Mirza Adeeb

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Mirza Adeeb
A portrait of Mirza Adeeb
A portrait of Mirza Adeeb
Native name
میرزا ادیب (Urdu)
BornMirza Dilawer
(1914-04-04)4 April 1914
Lahore, Punjab, British India
(now Pakistan)
Died31 July 1999(1999-07-31) (aged 85)
Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Pen nameMeerza Adeeb
OccupationDramatist or Playwright, Short story writer
LanguagePunjabi, Urdu
NationalityBritish Indian
(1914–1947)
Pakistani
(1947–1999)
CitizenshipPakistani
EducationB.A. (Hon.)
Alma mater
PeriodModern Era (Post-World War II)
GenreDrama, short story
SubjectVerisimilitude, Realism and Romanticism
Literary movementProgressive Movement
Romanticist Movement
Notable worksPas-i Pardah (1967), Caccā Coṉc
Notable awards

Mirza Adeeb, PP, BA (Hon), (Urdu: مرزا ادیب‎—Mirzā Adīb; 4 April 1914 — 31 July 1999[1][2][3]), also known as Meerza Adeeb, (میرزا ادیبMīrzā Adīb),[3] was a Pakistani Urdu writer of dramas and short stories.[4] His plays and short stories won him six prizes and awards from the Pakistan Writers' Guild.[1]

Name[edit]

Mirza Adeeb's birth name was Mirza Dilawer,[5][6] but he came to be known in the literary world as Mirza Adeeb. (Mirza denotes the rank of a high nobleman or Prince,[Note 1] and Adeeb means 'Litterateur'.)

Early life[edit]

He was born in 1914, in Lahore, British India to Mirza Basheer Ali.[7][1] He attended Government Islamia High School, Bhati Gate, Lahore. He got his Bachelor of Arts degree from Islamia College, Lahore. In the beginning, he made poetry his device,[1] but later pursued his interest in playwriting as his métier.[5]

Career[edit]

Plays[edit]

At first, being influenced from the Rūmānwī Tẹḥrīk, (رومانوی تحریکUrdu for The Romanticist Movement), he wrote romantic prose.[8]

Later, he switched to writing plays about everyday events and incidents taking place in the society; focusing more on social problems and quotidian issues. His later works were pragmatist and verisimilitudinous.[6] He used simple and everyday language in his plays, which enabled them to get a greater audience. Moreover, he had begun writing one-act dramas, which made them easier to broadcast over radio and television.[9] When he affiliated himself with Radio Pakistan, many of his plays were broadcast and they gained popularity among the masses.[10] He is listed as a prominent Urdu playwright of the Modern Era.[9]

Other works[edit]

His main works, other than dramas, include stories and biographies.[9] He also wrote critical essays and commentaries on books, besides writing columns in newspapers. He was also influenced by the Taraqqī-Pasasnd Tẹḥrīk (ترقّی-پسند تحریکUrdu for Progressive Movement).[9] Besides, he also discharged his duties as the editor of many magazines, of which the most notable is Adab-e Laṭīf, (ادبِ لطیفUrdu for 'Humorous Literature'). He also translated some American stories to Urdu.[9] Furthermore, he wrote numerous stories for children.

Style[edit]

Following are the main features of Mirza Adeeb's style of writing:[9]

  • Objectivity: His plays had a strong sense of objectivity in them.
  • Riveting dialogues: The dialogues he chose were grounded, yet captivating. Each character spoke according to his/her social status and his dramas did not contain artificial, literary dialogues. His dialogues also contained witty repartees and striking replies.
  • Versatility: His story lines include a variety of topics, taken from the prosaic lives on common people.
  • Pragmatism: Rather than focusing on characterisation, as did many of his contemporaries, he focused more on events.
  • Humanitarianism: His plays and stories have a humanitarian and philanthropic outlook.

Works[edit]

  • His selective drama-collections are:
  1. Āⁿsū aur Sitārē (آنسو اور ستارے, Urdu for 'Tears and the Stars'),[5]
  2. Lahū aur Qālīn (لہو اور قالین, Urdu for 'the Blood and the Carpet'),[5]
  3. Šīšē kī Dīwār (شیشے کی دیوار, Urdu for 'the Wall of Glass'),[5][11]
  4. Sutūn (ستون, Urdu for 'the Pillar'),[5][12]
  5. Faṣīl-e Šab (فصیلِ شب, Urdu for 'Part of the Night'),[1]
  6. Pas-e Pardah (پسِ پرده, Urdu for 'Beneath the Veil', 1967),[1][6]
  7. Xāk Našīn (خاک نشین, Urdu for 'the Earth Dwellers')[8] and
  8. Šīšah Mērē Saŋg (شیشہ میرے سنگ, Urdu for 'the Glass With Me').[5]
  • His selective short-story collections are:[9]
  1. Jaŋgal (جنگل, Urdu for 'the Jungle'),
  2. Dīwārēⁿ (دیواریں, Urdu for 'the Walls'),
  3. Kambal (کمبل, Urdu for 'the Blanket').
  4. Sharfoo Ki Kahani
  5. Wo Larki Kon Thi
  • His collection of personal biographies is 'Nāxun kā Qarź (ناخن کا قرض, Urdu for 'the Debt of the Fingernail').[1]
  • Miṫṫī kā Diyā (مٹّی کا دیا, Urdu for 'the Earthen Lamp') is his autobiography.[1][6][13]

Awards[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The derivation of which word is from Emir (AmīrUrdu for nobleman) and ZādahUrdu for son.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Aqeel Abbas Jafari (2010). Pakistan Chronicle (in Urdu) (1st ed.). 94/1, 26th St., Ph. 6, D.H.A., Karachi: Virsa Publications. p. 842. ISBN 9789699454004.
  2. ^ "Fāt̴imah Bint-e ʿAbdullāh". Urdū (lāzmī), barā-yi jamāʿat dahum. 21, E2, Gulberg III, Lahore: Punjab Textbook Board. 2009. p. 51.
  3. ^ a b "Apnā Apnā Rāg". Sarmāya-eh Urdū (dōm). Islamabad: National Book Foundation. 2011. p. 70.
  4. ^ "Literary Necrology 2001 (Bibliography)". World Literature Today. 22 March 2002. Archived from the original on 11 October 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013. – via HighBeam (subscription required)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Apnā Apnā Rāg". Ā'īna-eh Urdū (lāzmī). 40, Urdu Bazaar, Lahore: Khalid Book Depot. 2006. p. 124.
  6. ^ a b c d "Fāṭimah Bint-e ʿAbdullah". Ā'īna-eh Urdū lāzmī (dōm). 40, Urdu Bazaar, Lahore: Khalid Book Depot. 2006. pp. 173–174.
  7. ^ Mirza Adeeb on pakistan360degrees.com website Retrieved 10 August 2019
  8. ^ a b "Apnā Apnā Rāg". Sarmāya-eh Urdū (lāzmī). Kabir St., Urdu Bazaar, Lahore: Ilmi Kitab Khana. 2008. p. 122.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Mirzā Adīb kē Fan par Tabṣirah". Muṣannifīn peh Tabṣirah. Karachi: Adamjee Centre. 2010. pp. 10–11.
  10. ^ a b Mirzā Adīb. Karachi: NCR Institute. 2010. p. 5.
  11. ^ "Šīšē kī Dīwār by Mirza Adeeb – Urdu Book online". UrduPoint.com website. 16 November 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  12. ^ Mirza Adeeb. Sutūn. GoogleBooks. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  13. ^ Mirza Adeeb (1981). Miṫṫī kā Diyā. GoogleBooks website. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  14. ^ Mirza Adeeb profile on urduyouthforum.org website Retrieved 10 August 2019