Mirpur, Pakistan

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میر پور
New Mirpur City
Mirpur is located in Azad Kashmir
Mirpur is located in Pakistan
Coordinates: 33°9′N 73°44′E / 33.150°N 73.733°E / 33.150; 73.733Coordinates: 33°9′N 73°44′E / 33.150°N 73.733°E / 33.150; 73.733
Country  Pakistan
Territory  Azad Kashmir
District Mirpur District
 • Total 1,010 km2 (390 sq mi)
Elevation 458 m (1,503 ft)
Population (2015)
 • Total 754,482
 • Density 746/km2 (1,930/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Calling code 05827
Number of towns 3
Number of Union councils 21

Mirpur (Urdu, Punjabi: مِيرپُور or more commonly known as New Mirpur City) is the capital of Mirpur district and is the largest city of Azad Kashmir. The city itself has gone through a process of modernization, while most of the surrounding area remains agricultural. Mirpur is known for its grand buildings and large bungalow-houses primarily funded through its ex-pat community, which comes mainly from the United Kingdom, Europe, Hong Kong, Middle East and North America. The main crop cultivated during summer is millet and pulses. However, there are places where other crops such as wheat, maize and vegetables are also grown. The produce of quality rice from the paddy fields of khari Sharif between Upper Jhelum Canal and Jhelum river are very famous and popular for its aroma and taste. The production of electricity, through Mangla Dam makes this district somewhat unusual in the entire region which provides energy needs for Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Northern Punjab province.

A significant portion of the population from the district migrated to the United Kingdom in mid to late 1950s and in early 1960s – mostly to West Yorkshire, East Midlands, West Midlands, Luton, Peterborough, Derby and East London. 70% of the British Pakistanis are Mirpuris.[1] For this reason Mirpur is sometimes known as "Little England". Many products from the UK are found in this city. Many shops in the city accept the Pound sterling.[2]


The area that is now Mirpur has always been a crossroad for major invasions of the South Asia and has formed part of various empires over time including the role of an outlying region of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Kingdom of Gandhara, the Mauryan empire, the Kushan empire, the Sultanate of Ghazni, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal empire amongst others.[citation needed]

The Mirpur city itself was founded in around 1640 AD or 1050AH by the Ghakhar chief Miran Shah Ghazi. The Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Kashmir and Jammu (1909) provides this information about Mirpur history as "it is said to have been founded by Miran Shah Ghazi and Sultan Fateh Khan". An alternate view is that the city was founded by Mira Shah Gazi and Gosain Bodhpuri, both regarded as saints. The word 'Mir' was taken from the name of the former while 'Pur’ from the latter.[3]

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot its landscape

The area that is now Mirpur has been historically associated with Pothohar. Though modern demarcation of Potohar devised by British excludes Mirpur by using Jhelum river as the eastern boundary. By the end of the 18th century, Gakhar power in Pothohar had declined. Mirpur had become part of Chibb ruled the state of Khari Khariyali with capital at Mangla Fort. With the rise of Sikh power in Punjab, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established his supremacy and set his eyes on the Chibh states of Bhimber and Khari Khariyali. In 1810, a force was sent against Raja Sultan Khan of Bhimber and was met with fierce resistance. However, in 1812 another Sikh army under prince Kharak Singh defeated Sultan Khan and the Bhimber state was annexed as Jagir of Kharak Singh. Around the same time, Ranjit Singh acquired Gujrat and invaded Khari Khariyali ruled by Raja Umar Khan. Raja Umar Khan made peace with Ranjit Singh. But before a settlement could be made, he died and the state and Mirpur became part of Ranjit Singh's territories.[4]

In 1816, Ranjit Singh annexed Jammu state and in 1820 awarded Jammu to his commander Gulab Singh who hailed from Jammu and was under the service of Ranjit Singh for the past eight years. Between 1831–39 Ranjit Singh bestowed on Gulab Singh the royalty of the salt mines in northern Punjab, and the northern Punjab towns including Bhera, Jhelum, Rohtas, Mirpur and Gujrat. Gulab Singh kept on expanding his kingdom and in 1840 Baltistan was made subject to Jammu and Gilgit fell to a Sikh force from Kashmir in 1842. The state of Kashmir was annexed by Ranjit Singh in 1819. However the rebellion in Hazara in the beginning of 1846, compelled the country to be transferred to Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu as well. As an aftermath of the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Treaty of Lahore, The Treaty of Amritsar was signed between the British East India company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu on March 16, 1846. The British Government sold Kashmir to the Raja of Jammu for 75 lakhs Nanak Shahi Rupees. This treaty transferred him all the hill states between Ravi and Indus. The transfer included Kashmir, Hazara and the southern hill states (including former Khari Khariyali Thus sealing the fate of Mirpur with the new state of Jammu and Kashmir.[4]

Early Mirpur[edit]

Mirpur was historically a part of the Punjab region. However, it became a part of the Jammu division of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in a deal between the rulers of that state and the British. Since Mirpur lies at the point where the Jhelum River breaks out of the heavily forested foothills of the Pir Panjal mountains into the plains of the largely treeless Punjab. It was an ideal spot for the construction of the boats used to carry goods down the five rivers of the Punjab to the Indus River and onto the seaports in the Indus delta. Traders have been operating from there across the Indian Ocean for over three thousand years. Most of the crew on the boats trading up and down the Punjab and Indus River system were drawn from Mirpur, as training as a boat-builder was a necessary prerequisite for becoming a boatman.[citation needed]

Dogra rule[edit]

With the arrival of Dogra Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu, the thriving river trade was decimated due to the construction of railway lines from Bombay and Karachi into the interior of the Punjab.[citation needed] Moving goods by rail was both cheaper and quicker, and hundreds of Mirpuri boatmen found themselves out of a job.

At the same time long-distance ocean trade was shifting from sail to steam. There was a huge demand for men who were prepared to work in the hot, dirty and dangerous stokeholds of the new coal-fired steamers. British seamen avoided such jobs whenever they possibly could.[citation needed] They preferred to work on deck. But in the 1870s Mirpuri ex-river boatmen were desperately searching for a new source of income.[citation needed] Although unfamiliar with stoking coal-fired boilers, they were prepared to learn and quickly gained jobs as engine-room stokers on new steamships sailing out of Karachi and Bombay, a position they retained until coal-fired ships were finally phased out of service at the end of the Second World War. Many Mirpuris fought in Burma during the Second World War.[citation needed]

Indo-Pakistan War of 1947[edit]

In the wake of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, a number of militant campaigns were organized all around the Western mountains of Kashmir and Jummu, including Poonch, Muzaffarabad and Mirpur to forcibly usurp Kashmir from Dogra ruler Maharaja Hari Singh.[citation needed]

On the Mirpur front, Captain Khan of Mong played a leading role in the campaign with the strategic aim to cut off the India's supply line into the rest of Kashmir. In October 1947, Captain Khan ambushed two Dogra despatch-riders at Puranian Hattian on their motorcycle armed with one sten gun.[5] This gun was used to raid Gobindpur Police Station a few nights later. This raid provided further supplies and consolidated their position. A number of further attacks ensued leading up to the Battle of Mirpur where five attacks were organized. On 25 November, finding the situation beyond control, Wazir Wazarat Mirpur, Rao Rattan Singh and Brig Karki from Nepal decided to abandon town at 1400 hours.[5]

Post war[edit]

After World War II a new set of opportunities opened up. Britain's economy was just setting off on what proved to be a long post-war boom, and there was an acute short of labour in the foundries of the Midlands, and the textile mills of Yorkshire and Lancashire.[citation needed] Now it was the turn of ex-seamen to become industrial workers in Britain.[citation needed] So when the Mangla Dam was about to be constructed in 1960, the affectees of the dam who were going to be deprived of their agricultural land were afforded the opportunity to migrate to the United Kingdom and to join those of their kinsfolk who long before had established themselves in Britain.[citation needed]

As a result, Mirpur is one of the principal sources of migration from the State of Azad Kashmir to Europe, and especially to Britain, so much so that out of a million migrants from the state of Azad Kashmir and Pakistan, most of them i.e. 82%.[citation needed] Although it is widely believed that the principal reason for this outflow was the construction of the Mangla Dam, which in no doubt is true, but the fact is that long before construction of dam, a sizable mirpuri community existed in the UK.[citation needed]

Hindu and Sikh communities[edit]

Before the Kashmir War in 1947, the Mirpur District had about 75,000 Hindu and Sikhs, amounting to 20 percent of the population.[6] A great majority of them lived in the principal towns of Mirpur, Kotli and Bhimber. Refugees from Jhelum in Western Punjab had taken refuge in Mirpur town, causing the non-Muslim population to increase to 25,000. On 25 November 1947, tribesmen and Pakistani military members moved into the town, seizing the city. Of the minority population, only about 2,500 Hindus or Sikhs escaped to the Jammu and Kashmir along with the State troops. The remainder were marched to Alibeg, where a gurdwara was converted into a prison camp, but the raiders killed 10,000 of the captives along the way and abducted 5,000 women. Only about 5,000 made it to Alibeg, but they continued to be killed at a gradual pace by the captors. In March 1948, the ICRC rescued 1,600 of the survivors from Alibeg, who were resettled to Jammu and other areas of India. The date of 25 November is remembered as the Mirpur Day in the Indian-administered Kashmir.[7][8][9][10][11]

Mirpur City[edit]

Mirpur city is situated at 459 meters above sea-level and is linked with the main Peshawar-Lahore Grand Trunk road at Dina Tehsil. It is the headquarters of Mirpur District, which comprises two sub-divisions, Mirpur and Dadyal.Mirpur is now one of the largest city of Azad kashmir[12] The building of the new city in late 1960s paved the way for New Mirpur situated on the bank of Mangla lake.The project of 4 star hotel PC has been completed. And the government is planning to make the second rotating hotel of Pakistan in Mirpur,Azad Kashmir

In fact the remains of the old city (old Mirpur) are underneath the waters of the Mangla Lake; during the colder months of March and April, the water level recedes to such an extent that one can travel on motorcycle on old Mirpur road which still exists. Holy Shrines of Syed Abdul Karim and Meeran Shah Ghazi become visible and so do the remnants of a Sikh Gurdwara as well as a Hindu Mandir possibly dedicated to the "Mangla Mata" (Mangla mother goddess). The remains of old houses, water wells, Graveyards reappear too. People from surrounding areas visit old Mirpur during these months to pay homage to their ancient land they lived on and pray on graveyards of their loved ones. Urs Mubarak of Meeran Shah and Syed Abdul Kareem are also arranged in these months in old Mirpur.

The remains of old Mirpur depict a silhouette of pre-independence city when many faiths co-existed side by side. However, after division of the State of Jammu Kashmir, the non-Muslim community consisting of Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs fled to Jammu. The New Mirpur city has been well planned with construction of modern designed buildings and ample roads serving each part of city. The affluence brought on by emigration mainly to the UK is reflected by the structure and grandiose of the residential houses. There are tell-tale signs of inward investment by the expatriate community living in the United Kingdom, Europe, North America and the Middle East. The city has a number of good hotels, restaurants, shopping malls and other urban facilities.


The Government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has successfully endeavoured to develop Mirpur as an industrial place and promote private investment for establishing, foam, polypropylene, synthetic yarn, motorbikes and scooter, textile, vegetable Oil (Ghee), wood and sawmills, soap, cosmetics, marble, ready-made garments, matches and rosin, turpentine industrial units in the area.[citation needed]incase we can say that whole of the economy depends on mirpur generated economy of azad kashmir However, much of the infrastructure still needs improvement to obtain very high quality products.

As part of the relief/compensation package in the wake of Mangla Dam Raising Project, a new city is being developed along the south eastern outskirts of Mirpur with that the main city of Mirpur azad kasmir is now doubled from before . Civil works at huge scale are going on around the whole district, by the Pakistani and Chinese contractors for raising the dam. Four towns in the district have been planned besides the new city, to resettle the population affected by the project.Pharmaceutical Industry is also very famous in Mirpur.

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Plants are installed in Mirpur.

  • 1. Akson Pharma
  • 2. Medifine Laboratries
  • 3. Fredman Labs.

Pharmaceutical Distribution Setups.

  • 1. Friends Medicines Services (Mumtaz Meer)
  • 2. Atif Distributors (Ch. Farooq)
  • 3. Saaram Interprises (Ch. Naeem)
  • 4. F-M Distributors (Muhammad Farman)
  • 5. Shagoo Pharma (Bashir Shagoo)
  • 6. Junaid Pharmacy (Dr. Tahir)


English language is common in educational institutes.[citation needed] Previously the University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir was the only institution for higher studies but in the last decade there are significant changes in the educational infrastructure. Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST) and recently Akson College of Health Science(College of Pharmacy), Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College have been formed.

AJK Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Mirpur is responsible for the studies at lower levels. In addition to the state-run schools and colleges, Mirpur has a well-developed private sector providing the education to all sects of the society. Some of these include:


Football, Cricket and Volleyball are popular in Mirpur.[citation needed] Mirpur has a Cricket stadium "Quaid-e-Azam Stadium". There are registered sports clubs:A-5 Cricket Club, Al-Siraj Cricket Club, South Asia Cricket Club, Pilot Football Club, Youth Football Club and Kashmir National FC.The district football team of Mirpur take part in the All AJK take part in football championships but never win.


CNG auto rickshaws are very popular mode of transport for short routes within the city. The city's transport system links it to a number of destinations in Azad Kashmir notably Bhimber, Jatlan, Chakswari, Dadyal, Kotli and Khoi Ratta and to major cities in Pakistan as well as including services to Gujrat, Jhelum, Kharian, Gujranwala, Lahore and Rawalpindi. There is no railway station in Mirpur. The closest station is in mangla City, Azad kashmir.

The promise of a rail extension to Mirpur has been fulfilled.[citation needed]

Islamabad Airport which services the Mirpur region is 130 km away. Sialkot International Airport is 110 kilometres away

Mirpur airport[edit]

An international airport has been planned. The location of the airport has not been determined though construction workers have been thinking of possible locations near Mirpur such as Mangla, Jatlan and Bhalwhara.[citation needed] In August 2013 the national assembly and the prime minister approved confirmation of the airport. It was determined that the airport would be constructed in two years after funding had been made[13]


The shopping capital of Azad Kashmir, Mirpur has a shopping area, centred on Chowk Shaheed, Mian Mohammed Road, Puranian /hattian, Nangi and Allama Iqbal Road


Mirpur has food centers and restaurants. Samosa and fish are specialties. In terms of restaurants, there is a variety of food areas from takeaways to high class restaurants. There is a Thai restaurant. there are also a variety of restaurants specializing in local Pothwari/Punjabi dishes.

Language and demographics[edit]

Pahari and Potwari-Mirpuri (or Panjistani) are the predominant languages of the city, followed by Punjabi, Other languages spoken include Urdu and English.

According to the 1998 census Mirpur had a population of approximately 100,000. Mirpur's original population comprises different tribes similar to that of Punjab. However, since 1947, Pahari people emigrated from the neighbouring Rajouri and Poonch districts of the Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir. The bulk of the Mirpuri diaspora resides in England, United Kingdom.[14]


Mirpur (to the west and south) borders the Potohar plateau.

Cultural events[edit]

Saif Ul Malook Festival[edit]

The Saif Ul Malook Festival takes place annually in April, usually in the city centre. It is an event celebrating the anniversary of Baba Pir-e-Shah Ghazi Qalandar (Damrian Wali Sarkar) who was the spiritual guide/teacher of Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, the Sufi saint and Potwari poet famous for his poetic piece Saif ul Malook.

Rathoa Mehla[edit]

The Rathoa Mehla takes place annually in summer, in the Rathoa Town near the Dam front. It is an event celebrating culture value peace and tolerance.[citation needed]

Pahari Mushahira[edit]

Pahari Mushahira is a literary event in which poets from all over Azad Kashmir present their poems to general audience. Pahari Mushahira are celebrated regularly in Mirpur city as part of the campaign of Alami Pahari Adabi Sangat for the preservation and rehabilitation of the Pahari language and the Culture of Jammu and Kashmir.


In recent times Mirpur city has seen many new developments. Some of the schemes approved and under construction include:[citation needed]


Places of interest in Mirpur are:

Geography and climate[edit]

Mirpur is bounded on the north and east by Kotli District, on the west by Pothohar and on the south by Bhimber.


The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is BWh. The average annual temperature is 27.4 °C in Mirpur. In a year, the average rainfall is 109 mm. Mirpur is the breadbasket of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and has a climate similar to that of the neighbouring Potohar and Punjab region.

Since it is located at the extreme south of the state Jammu & Kashmir, the climate is extremely hot and dry during summer – making it very similar to the Pakistani areas of Jehlum and Gujar Khan.[citation needed] Most of its bushy landscapes, stretching from Bhimber to Dadyal, are barren – leaving only a small stretch of fertile land but highly productive land in the surrounding of Mangla water. A crop cultivated during the spring/summer season is millet.[citation needed] There are a few farms that grow vegetables and wheat, especially when the dam water subsides during the winter season.

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [15]


  • Balah-Galah is one of the communities of Mirpur, Azad Kashmir. It is located between the larger villages of Bhurkay and Sangot.
  • Bhalot is a village near the sector B5 district of Mirpur.
  • Bhimber is the chief town of Bhimber District, located approximately 50 km from Mirpur.
  • Chakswari is a tehsil approximately 40 km from Mirpur. It is fast becoming a commercial area of the district.
  • Dadyal is a tehsil approximately 65 km north of Mirpur, and the 2nd largest city in Azad Jamma Kashmir after Mirpur.
  • Islamgarh is a Municipal Committee located approximately 30 km North East of Mirpur.
  • Jandi Chontra is a popular scenic spot located approximately 67 km from Mirpur in Bhimber District. It is home to the Shrine of the Sufi Saint Hazrat Sheikh Baba Shadi Shaheed.
  • Jangian Kotla is near the river Jehlum and is approximately 20 km south of Mirpur.
  • Kakra Town is approximately 12–15 km from Mirpur.
  • Khari Sharif is an agricultural area located approximately 8 km from Mirpur. It is is famous for its Sufi shrines.
  • Kotli is the chief town of Kotli District, and located approximately 101 km from Mirpur.
  • Khaliqabad is approximately 6 km from Mirpur. It is an intersection for the main road leaving Mirpur.
  • Mangla town is approximately 16 km from Mirpur, it is at the mouth of the Mangla Dam for which it is famous.
  • Football Chowk, in sector D4, is on the outskirts of Mirpur city.[citation needed]
  • Mehmunpur Rajgan, 15 km from Mirpur city near Pul Manda.
  • Sahalia 70 km from Mirpur city.

Notable people of Mirpur[edit]

Twin cities[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jul 20, 2005 12:00am (2005-07-20). "Introspection grips British Muslims - Newspaper". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  2. ^ "Inside Pakistan's 'Little Britain' as overseas nationals get vote". BBC News. 4 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Azad Kashmir - Kashmiri Development Foundation
  4. ^ a b History of Panjab Hill States, Hutchison, Vogel 1933
  5. ^ a b Regimental History Cell, History of the Azad Kashmir Regiment, Volume 1 (1947-1949), Azad Kashmir Regimental Centre, NLC Printers, Rawalpindi,1997
  6. ^ Snedden, Unwritten History 2013, p. 28.
  7. ^ Snedden, Unwritten History 2013, p. 56.
  8. ^ Puri, Across the Line of Control 2013, p. 30.
  9. ^ Hassan, Khalid (16 March 2007). "Mirpur 1947 – the untold story :". Khalid Hasan Online. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  10. ^ Gupta, Prakriiti (8 May 2010). "Horrific Tales: Over 3,00,000 Hindus, Sikhs from PoK still fighting for their acceptance". Uday India. Archived from the original on September 8, 2011. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  11. ^ Bhagotra, Raj Kumar (2013), "Escape from death seven times", in Bal K. Gupta, Forgotten Atrocities: Memoirs of a Survivor of the 1947 Partition of India, Lulu.com, pp. 123–125, ISBN 978-1-257-91419-7 
  12. ^ Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Web.archive.org (2009-10-27). Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  13. ^ "AJK: International Airport to be constructed in Mirpur, says Majeed". GlobalPost. 2013-04-09. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  14. ^ Moss, Paul (30 November 2006). "The limits to integration". BBC News. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  15. ^ [en.climate-data.org/location/487079/ "Climate chart of Chiniot"] Check |url= value (help). My Weather. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  16. ^ Partner Cities – Birmingham City Council. Birmingham.gov.uk (2009-08-13). Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  17. ^ Life in the Community. Bradford Metropolitan District Council


External links[edit]