Mirza (// or //)[a] is a title of Persian origin, denoting the rank of a high nobleman or Prince. It is usually translated into English as a royal or imperial Prince of the Blood. It was used as a name by and signifies patriarchal lineage to the imperial families and aristocracy of the Turkish Empire, Persia, Circassia, and subsequently the Moghals of the Indian Subcontinent as well as the Muslim Rajputs of Northern India and the Punjab. It was also the title borne by members of the highest aristocracies in Tatar states, such as the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.
Under Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, the Mirzas gained equal rights with the Russian nobility due to their extreme wealth. In return, the Mirzas financed her Russo-Turkish war against the Ottoman Empire. Abdul Mirza was given the title Prince Yusupov, and his descendant Prince Felix Yusupov married a niece of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Persian Kingdom
- 3 Nobility of Circassia
- 4 Shirvanshahs
- 5 Mughal Dynasty of India
- 6 Rajput Kingdoms of North India and the Punjab
- 7 Imperial Families of Central India and Bengal
- 8 Notable Mirzas
- 9 See also
- 10 Further reading
- 11 Footnotes
- 12 References
The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term ‘Amīrzāde which literally means "child of the ‘Amīr" or "child of the ruler" in Persian. ‘Amīrzād in turn consists of the Arabic title ‘Amīr (engl. Emir), meaning "commander" and "Prince", and the Persian suffix -zād, meaning "birth" or "lineage". Due to vowel harmony in Turkic languages, the alternative pronunciation Morza (plural morzalar; derived from the Persian word) is also used. The word Mirza means Royalty in almost every old version of Persian, Arab, Caucasian, Turkish and Indian languages.
Variant spellings in English include miriza, mirize, mirze, morsey, mursay, murse, meirsa, mirzey, mursi, murze, murza, mirza, myrza, meerza.
The titles themselves were given by the Kings, Sultans and Emperors (equivalent to the western Fount of honour) to their sons and grandsons, or even distant kins. Noblemen loyal to the kings also received this Title, although their usage differed.
The title itself came from the title emir. Emir, meaning "commander" or "Prince", -derived from the Semitic root Amr, "command". Originally simply meaning commander or leader, usually in reference to a group of people. It came to be used as a title of governors or rulers, usually in smaller states, and usually renders the English word "prince. Amir Sadri." The word entered English in 1595, from the French émir.
- His Highness Prince Iraj Mirza
- His Highness Prince Malek Mansur Mirza Shao es-Saltaneh
- His Highness Prince Bahram Mirza Sardar Mass'oud
- His Highness Prince Abbas Mirza
- His Highness Prince Abdol Majid Mirza
- Highness Prince Ali-Mohammad Mirza
- His Highness Prince Bahram Mirza
- His Highness Prince Djahangir Mirza
- His Highness Prince Eskandar Mirza
- His Highness Prince Hamid Mirza
- His Highness Prince Khanlar Mirza
- His Highness Prince Khosrow Mirza
- His Highness of Highness Prince Muhammad Mirza
- His Highness Prince Mahmoud Mirza
- His Highness Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza
- His Highness Prince Amer Mohammad Hassan Mirza II Grandson of King Mohammad Hassan Mirza.
- His Highness Prince Nosrat-od-Dowleh Firouz Mirza
- His Highness Prince Firouz Mirza Nosrat-ed-Dowleh Farman Farmaian III
- His Highness Prince Ali Mirza Qajar
- His Highness Prince Nosrat al-Din Mirza Salar es-Saltaneh
- His Highness Prince Abdol-samad Mirza Ezz ed-Dowleh Saloor
- His Highness Prince Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan
Nobility of Circassia
The hereditary title of Mirza was adopted by the nobility class of the Circassians. Idar of Kabardia, also known as "Mirza Haydar Temruk Bey", was the great-grandson of Prince Inal - Sultan of Egypt the founder of the "Temruk dynasty" of the Kabardian princes, known in Russia as the "Cherkassky" a Circassian princely family.
Circassian nobility with the name Mirza include:
- Temruk Mirza (ca. 1501 - 1571)
- Kambulat Mirza (ca. 1510 - 1589)
- Zhelegot Mirza (ca. 1520- ?)
Mughal Dynasty of India
In the Indian Subcontinent (modern day Pakistan, India, Bangladesh), the title Mirza was borne by an imperial prince. It was adopted as part of ones name, implying relationship to the Turk dynasties like the Mughal dynasty (the Imperial House of Timur). In the traditional naming sequence of the Indian royal families, the title can be placed both before the name and after it, such as Prince Mirza Mughal or Prince Kamran Mirza. Prince Khusrau Mirza was the grandson of Emperor Babur (Babur Mirza), son of Emperor Jahangir and a brother of Emperor Shah Jahan. Emperor Akbar Shah II was known as Prince Mirza Akbar before his coronation. Emperor Babur took the imperial title of Padishah on 6 March 1508, before which he used the title Mirza.
Imperial Family of Hindustan (India)
- Mirza Zahiruddin 1523–1530, first Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Nasiruddin 1530–1539 & 1554–1555, second Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Jalaluddin 1555–1605, third Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Nuruddin 1605–1627, fourth Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Khurram 1627–1658, fifth Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Muhiuddin 1658–1707, sixth Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Azam 1707, seventh Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Mu'Azzam 1707–1712, eighth Mughal Emperor.
- Sultan Muizuddin Mirza 1712–1713, ninth Mughal Emperor.
- Mouinudd'in Muhammad Mirza 1712–1719, tenth Mughal Emperor.
- Sultan Shamsuddin Mirza 1719, eleventh Mughal Emperor.
- Sultan Rafiuddin Mirza (later Shah Jahan II) 1719, twelfth Mughal Emperor.
- Sultan Nekusiyar Mirza 1719, thirteenth Mughal Emperor.
- Sultan Akhtar Mirza, fourteenth Mughal Emperor.
- Ahmad Shah Mirza 1720–1748, fifteenth Mughal Emperor.
- Aziz 'ud-Din Beg Mirza 1754–1759, sixteenth Mughal Emperor.
- Jalal 'ud-Din Mirza 1759–1760, seventeenth Mughal Emperor.
- Muhi-ul-millat Mirza 1788–1806, eighteenth Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Akbar 1806–1837, nineteenth Mughal Emperor.
- Sirajuddin Mirza 1837–1857, Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Abdullah, only son of Bahadur Shah II 1850–1897, Mughal Emperor.
- Mirza Aziz Koka (1542–1624), foster-brother of Akbar, son of Ataga Khan
Rajput Kingdoms of North India and the Punjab
The title Mirza was also adopted by the Muslim Rajputs of Northern India. The Rajputs were rulers of Princely states comprising vast territories of Northern India, including the Punjab Region (in present day north India and eastern Pakistan). The Rajput imperial families were descendants of ancient Indo-Aryan warrior classes and formed blood alliances with Mughal aristocracy. Inter-marriage between Mughal aristocracy and Rajput aristocracy became very common and significant factions of Rajput kingdoms embraced the Islamic faith. The meaning of Mirza (Persian origin) is a literal translation to the meaning of Rajput (Sanskrit Origin). In the case of the Muslim Rajputs, the title implied heredity to the Rajput dynasties of Northern India and not the Turkic dynasties. Today, Muslim Rajputs can be found predominantly in Punjab, Kashmir and Northwestern Pakistan.
The title Mirza also became common among the Muslim Jatts of North India and the Punjab. Much like the Rajputs, the Jatts were considered a martial race and warrior class of North India. Being farmers traditionally, the Jatts were known to patronize the imperialist military in large numbers. Similar to the Muslim Rajput, large factions of the Jat tribe embraced the Islamic faith. Today, the vast majority of Muslim Jatts are found in Punjab, Pakistan.
Imperial Families of Central India and Bengal
- Mirza Shuja ud-din Muhammad Khan, second Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- Mirza Asadullah, third Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- Mirza Muhammad Ali, fourth Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- Mirza Mohammad Siraj, fifth Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- Mirza Hassan Ali Khan Bahadur, 18th Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- Mirza Wasif Ali Khan, 19th Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- Mirza Waris Ali Khan, 20th Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- Mirza Muhammad Muqim Ali Khan, second Nawab Subahdar of Awadh (Oudh)
- Mirza Amani Asif-ud-Dawlah, fourth Nawab Subahdar of Awadh
- Mirza Asif Jah Wazir Ali Khan, fifth Nawab Subahdar of Awadh
- Mirza Wajid Ali Shah, eleventh Nawab Subahdar (fifth King) of Awadh
- Mirza Azam 1707, seventh Mughal Emperor.
- Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza, son of Emperor Mirza Azam
- Prince Mohammed Beg Feroz Bakht Mirza, son of Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza
- Prince BulaquiBeg Mirza, son of Prince Mirza Feroz Bakht
- Prince Sultan Bahaddur Aduli Mirza, son of Mirza Bulaqui Baig Bahaddur
- Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur AduliBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan Bahaddur UmraoBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurHatamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurHasanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur UmraoBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurMehboobBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HatamBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HasanBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurAlamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HasanBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurRoshanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MehboobBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurQaderBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MehboobBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurHasanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurKhaliqueBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurWasiqueBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurSaquibalamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurAnzarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
- Prince Sultan BahaddurFauwazBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
- His Highness Prince Numan Baig Mirza, son of Dr. Hasan Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Afzal Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Shahnawaz Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Muqadder Baig Mirza, son of Saquib Alam Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Shafaqat Baig Mirza, son of Qader Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Sharafat Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Shabaz Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Sulaiman Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak I son of Hatam Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Rasheed son of Mirza Abdur Razzak
- His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak II a.k.a. Mohammed Rizwan Mirza son of Mirza Abdul Rasheed
- His Highness Prince Mirza Mohammad Gibran son of Mohammed Rizwan Mirza
Academics and literature
- Mirza Ghalib (born: Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan), a famous Urdu and Persian poet from South Asia who adorned the Mughal court
- Mirza Khan of "Mirza & Sahiba", a tragic Romeo-and-Juliet-like love story, based on true events, which is enshrined in Panjabi literature and commonly told in the Punjab region. Though in this story Mirza is used as a name and not as a title. Mirza of "Mirza & Sahiba" was of Muslim Jat / Muslim Rajput descent.
- Iraj Mirza, Persian folk poet, also known as Jalaal-al-mamalek.
- Muhammad Munawwar Mirza, a prominent scholar, historian, writer and intellectual from Pakistan
- Nawab Mirza Khan "Daagh" a famous Urdu poet
- Muhammad Ilyas Adil (Kashmir Colony Gujranwala Cantt, Punjab, Pakistan) a prominent columnist, educationist and the head of Adil Academy.
- Muhammad Adrees Baig Mirza (Kashmir Colony Gujranwala Cantt, Punjab, Pakistan), Principal Superior College Gujranwala
- Aziz Mirza (born 1947) is an Indian film director, producer and writer
- Haroon Mirza is a living Anglo-Pakistani artist born in London pm in 1977.
- Mirza Babayev, Azerbaijani movie actor and singer. Honored Artist of the Azerbaijan SSR and People’s Artist of Azerbaijan.
- Mirza Kadym Irevani, Azerbaijani artist
- Iskandar Ali Mirza, was the first President & 4th Governor General of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956.
- Mirza Muzaffar Ahmad was a Federal Finance Minister and Finance Secretary,Chairman of Planning Commission of Pakistan Executive director of the World bank.
- Fahmida Mirza, She was elected as the first female Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan
- Mirza Ismail, Prime Minister, Jaipur (Diwan of Jaipur) (1942-1946)
- Zulfiqar Mirza
- Mirza Aslam Baig a Former Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan
- Mirza Ghulam Murtaza was the ruler of Qadian and fought for the Sikh Empire and later the British Raj
- Mirza Kuchak Khan was a Persian revolutionary who led the Jungle Movement in the northern jungles of Gilan Province
- Mirza Najaf Khan, Indian Courtier and Commander in Chief of the Mughal Imperial Army.
- Mirza Hadi Baig Punjabi nobleman of Turco-Mongol origin who was granted 80 villages by Babur because of family relations
- Khan Muhammad Mirza, Architect during the Mughal Era.
- Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam
- Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad, second Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
- Mirza Nasir Ahmad, third Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
- Mirza Tahir Ahmad, fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
- Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
- Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri: known as Baha'u'llah; Founder of the Baha'i Faith
- Mirza Delibašić, Bosnian Basketball Player on the Olympic team of Yugoslavia
- Mirza Begić, Slovenian Olympic Basketball player
- Sania Mirza, Indian Tennis Player
- Mirza Teletović, Bosnian Basketball Player on Brooklyn Nets
- Fadi Merza, is an Austrian middleweight Muaythai fighter, kickboxer and boxer.
- Life of a Mirza Chapter 7 (pg 225-227) The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture (2004) by Annemarie Schimmel ISBN 1-86189-185-7
- Mirzah in The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable By Ebenezer Cobham Brewer: The quintessential guide to myth, folklore, legend, legend and literature. ISBN 1-84022-310-3
- MI’RZA Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge For the People. ISBN 1-149-98693-X
- A. Jaimoukha The Circassians: A Handbook Routledge, Palgrave, 2001, pp 157–60) ISBN 0-312-23994-7
- "Mirza Definition". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Life in Samarkand Caucasus and Central Asia vis-à-vis Russia, the West, and Islam, Madina Tlostanova: Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge (ISSN: 1540-5699)]
- mirza. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 2 October 2012
- OED: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/119129?redirectedFrom=mirza#eid Accessed June 17, 2013
- "Abbas Mirza"
- Chapter 20: History of Iranian Military Uniforms Qajar Uniforms. Iranian Politics Center. 2012.
- http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=amir&searchmode=none EtymologyOnLine
- World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 4th Edition Outlines - Chapter 21: The Muslim Empires. Longman. 2003.
- A photo from 'The People of India', published from 1868 to the early 1870s by WH Allen, for the India Office
- pg 24. The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture
- "The Amber Album, circa 1630."
- The Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque is named for a man known in Mughal records as Khan Muhammad Mirza; see https://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=4450 Mughal dynasty (the Imperial House of Timur "Sarai Mulk Khanam Qutubuddunniya wa Deen Amir Qutubuddin Taimur Baig Sahib-e-kiran").