has stated that the show's canon language is French, the article will use ninth grade.
- "Webisode: Adrien's Double Life". Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir (Webisodes). Episode 5. 2 February 2016. Event occurs at 00:25. Nickelodeon. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
[Adrien] Actually, I mostly do it [modeling] to make my father happy. Ever since Mom disappeared, he hasn't been the same.
- "Stormy Weather". Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir.
- "Dark Cupid". Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir.
- "The Pharaoh". Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir. Season 1. Episode 6. 3 January 2016. Event occurs at 20:28. Nickelodeon.
I'm older than [5,000 years old]. I'm the Kwami that's watched over every Ladybug since the very beginning!
- "Ladybug et Chat Noir (Origines - Partie 1)". Miraculous: Les Aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir. Season 1. Episode 22 (in French). 9 March 2016. Event occurs at 03:13. Télé-Québec. Marinette: "You can bet Chloé's gonna be in my class again" Sabine: "Four years in a row, you think that's possible?"
- "Animan". Miraculous: Les Aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir. Season 1. Episode 16 (in French). 24 January 2016. Event occurs at 20:15. TF1.
- "Miraculous". PGS Entertainment. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- Collins, Elle (3 December 2015). "Teen French Heroes Ladybug & Cat Noir Arrive On Nickelodeon". Comics Alliance. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
The influence of the Magical Girl genre is inescapable; when Marinette’s mother is captured in a bubble and carried off into the sky, apparently along with every adult in Paris, Marinette transforms into Ladybug in a series of twirls and poses, just as Sailor Moon and other magical girls always do. She even has the guidance of some kind of talking ladybug creature, fulfilling another Magical Girl trope.
- Astruc, Thomas [Thomas_Astruc] (3 May 2016). "Delighted to announce: @WinnyGZ @happyhappykuri & Jun Violet will now direct the show with me. Plz greet'em warmly!" (Tweet). Retrieved 26 June 2016 – via Twitter.
- Jayson, Jay (9 September 2015). "Miraculous Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir To Debut In December On Nickelodeon". Comicbook.com. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- McLean, Tom (4 December 2015). "ZAG’s ‘Miraculous’ Debuts Dec. 6 on Nick". Animation Magazine. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
ZAG Animation’s long-in-the-works superhero animated series Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir, debuts in the United States at noon ET/PT Dec. 6 on Nickelodeon.
- Komatsu, Mikikazu (4 September 2012). "Toei helps creating a new French magical girl show". Crunchyroll.
a new TV anime series called Lady Bug or Miraculous Ladybug
- Loo, Egan (5 September 2012). "Zagtoon, Toei's Ladybug Animated Trailer Streamed". Anime News Network.
- Keslassy, Elsa (6 June 2012). "Japan's Toei to co-produce 'Miraculous'". Variety (magazine).
Zagtoon has enrolled Japan's Toei Animation to co-produce "Miraculous" (working title), a Paris-set comedy-action series
- Hodgkins, Crystalin (6 June 2012). "Toei Animation to Co-Produce French Cartoon Miraculous". Anime News Network.
- "Miraculous va enchanter TFou ! sur TF1". Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- 글로벌 공동제작 애니메이션 '레이디버그' EBS 세계 최초 방송 (9월1일 오후 7시) [EBS to be the First in the World to Broadcast Ladybug, a Multinational Animated Co-Production (from 1 September at 7 pm)] (Press release) (in Korean). Educational Broadcasting System. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Stormy Weather". TV Guide UK. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- Zag, Jeremy (20 November 2015). "season 2 and 3 in progress 😊😀👍". Instagram. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "PGS Secures Deals For 'LadyBug'". Animation Magazine. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
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- Thomas_Astruc (24 February 2016). "@AllergicCatLady @Miraculous_show @Ladybug_Cartoon Because canon langage is french and fansubbing always contain errors." (Tweet). Retrieved 8 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- "zag inc". zagtoon.com. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- Miraculous Ladybug - 6 Things You Need To Become A Miraculous Superhero - Nick. 12 December 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2016 – via YouTube.
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Univergroup Pictures and Onyx Films are joining forces to produce 'Miraculous Lady Bug'
- Astruc, Thomas. "Miraculous Thomas Astruc FAQ". Archived from the original on 2016-03-21. Retrieved 2016-08-24 – via Tumblr.
- Nolife (8 March 2016). 101 PUR 100 #23 Thomas Astruc & Wilfried Pain (Miraculous Ladybug). Interview with Davy Mourier. Retrieved 14 March 2016 – via YouTube.
- Elsa Keslassy. "Zagtoon to produce ‘Knight Five’". Variety. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Thomas_Astruc (23 September 2015). "@WatermelonSoup In the trailer, the male character you're talking is called Félix." (Tweet). Retrieved 5 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas_Astruc (27 October 2015). "@raff_rafflesia Me too. Adrien is more interesting storywise, while Félix was more an anime cliché. That's why we discarded him." (Tweet). Retrieved 5 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Countdown to Miraculous Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir Is On". bsckids.com. 5 December 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Thomas_Astruc (25 September 2015). "@OrangeRux Even though he wasn't fit to be our hero, Félix's still an interesting character. Given the opportunity, I'll make him come back." (Tweet). Retrieved 5 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (14 February 2016). "@AbbysMaxine No matter what Félix's lovers think, this character was a poor idea. He's yours to fanfic with. I won't waste my time on him." (Tweet). Retrieved 5 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- SK브로드밴드, 글로벌애니매이션 공동제작 [SK Broadband to Join in Multinational Animated Co-Production] (Press release) (in Korean). SK Broadband. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- 최인영 (21 November 2012). SKB, 글로벌 애니메이션 제작 추진 [SK Broadband to Push Ahead with Multinational Animated Production] (in Korean). Seoul. Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 21 March 2016 – via Naver.
- Krystal Kitsune (24 December 2015). "INTERVIEW WITH: Miraculous Ladybug executive producer, Jared Wolfson". The Kitsune Network.
- Ji-eun, Nam (3 August 2015). "S. Korea, France and Japan cooperate on new animation program". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Trailer de Ladybug, finalement en 3D" (in French). 21 October 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Binoist, Aurélie (22 September 2015). "Miraculous press kit" (PDF). tf1pro.com (in French). TF1 Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2015.
- Thomas Astruc (12 February 2016). "How long does it take on average to write an episode?". Tumblr. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "Noam Kaniel". Frogtoon Music. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
- "Wendy Child - Timeline - Facebook". facebook.com. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "The Mime". Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir. Episode 13. Event occurs at Closing credits, Opening Title Music Theme.
- Velasquez, Nestor (9 July 2015). "Anime, Ponies and More – The Next Code Lyoko?". Tumblr. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015. Summary of promotional material released for Miraculous Ladybug.
- "Miraculous - Disney Channel UK". Disney UK. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- "Miraculous Ladybug". Miraculous official website. Retrieved 7 March 2016. Select characters and name of character
- Silverstein's tweets regarding Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir:
- Ladybug_cartoon (30 May 2015). "Hawk Moth is a villain who wants Ladybug & Chat Noir's powers for himself. He is voiced by @SilverTalkie in the Eng ver.! #Miraculousladbug" (Tweet). Retweeted by Keith Silverstein (SilverTalkie) – via Twitter.
- cambrasine (20 October 2015). "I was Ladybug + ended up meeting @SilverTalkie, the voice actor for Hawkmoth(US)!! @Thomas_Astruc #miraculousladybug" (Tweet). Retweeted by Keith Silverstein (SilverTalkie) – via Twitter.
- AshlyTWhite (6 November 2015). "@SilverTalkie I can't wait to hear you as Hawk Moth in #MiraculousLadybug @NickelodeonTV 😄❤️" (Tweet). Retweeted by Keith Silverstein (SilverTalkie) – via Twitter.
- Keith Silverstein [SilverTalkie] (7 November 2015). "@AshlyTWhite me too!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [thomas_astruc] (14 October 2015). "My fellow french #miraculers, meet the terrific Antoine Tome, aka #MiraculousLadybug 's Hawk Moth/le Papillon." (Tweet). Retrieved 31 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Marie Nonnenmacher". RS Doublage.com (in French).
- Tweets concerning the Kwami names:
- trashUlater (27 September 2015). "@Thomas_Astruc How were Tikki's and Plagg's name decided?" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [thomas_astruc] (27 September 2015). "@trashUlater The rule : every kwami must have a short name and a double letter in it." (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [thomas_astruc] (27 September 2015). "@trashUlater Tikki means happiness in language I can't remember. Plagg, obviously, is based on plague in english." (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Alya tweets:
- MircaculousLadybug (30 May 2015). "Alya is Marinette Cheng's best friend and will be voiced by @CarrieKeranen in the English version!" (Tweet). Retrieved 30 November 2015 – via Twitter.
- Erin Fitzgerald [ErinFitzgerald] (7 December 2015). "Bumped into @CarrieKeranen Alya in @Ladybug_Cartoon whoop! I play #Rose #Juleka" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Carrie Keranen [CarrieKeranen] (7 December 2015). ""@ErinFitzgerald: Bumped into @CarrieKeranen Alya in @Ladybug_Cartoon whoop! I play #Rose #Juleka " love you, girl!!" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- References regarding Alya's family name and ethnicities of Alya and Nino:
- "official-ladyblog: oakydokey: what are Alya and Nino’s ethnic origins?". Tumblr. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Serya_chan (10 January 2016). "@Thomas_Astruc Le nouvel épisode était super !! >w< Sinon j'ai bien entendu ou le nom de famille de l'une des chefs était Césaire ?" [The new episode was super!! >w< Did I mishear or was the last name of one of the chefs "Césaire"?] (Tweet) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Serya_chan (10 January 2016). "@Thomas_Astruc Si j'ai bien entendu, ça me fait très plaisir, en tant que Martiniquaise et lectrice d'Aimé Césaire haha ;u;" [If I heard right, that makes me happy, as a resident of Martinique and reader of Aimé Césaire haha ;u;] (Tweet) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (10 January 2016). "@Serya_chan C'est bien le cas. Pour une fois qu'une série se passe en France, on n'allait pas oublier les dom-tom, non?" [That’s the case. A series takes place in France for once, we can’t forget the overseas departments and territories, can we?] (Tweet) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (10 January 2016). "@Serya_chan et donc oui, la famille d'Alya est originaire de Martinique." [and yes, Alya’s family is originally from Martinique.] (Tweet) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (18 July 2016). "My flight for LA has been delayed. So I had a few time to write this... See you in SDCC!" (Tweet). Retrieved 3 January 2017 – via Twitter.
- Victor, Selah (17 September 2015). "Apparently my character Chloe likes to take selfies too ;).". Instagram. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (14 October 2015). "And here's your favorite brat: Marie Chevalot, aka Chloé Bourgeois, #MiraculousLadybug 's nemesis." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Astruc's tweet in response to Nino's last name
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (14 October 2015). "And your best bud forever, @Lexovy aka Alexandre N'guyen aka Nino." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Astruc's tweets about a trio:
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (8 December 2015). "#MiraculousLadybug trivia: originally, Chloé, Sabrina and Alix were supposed to be a trio. Can you guess why?" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (8 December 2015). "It was indeed a reference to TTS. Bravo 👏" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [Thomas_Astruc] (8 December 2015). "@Mo3RoseWhite It was the production code for Totally Spies." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thomas J. McLean (20 May 2014). "PGS Secures Deals For 'LadyBug'". Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- SK브로드밴드, B TV 미라큘러스 레이디버그 국내 최초 VOD 독점 방영 [SK Broadband to be the First in the Country to Release Miraculous Ladybug on VOD, Exclusively on B TV] (Press release) (in Korean). SK Broadband. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- 12/7일 첫방영! 디즈니채널/ 미라큘러스 방영안내 [Miraculous on Disney Channel: a Network Premiere, from 7 December] (in Korean). SAMG Animation. 7 December 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Miraculous : Les Aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir". Télé-Québec (in French). Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Liu, Ed (10 September 2015). "Nickelodeon Debuts "Miraculous Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir" on December 6, 2015". Toon Zone News. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- Dickson, Jeremy (10 September 2015). "Nick US to debut Miraculous Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir". Kidscreen. Toronto: Brunico Communications. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Zag, Jeremy (24 June 2015). "Ladybug will finally air on Nickelodeon this Fall!". Instagram. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "Miraculous Gets Green Light for Two More Seasons - TVKIDS". worldscreen.com. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Miraculous Tales Of Ladybug And Cat Noir". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- "Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir". TVNZ. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- "Superstars and superheroes land on Family Channel beginning today". DHX Media. 1 November 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "Instagram post by Jeremy Zag • Jun 4, 2017 at 8:41am UTC". Instagram. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir Season 2 Slated for May 2017". Anime News Network. 2016-09-02. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Kimberly Cooper". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Cooper, Kimberly (27 February 2016). "Biracial Diversity in Animation: Thomas Astruc Scores Big with Miraculous Ladybug". Literatigurl. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Donovan, Caitlin (30 December 2015). "Top 10 Animated Series of 2015". epicstream.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Anders, Ella (2 July 2015). "Part Magical Girl, Part Superhero; Ladybug Arrives State-Side in Fall". BSCkids. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Lloyd, Robert (August 27, 2016). "'Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir,' a French turn on teenage superheroes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- North American Precis Syndicate (10 February 2016). "SuperHERoes To Rule The Playroom And Beyond". NAPSI. Retrieved 6 March 2016 – via NJ.com.
- Reiher, Amanda (4 December 2015). "Ladybug and Cat Noir will be kids’ favorite new superheroes". Zap2It. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Kidscreen articles:
- Callan, Patrick (16 February 2016). "On a roll: What’s driving a global toy industry boom?". kidscreen.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Callan, Patrick (13 October 2015). "Leading Ladies, Kicking Ass". kidscreen.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Brott, Armin; Feuss, Samantha (18 February 2016). "Toy trends for 2016". Retrieved 6 March 2016 – via Waterloo Region Record.