Mirza

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Royal and noble ranks in Iran, Turkey, Caucasus, the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan
A sultan's turban helmet
Emperor: Chhatrapati, Shahanshah, Khagan
High King: Maharaja, Padishah
King: Raja, Sultan, Shah, Khan, Nizam
Royal Prince : Shahzada (Şehzade), Mirza
Noble Prince : Sahibzada
Nobleman: Nawab, Baig, Begzada
Royal house : Damat
Governmental : Lala, Agha, Hazinedar

Mirza (/ˈmɜːrzə/ or /mɪərˈzɑː/; Persian: میرزا‎)[1][a] is a name of Persian origin. It is used as a surname or prefix to identify patriarchal lineage.

It is derived from a historical title of Persian origin (Mīrzā),[2] denoting the rank of a royal prince,[3] high nobleman,[4] distinguished military commander,[5] or a scholar.[6]

Specifically, it was used as a title by and today signifies patriarchal lineage to the various Persian Empires, the Shirvanshahs and Circassians of the Caucasus, and mainly the Mughals / Moguls or Muslim Rajputs of the Indian Subcontinent.[7] It was also a title bestowed upon members of the highest aristocracies in Tatar states, such as the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.

Etymology[edit]

The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term Amīrzādeh which literally means child of the Amīr or child of the ruler.[8] Amīrzādeh in turn consists of the Arabic title Amīr (English: Emir), meaning "commander" and the Persian suffix zādeh, meaning "son of" or "lineage of".[9] Due to vowel harmony in Turkic languages, the alternative pronunciation Morza (plural morzalar; derived from the Persian word) is also used.

Variant spellings in English include mirzya, miriza, mirize, mirze, morsey, mursay, murse, meirsa, mirzey, mursi, murze, murza, mirza, myrza, meerza.[10]

Royal title[edit]

The titles themselves were given by the Kings, Sultans and Emperors (equivalent to the western Fount of honour) to their sons and grandsons, or even distant kins. Noblemen loyal to the kings also received this Title.

The title itself is derived from the title Emir. Emir, meaning "commander" or "Prince", is derived from the Semitic root "Amr", meaning "command". Originally it simply meant "commander" or "leader", usually in reference to a group of people. It came to be used as a title of governors or rulers, typically in smaller states, and usually renders the English word "prince". The word entered English in 1595, from the French émir.[11]

Persian Empires[edit]

Meeting between Babur Mirza and Sultan Ali Mirza near Samarqand
Alqas Mirza meeting Suleiman the Magnificent. Illustration from the Süleymanname.

Safavid dynasty[edit]

Afsharid dynasty[edit]

Qajar dynasty[edit]

Shirvanshahs[edit]

Three consecutive titular kings of Shirvan, of the Shirvanshah Dynasty (present-day Azerbaijan), adopted the title as well following the death of Gurban Ali.

Circassians[edit]

Circassian Dynasty[edit]

The hereditary title of Mirza was adopted by the nobility class of the Circassians. Idar of Kabardia, also known as "Mirza Haydar Temruk Bey", was the great-grandson of Prince Inal - Sultan of Egypt the founder of the "Temruk dynasty" of the Kabardian princes, known in Russia as the "Cherkassky" a Circassian princely family.

Circassian nobility with the name Mirza include:

Princely Issues:

  • Temruk Mirza (ca. 1501 - 1571)
  • Kambulat Mirza (ca. 1510 - 1589)
  • Zhelegot Mirza (ca. 1520- ?)

Russian Empire[edit]

Under Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, the Mirzas gained equal rights with the Russian nobility due to their extreme wealth. In return, the Mirzas financed her Russo-Turkish war against the Ottoman Empire.[12] Abdul Mirza was given the title Prince Yusupov, and his descendant Prince Felix Yusupov married Princess Irina Alexandrovna of Russia, the only niece of Tsar Nicholas II.

Mughal Empire[edit]

Babur Mirza (born Mirza Zahiruddin), first emperor of Mughal Dynasty.[13]
Akbar Mirza (born Mirza Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad), one of the most popular Mughal kings of India, known as "Akbar the Great".
Mirzas of the Mughal imperial family, c. 1878.[14]

In the Indian Subcontinent (modern day Pakistan, India, Bangladesh), the title Mirza was borne by an imperial prince. It was adopted as part of ones name, implying relationship to the Turk dynasties like the Mughal Dynasty (the Imperial House of Timur).[15] In the traditional naming sequence of the Indian royal families, the title can be placed both before the name and after it, such as Prince Mirza Mughal or Prince Kamran Mirza. Prince Khusrau Mirza was the grandson of Emperor Babur (Babur Mirza), son of Emperor Jahangir and a brother of Emperor Shah Jahan. Emperor Akbar Shah II was known as Prince Mirza Akbar before his coronation. Emperor Babur took the imperial title of Padishah on 6 March 1508, before which he used the title Mirza.[16]

Mughal Dynasty of Northern India[edit]

Royal Family of Bengal[edit]

Imperial Families of Central India and Bengal Because the Bengali language has no phoneme /z/, Mirza has the local form Mridha (from Mirdhjah) in Bengal and Bihar.[17]

Royal Family of Awadh[edit]

The Royal Mughal Family of Berar[edit]

  • His Highness Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza, son of Emperor Mirza Azam
  • His Highness Prince Mohammed Beg Feroz Bakht Mirza, son of Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Bulaqui Mirza, son of Prince Mirza Feroz Bakht
  • His Highness Prince Sultan Bahaddur Aduli Mirza, son of Mirza Bulaqui Baig Bahaddur
  • His Highness Prince Sardar Baig Mirza, son of Aduli Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Qadar Baig Mirza, son of Aduli Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Hatam Baig Mirza, son of Sardar Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Umrao Baig Mirza, son of Sardar Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Hasan Baig Mirza, son of Umrao Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Alam Baig Mirza, son of Hasan Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince MuqadderBaig Mirza, son of Hasan Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Dr.Hasan Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Khaleeque Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince ADV.Wasique Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Saquib AlamBaig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince ADV.Anzar Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Fauwwaz Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Numan Baig Mirza, son of Dr. Hasan Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Afzal Baig Mirza, son of Khaleeque Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shahnawaz Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Muqadder Baig Mirza, son of Saquib Alam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mehboob Baig Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Qader Baig Mirza, son of Mehboob Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Roshan Baig Mirza, son of Mehboob Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shafaqat Baig Mirza, son of Qader Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Sharafat Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shabaz Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Sulaiman Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak I son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Rasheed son of Mirza Abdur Razzak
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak II a.k.a. Mohammed Rizwan Mirza son of Mirza Abdul Rasheed
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Mohammad Gibran son of Mohammed Rizwan Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Mohammad Arban Nizamuddin Rashidi son of Mohammed Gibran Mirza

Rajput Dynasty[edit]

Rajputs of Northern India[edit]

Originally being adversaries and opponents to the Mughal Emperors of Northern India, the title Mirza was also adopted by the Muslim Rajputs of Northern India.[18] The Rajput imperial families were descendants of ancient Indo-Aryan warriors who strategically formed blood alliances with Mughal aristocracy. The Rajputs were rulers of princely states comprising vast territories of Northern India, including the Punjab Region, Kashmir and Rajasthan. Inter-marriage between Mughal aristocracy and Rajput aristocracy became very common and various factions of Rajput kingdoms embraced the Islamic faith, giving rise to the term "Muslim Rajputs".[19] Rajput rulers were also granted the title Mirza on account of being high-ranked commanders in the Mughal military.[20] The meaning of Mirza (Persian origin)[21] is identical to the meaning of Rajput (Sanskrit Origin).[22]

Other notable Mirzas[edit]

Academics and literature[edit]

Entertainment[edit]

  • Aziz Mirza (born 1947), Indian film director, producer and writer.
  • Dia Mirza, Indian actress and former "Miss Asia Pacific" titleholder.
  • Mastan Haider Mirza, Indian Mafia boss, mobster and filmmaker; popularly known as the first "celebrity gangster" of Bombay.
  • Mirza Babayev, Azerbaijani movie actor and singer. Honored Artist of the Azerbaijan SSR and People’s Artist of Azerbaijan.
  • Mirza Nadeem Baig Mirza Nazeer Baig Mughal better known by his stage name Nadeem Baig, a Pakistani actor, singer and producer.
  • Mohib Mirza is a Pakistani actor and television host.
  • Saeed Mirza, Indian film director and screenwriter, considered one of the most influential parallel cinema movie makers in India.

Arts[edit]

Government[edit]

Judges and advocates[edit]

Journalist[edit]

Military[edit]

Nobility[edit]

Sport[edit]

Movies[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Life of a Mirza Chapter 7 (pg 225-227) The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture (2004) by Annemarie Schimmel ISBN 1-86189-185-7
  • Mirzah in The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable By Ebenezer Cobham Brewer: The quintessential guide to myth, folklore, legend, legend and literature. ISBN 1-84022-310-3
  • MI’RZA Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge For the People. ISBN 1-149-98693-X
  • A. Jaimoukha The Circassians: A Handbook Routledge, Palgrave, 2001, pp 157–60) ISBN 0-312-23994-7

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Persian: میرزا; Azeri: Mirzə; Tajik: Мирзо; Uzbek: Mirzo; Russian: мурза; Bashkir: mïrða; Circassian: мырзэ (common variance in Tatar nobility as Morza); Urdu: مرزا; Punjabi: مرزا

References[edit]

Specific
  1. ^ "Mirza Definition". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  2. ^ "Mirza Definition". Dictionary.com. n.d. Retrieved 14 January 2018. 
  3. ^ "Mirza Definition". Dictionary.com. n.d. Retrieved 14 January 2018. 
  4. ^ "Mirza Definition". Merriam-Webster. n.d. Retrieved 14 January 2018. 
  5. ^ "Mirza Definition". Merriam-Webster. n.d. Retrieved 14 January 2018. 
  6. ^ "Mirza Definition". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  7. ^ "History: Muslim Rajputs". Rana M. Ahsan Khan. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  8. ^ "Mirza Definition". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "Mirza Definition". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  10. ^ OED: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/119129?redirectedFrom=mirza#eid Accessed June 17, 2013
  11. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=amir&searchmode=none EtymologyOnLine
  12. ^ Life in Samarkand Caucasus and Central Asia vis-à-vis Russia, the West, and Islam, Madina Tlostanova: Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge (ISSN 1540-5699)]
  13. ^ World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 4th Edition Outlines - Chapter 21: The Muslim Empires. Longman. 2003. 
  14. ^ A photo from 'The People of India', published from 1868 to the early 1870s by WH Allen, for the India Office
  15. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00urdu/hali/majalis/10glossary.html
  16. ^ pg 24. The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture
  17. ^ The Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque is named for a man known in Mughal records as Khan Muhammad Mirza; see https://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=4450 Mughal dynasty (the Imperial House of Timur "Sarai Mulk Khanam Qutubuddunniya wa Deen Amir Qutubuddin Taimur Baig Sahib-e-kiran").
  18. ^ "History: Muslim Rajputs". Rana M. Ahsan Khan. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  19. ^ Lord Lawrence and the Reconstruction of India Under The Crown by Sir Charles Aitcheson, K.C.S.I., M.A., LL.D., Rulers of India series, Clarendon Press 1897, V p117
  20. ^ 30. Ra´jah Ma´n Singh, son of Bhagwán Dás - Biography Ain-i-Akbari, Vol. I.
  21. ^ "Mirza Definition". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  22. ^ "Rajput Definition". Britannica. n.d. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  23. ^ "British & Native Officers of Hodson's Horse, 1858". Felix Beato. Retrieved 2015-07-22. 
  24. ^ "Hakimpur Village, Gurdaspur District, India". Unknown. Retrieved 2015-07-22. 
Sources