Mirin (味醂 or みりん, Japanese: [miɾiɴ]) is a type of rice wine and a common ingredient in Japanese cooking. It is similar to sake, but with a lower alcohol content and higher sugar content. The sugar content is a complex carbohydrate that forms naturally during the fermentation process; no sugars are added. The alcohol content is further lowered when the liquid is heated.
Three types of mirin are common. The first is hon mirin (literally: true mirin), which contains about 14% alcohol and is produced by a 40 to 60 day mashing (saccharification) process. The second is shio mirin (literally: salt mirin), which contains a minimum of 1.5% salt to prevent consumption in order to avoid alcohol tax. The third is shin mirin (literally: new mirin), or mirin-fu chomiryo (literally: mirin-like seasoning), which contains less than 1% alcohol, yet retains the same flavor.
In the Kansai style of cooking, mirin is briefly boiled before using, to allow some of the alcohol to evaporate. In the Kantō regional style, the mirin is used untreated. Kansai-style boiled mirin is called nikiri mirin (煮切り味醂) (literally: thoroughly boiled mirin).
Mirin is used to add a bright touch to grilled or broiled fish or to erase the fishy smell. A small amount is often used instead of sugar and soy sauce. Its flavor is quite strong. It is sometimes used to accompany sushi.
Mirin is also used to make other sauces:
- Kabayaki sauce (eel sauce): mirin, soy sauce, eel or fish bones
- Nikiri mirin sauce: soy sauce, dashi, mirin, sake, in a ratio of 10:2:1:1
- Sushi su (sushi rice vinaigrette): rice wine vinegar, sugar, nikiri mirin sauce
- Teriyaki sauce
- Japanese flavorings
- Mijiu – Chinese rice wine that can be used in cooking
- Huangjiu - Chinese rice wine that can be used in cooking
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