Mirza Adeeb

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Mirza Adeeb
Mirza Adeeb.png
A portrait of Mirza Adeeb
Native name مرزا ادیب (Urdu)
Born Mirza Dilawer
(1914-04-04)4 April 1914
Lahore, Punjab, British India
(now Pakistan)
Died 31 July 1999(1999-07-31) (aged 85)
Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Pen name Meerza Adeeb
Occupation Dramatist, short-story writer
Language Punjabi, Urdu
Nationality British Indian
Citizenship Pakistani
Education B.A. (Hon.)
Alma mater
Period Modern Era (Post-World War II)
Genre Drama, short story
Subject Verisimilitude, Realism and Romanticism
Literary movement Progressive Movement
Romanticist Movement
Notable works Pas-i Pardah’ (1967)
Caccā Coṉc
Notable awards

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Mirza Adeeb, PP, BA (Hon), (Urdu: مرزا ادیب‎—Mirzā Adīb; 4 April 1914 — 31 July 1999[1][3][4]), also known as Meerza Adeeb, (میرزا ادیبMīrzā Adīb),[4] was a Pakistani Urdu writer of drama and short story.[5] His plays and short stories won him six prizes and awards from the Pakistan Writers’ Guild.[1]


Mirza Adeeb’s birth name was Mirza Dilawer,[6][7] but he came to be known in the literary world as Mirza Adeeb. (Mirza denotes the rank of a high nobleman or Prince,[Note 1] and ‘Adeeb’ means ‘Litterateur’.)

Early life[edit]

He was born in 1914, in Lahore, British India to Mirza Basheer Ali.[1] He attended Government Islamia High School, Bhati Gate, Lahore.[2] He got his Bachelor of Arts degree from Islamia College, Lahore. In the beginning, he made poetry his device,[1] but later pursued his interest in playwriting as his métier.[6]



At first, being influenced from the Rūmānwī Tẹḥrīk, (رومانوی تحریکUrdu for The Romanticist Movement), he wrote romantic prose.[8]

Later, he switched to writing plays about everyday events and incidents taking place in the society; focusing more on social problems and quotidian issues. His later works were pragmatist and verisimilitudinous.[7] He used simple and everyday language in his plays, which enabled them to get a greater audience. Moreover, he had begun writing one-act dramas, which made them easier to broadcast over radio and television.[9] When he affiliated himself with Radio Pakistan, many of his plays were broadcast and they gained popularity in the masses.[10] He is listed as a prominent Urdu playwright of the Modern Era.[9]

Other works[edit]

His main works, other than dramas, include stories and biographies.[9] He also wrote critical essays and commentaries on books, besides writing columns in newspapers. He was also influenced by the Taraqqī-Pasasnd Tẹḥrīk (ترقّی-پسند تحریکUrdu for Progressive Movement).[9] Besides, he also discharged his duties as the editor of many magazines, of which the most notable is Adab-e Laṭīf, (ادبِ لطیفUrdu for ‘Humorous Literature’). He also translated some American stories to Urdu.[9] Furthermore, he wrote numerous stories for children.


Following are the main features of Mirza Adeeb's style of writing:[9]

  • Objectivity: His plays had a strong sense of objectivity in them.
  • Riveting dialogues: The dialogues he chose were simple, yet interesting. Each character spoke according to his/her social status and his dramas did not contain artificial, literary dialogues. His dialogues also contained witty repartees and striking replies.
  • Versatility: His story lines include a variety of topics, taken from the prosaic lives on common people.
  • Pragmatism: Rather than focusing on characterisation, as did many of his contemporaries, he focused more on events.
  • Humanitarianism: His plays and stories have a humanitarian and philanthropic outlook.
  • Unnaturalness: At few places, the plot does not seem to be moving on smoothly by itself.
  • Dullness: His dramas did not have the liveliness and vitality found in plays. One of his plays was televised, but it could not gain popularity. For the same reason, on-stage presentation of his plays was unpopular.


  • His selective drama-collections are:
  1. Āⁿsū aur Sitārē (آنسو اور ستارے, Urdu for ‘Tears and the Stars’),[6]
  2. Lahū aur Qālīn (لہو اور قالین, Urdu for ‘the Blood and the Carpet’),[6]
  3. Šīšē kī Dīwār (شیشے کی دیوار, Urdu for ‘the Wall of Glass’),[6][11]
  4. Sutūn (ستون, Urdu for ‘the Pillar’),[6][12]
  5. Faṣīl-e Šab (فصیلِ شب, Urdu for ‘Part of the Night’),[1]
  6. Pas-e Pardah (پسِ پرده, Urdu for ‘Beneath the Veil’, 1967),[1][7]
  7. Xāk Našīn (خاک نشین, Urdu for ‘the Earth Dwellers’)[8] and
  8. Šīšah Mērē Saŋg (شیشہ میرے سنگ, Urdu for ‘the Glass With Me’).[6]
  • His selective short-story collections are:[9]
  1. Jaŋgal (جنگل, Urdu for ‘the Jungle’),
  2. Dīwārēⁿ (دیواریں, Urdu for ‘the Walls’),
  3. Kambal (کمبل, Urdu for ‘the Blanket’).
  • His collection of personal biographies is Nāxun kā Qarź (ناخن کا قرض, Urdu for ‘the Debt of the Fingernail’).[1]
  • Miṫṫī kā Diyā (مٹّی کا دیا, Urdu for ‘the Earthen Lamp’) is his autobiography.[1][7][13][14]


  • Presidential Award for playwriting, 1969[10]
  • Pride of Performance Award for literature in 1981[1]
  • His famous play, Pas-e Pardah (1967), won him the Ādamjī Adabī Ēwārḋ (آدم جی ادبی ایوارڈUrdu for Adamjee Literary Award)[9] in 1968[1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The derivation of which word is from Emir (AmīrUrdu for nobleman) and ZādahUrdu for son.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Aqeel Abbas Jafari (2010). Pakistan Chronicle (in Urdu) (1st ed.). 94/1, 26th St., Ph. 6, D.H.A., Karachi: Virsa Publications. p. 842. ISBN 9789699454004. 
  2. ^ a b Shoaib Ahmed (1 October 2003). "One of the oldest schools in Lahore ‘closed’". Daily Times. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 
  3. ^ "Fāt̴imah Bint-e ʿAbdullāh". Urdū (lāzmī), barā-yi jamāʿat dahum. 21, E2, Gulberg III, Lahore: Punjab Textbook Board. 2009. p. 51. 
  4. ^ a b "Apnā Apnā Rāg". Sarmāya-eh Urdū (dōm). Islamabad: National Book Foundation. 2011. p. 70. 
  5. ^ "Literary Necrology 2001 (Bibliography)". World Literature Today. 22 March 2002. Retrieved 15 September 2013.  – via HighBeam (subscription required)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Apnā Apnā Rāg". Ā'īna-eh Urdū (lāzmī). 40, Urdu Bazaar, Lahore: Khalid Book Depot. 2006. p. 124. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Fāṭimah Bint-e ʿAbdullah". Ā'īna-eh Urdū lāzmī (dōm). 40, Urdu Bazaar, Lahore: Khalid Book Depot. 2006. pp. 173–174. 
  8. ^ a b "Apnā Apnā Rāg". Sarmāya-eh Urdū (lāzmī). Kabir St., Urdu Bazaar, Lahore: Ilmi Kitab Khana. 2008. p. 122. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Mirzā Adīb kē Fan par Tabṣirah". Muṣannifīn peh Tabṣirah. Karachi: Adamjee Centre. 2010. pp. 10–11. 
  10. ^ a b Mirzā Adīb. Karachi: NCR Institute. 2010. p. 5. 
  11. ^ "Šīšē kī Dīwār by Mirza Adeeb – Urdu Book online". UrduPoint.com. 16 November 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  12. ^ Mirza Adeeb. Sutūn. s..n. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  13. ^ Mirza Adeeb (1981). Miṫṫī kā Diyā. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  14. ^ "Miṫṫī kā Diyā – Mirza Adeeb". 786books.com. Retrieved 12 June 2013.