Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Leader of the Faithful
|Reign||14 March 1914 – 7 November 1965|
|Successor||Mirza Nasir Ahmad|
|Father||Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani|
|Mother||Nusrat Jahan Begum|
12 January 1889|
Qadian, Punjab, British India
|Died||7 November 1965
Rabwah, Punjab, Pakistan
Rabwah, Punjab, Pakistan
|Part of a series on:|
|Beliefs and Practices|
|Mirza Ghulam Ahmad|
Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad (Urdu: مرزا بشیر الدین محمود احمد) (12 January 1889 – 8 November 1965), was Khalifatul Masih II, head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the eldest son to survive to adulthood of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad from his second wife, Nusrat Jahan Begum. He was elected as the second successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad on 14 March 1914 at the age of 25, the day after the death of his predecessor Hakeem Noor-ud-Din.
He is known for establishing the organizational structure of the community, improvement of its administration, a ten volume commentary of the Qur'an and directing extensive missionary activity outside the subcontinent of India (and later Pakistan). He was a renowned orator and was also an active political figure especially in pre-independence India. Mahmood Ahmad is regarded by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as the Musleh Maood (Promised Reformer) and the "Promised Son" that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad foretold God would bestow upon him.
- 1 Birth and Early Life
- 2 Caliphate
- 2.1 The Split
- 2.2 The non-cooperation movement
- 2.3 Inter-faith understanding
- 2.4 Reforms to the Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya
- 2.5 Establishment of Majlis-i-Shūra
- 2.6 The Shuddhi Movement of the Arya Samāj
- 2.7 Tour of the Middle East and Europe
- 2.8 The All India Kashmir Committee
- 2.9 Persecution
- 2.10 The 'New Scheme'
- 2.11 Auxiliary Organizations
- 2.12 The Hijri/Shamsi calendar
- 2.13 The Promised Son
- 2.14 Migration to Pakistan
- 2.15 The 1953 riots
- 2.16 Assassination attempt and death
- 3 Works and speeches
- 4 Family, marriages and children
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Birth and Early Life
Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad was born to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and Nusrat Jahan Begum on 12 January 1889 in Qadian, Punjab, India, the same year in which Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Movement. Accounts of his early childhood describe him to be mischievous, playful and carefree. However, due to excessive illness Mahmood Ahmad was unable to attend to secondary education. During his youth, he remained an active member in the service of his father's Movement by founding a journal entitled Tash-heezul Azhaan and accompanied him on many of his journeys.
In 1907, he claimed to have been taught the commentary of Surah Al-Fatiha, the opening chapter of the Qur'an by an angel, by way of a vision. According to Mahmood Ahmad, this vision signified that God had placed the knowledge of the Qur'an in his mind in the form of a seed. From that point forward, he is said to have been granted special knowledge of the commentary of the Qur'an.
He taught for a long time. When he reached [the verse] Thee alone do we worship and thee alone do we implore for help he said 'All previous commentators have been able to interpret up to this point. But I want to teach you further.' I said 'Go ahead'. Thereafter, he continued to teach me until finally he had imparted to me the commentary of the whole of Surah Fatiha ... Since then, not a single day has passed that I have not reflected upon Surah Fatiha and Allah has always taught me new points and opened for me diverse branches of knowledge. In his limitless Grace, He has explained to me all the difficult subjects discussed in the Holy Quran.
— Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad, Al-Mau'ud, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol.17 p.570
On 26 May 1908 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad died in Lahore when Mahmood Ahmad was 19 years old. The next day on 27 May 1908, Mahmood Ahmad gave the oath of allegiance to Hakeem Noor-ud-Din, the first successor of Ghulam Ahmad. After the passing of his father, Mahmood Ahmad continued to study the Quran, Sahih Bukhari, the Masnavi and some medicine under the tutelage of Noor-ud-Din, with whom he developed a close friendship. Noor-ud-Din would eventually become one of the leading influences in Mahmood's life. He also began writing articles for various periodicals for the Community and would often engage himself in theological debates with various scholars of the Community. In July 1911, He was appointed as "Ameer" of Jamat e Ahmadiyya Multan by Khalifahtul Masih I.
Mahmood Ahmad visited Egypt and Arabia in September 1912 during the course of which he performed Hajj. Upon his return to Qadian in June 1913, he started a newspaper, titled Al-Fazl. Within the Community, the newspaper serves as a vehicle for the moral upbringing of its members, preaching Islam and the preservation of history of the Community.
On 13 March 1914, Khalifatul Masih I Hakeem Noor-ud-Din died shortly after 2 p.m. in Qadian, India. The following day, Noor-ud-Din's will which had been entrusted to Muhammad Ali Khan, a prominent member of the Community, was read aloud in Noor Mosque after Asr prayer:
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful. We praise Him and call down blessings on His noble Messenger. This humble one writes in the full possession of his senses. There is no one worthy of worship save Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. My children are young and there is no money in our house. Allah is their Guardian. No provision should be made for them out of any fund for orphans and the needy. A loan might be provided for them which should be repaid by those of my sons who grow up into a position to do so. My books and property should be put in trust for my children. My successor should be righteous, popular, learned and of good conduct. He would exercise forbearance towards the old and new friends of the Promised Messiah. I have been the well-wisher of all of them and so should he be. The public teaching of the Quran and Hadith should be continued. Greetings of peace.
— Hakeem Noor-ud-Din, Last Will and Testament, March 4, 1914
Having hardly finished the reading of Noor-ud-Din's will, members of the community felt Mahmood Ahmad best met the criteria of a successor the will had described and began calling for Mahmood Ahmad to accept their Bai'at (oath of allegiance). Being unprepared, he turned to Maulvi Syed Sarwar Shah and said "Maulvi Sahib, this burden has fallen upon me suddenly and unexpectedly and I cannot even recall the formula of Bai'at. Will you kindly instruct me in it?". He took the Bai'at of those present, repeating the words after Sawar Shah. After the oath was taken, he offered a silent prayer and made a brief speech. Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad was elected as Khalifatul Masih II on 14 March 1914.
Under his leadership, there was further development of the scope of missionary activities and the establishment of a Madrasa Ahmadiyya up to the university level. During his tenure, he established 46 foreign missions and founded the Anjuman Tehrik-e-Jadīd, which collected the funds from the members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community for the training of missionaries and had them posted to various countries. These foreign missions included Mauritius (1915), USA (1920), Ghana (1921), Egypt (1922), Bokhara (1923), Iran (1924), Palestine and Syria (1925), Java and Colombo (1931) Burma and Japan (1935), Argentina and Albania (1936), Yugoslavia and Sierra Leone (1937), Spain (1946) and Lebanon (1949). Mahmood Ahmad also had mosques built in most places where missions had been established. The publication of magazines and periodicals was also initiated in various languages. He also started the translation of the Qur'an into English with a detailed commentary for the benefit of European nations.
After the demise of Khalifatul Masih I on March 14, 1914 in Qadian, his will was read aloud requesting members of the Community elect a successor. Shortly after reading the will, Mahmood Ahmad was elected the second successor to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Almost immediately, a faction led by Maulana Muhammad Ali and Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din strongly opposed his succession and refused to accept him as the next Khalifatul Masih. This was due to certain doctrinal differences they held with him such as the nature of Ghulam Ahmad's prophethood as well as the suitability of Mahmood Ahmad to lead the community. They eventually left Qadian, settled in Lahore and later became known as the Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islam. In his book Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background, Professor Yohanan Friedmann describes the split:
Though the dissension in the movement is always described in terms of doctrinal differences, a clash of personalities probably also played a role. It is reasonable to assume that Muhammad 'Alī - who had an MA Degree in English, taught at various colleges at Lahore, and had been associated with the Ahmadiyya since 1892 – could not easily bring himself to accept the leadership of Mahmūd Ahmad, who was fifteen years his junior and whose poor academic record resulted in his inability to acquire even a secondary education. A similar explanation can be provided also for the attitude adopted by Khwāja Kamāl al-Dīn. Born in 1870, he was almost twenty years older than Mahmūd Ahmad. He joined the movement in 1893. In the same year he received a degree from the Forman Christian college and taught at the Islamiyya college in Lahore. In 1898 he completed his legal studies and started practicing law.
— Yohanan Friedmann, Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background, pp. 21
The non-cooperation movement
Mahmood Ahmad became an important political figure in pre-independence India, and had close contacts with the leadership of All-India Muslim League. In 1919 following the defeat of Turkey during the first world war, which had a profound effect on the Muslims of India, the All India Muslim Conference was held in Lucknow to discuss Turkey's future existence. Mahmood was invited to attend, but could not attend in person. However, he wrote a booklet, on the subject of The future of Turkey and the duty of Muslims which was read out at the conference.
Mahmood was usually at variance with the activities of the Khilafat movement which strove to defend the Ottoman Caliphate, sought to pressure the British Government and to protect the Ottoman Empire. The Movement became a major part of the struggle of the Non-cooperation movement Mahmood maintained that the activities of the movement were against the teachings of Islam and would prove detrimental for the Muslims. He emphasised the absence of the conditions in which Islam allows non-cooperation and encouraged preaching to and engaging with the British, in order to attract them towards Islam. He also criticised Mohandas Gandhi's election as leader of the movement, lamenting the Muslim leaders for turning to a non-Muslim for their cause.
In 1919, Mahmood Ahmad also appointed a number of young talented Ahmadis to research into the world's major religions. He also delivered a number of public lectures on The need for religion and The dependence of peace upon Islam in the future. In 1920, in order to promote understanding and harmony between Hindus and Muslims he suggested that Hindus should send twenty students to Qadian for the study of the Quran, and sent two Muslim students himself to certain Hindu centres for the study of the Vedas. He also gave lectures on the exposition of the Qur'an for Ahmadi men and women.
Reforms to the Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya
In 1919 Mahmood Ahmad also made certain reforms to the Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya (Central Executive Directorate). He initiated the system of separate departments within the Anjuman like education, treasury, literature, and general affairs. Each department is headed by a secretary (Nāzir)
Later reforms included the introduction of the department for foreign affairs, and the establishment of the system of provincial Amārat initially, only within the Punjab. The Emir of each province functions under the Caliph for the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community of various places.
Establishment of Majlis-i-Shūra
In 1922 Mahmood Ahmad established the Majlis-ash-Shura or the Consultative Council of the community. The Majlis consists of elected representatives from various parts of the community who gather once a year and offer counsel and opinion on matters presented to them. The final decision is however left to the Caliph. At the international level, the council is presided over by the caliph. Its main purpose is to advise the caliph on important matters such as finance, projects, education and other issues relating to members of the Community. The caliph may comment, issue instructions, announce his decisions on the proposals during the course of the proceedings or may postpone the matter under further reflection. However, in most cases the caliph accepts the advice given by the majority. At the national level, the council is presided over by the ʾAmīr (National President). At the conclusion of the proceedings, the recommendations are sent to the caliph for approval which he may accept, reject or partially accept.
The Shuddhi Movement of the Arya Samāj
In the early Twenties the Arya Samāj (a Hindu reformist Movement) started the Shuddhi missionary campaign to revert to Hinduism, those who had converted to other faiths (in most cases to Islam), particularly the Malkanas, a group of Rajputs. The Shuddhi Campaign had been somewhat successful in their activity between 1922-1923 and had been active in Agra and in the Punjab. When Mahmood Ahmad came to know of this activity he launched a counter campaign by setting up a network of missionaries across Uttar Pradesh where this activity was rife, to propagate the teachings of Islam and save people from converting to Hinduism.
In 1923, he sent a delegation of Ahmadis to the area to prevent the advancement of the Shuddhis, an act which earned him some popularity among the Muslim elite of India. After having faced extreme resistance, the Aryas announced the end of the Shuddhi movement in September 1923, Though later, the president of Bhartiya Hindu Shuddhi Sabha, Swami Shraddhanand was stabbed by a Muslim fanatic, Abdul Rasheed in 1926. In the latter part of the Twenties and early Thirties, under Mahmood Ahmad’s directives various gatherings and meetings were held across the Indian subcontinent commemorating the life of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad known as (Jalsa Seeratun-Nabi) attended by Muslims and non-Muslims alike. A practice which is still carried out by Ahmadis today.
Tour of the Middle East and Europe
In 1924, accompanied by 12 eminent Ahmadis, Mirza Mahmood Ahmad visited various Middle Eastern and European countries. He traveled from Port Saeed to Cairo and from there to Jerusalem, Haifa and Akkā. He traveled to Damascus by train where he is reported to have attracted a lot of publicity as well as opposition. Here he discussed Ghulam Ahmad's claims with leading scholars, and held various meetings with the intellectual community of Damascus.
On 16 August he reached Italy and stayed in Rome for 4 days. He also visited France and England where he delivered numerous lectures, held meetings and was interviewd by numerous journalists. Upon arrival in London he proceeded to Ludgate Hill to fulfill a prophetic Hadith which refers to the Bab al-Lud (the gate of Lud) and led a silent prayer outside St Paul's Cathedral. His speech on Ahmadiyyat, the True Islam was read out in Wembley’s Conference of Living Religions 1924, where he had been invited by the conveners of the conference to represent Islam. In London he also laid the foundation stone of the Fazl Mosque, an occasion which was well publicised. The construction of the Mosque was completed in 1926 and the cost thereof was borne entirely by the women of the community. He also visited Pevensey in order to carry out a ritual in imitation of William the Conqueror believing his visit to carry a mystical significance in fulfillment of its spiritual one in lieu of a vision he had seen before his departure, in India. Whilst in Brighton he also paid a visit to the Memorial to Britain's Fallen Comrades-in-Arms from India during World War I known as Chattri (Brighton) and led prayers in the ground in front of the Brighton Pavilion.
The All India Kashmir Committee
In 1931 the All India Kashmir Committee was set up for the establishment of the civil rights of the Muslims of Kashmir and to alleviate their oppression. Mahmood Ahmad was elected its first president. He sought to gather Muslim leaders with different opinions on one platform and strive unitedly for the cause of the Muslims of Kashmir. He is known to have achieved great success in doing so. The committee turned the attention of the Muslims of Kashmir towards acquiring education and Mahmood Ahmad himself gave practical help towards this cause. It also encouraged trade, commerce and involvement in politics among the Muslims of Kashmir.
The committee however faced strong opposition from the Indian National Congress and the Ahrari campaign against the Ahmadiyya. The Ahrar alleged that the formation of the committee took place by the Ahmadiyya in order to spread its teachings and strongly opposed the leadership of Mahmood Ahmad. In an address to a gathering in 1931 Mahmood advised the Ahrar's thus:
I admonish the Ahrari’s that if there is any among them present here, they should go and tell their friends! I care not in the least about these stones and for this reason am not angered with them. They should stop this hearsay for the sake of the oppressed brothers of Kashmir. Let them come; I am ready to leave presidency but they must promise that they will follow the decision of the majority of Muslims. Today we have seen their morals, let them come and see our morals too. I assure them that even after stepping down from presidency, me and my community shall help them (the people of Kashmir) more than their associates. Presidency is not a thing of respect for me. Respect is gained from service. The leader of a nation is one who serves it ...
Mahmood Ahmad resigned from presidency in 1932 due to the agitations of the Ahrar party.
The Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam, were a short lived separatist political movement who were former Khalifites. They differed with the Indian National Congress over certain issues and afterwards announced the formation of their party in a meeting at Lahore in 1931. Freely funded by the Congress, the Ahrar were also opposed to the policies of the Muslims League. They declared that their objectives were to guide the Muslims of India on matters of nationalism as well as religion and violently opposed the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in India on a political level. In 1931 they held a series of conferences and a strong legal protest nearby Qadian where they are reported to have incited hatred against the Ahmadiyya. These were followed by incidents of severe persecution against Ahmadis, many of whom were reported to have been attacked, beaten, stoned, looted and their mosques occupied in a number of places. Mahmood Ahmad advised all Ahmadis not to retaliate, instructed concentration on prayer and explained that passing through periods of persecution was inevitable for the Community.
We have to accept our obligations if we are called upon to sacrifice our spiritual or physical lives or suffer torture at the hands of those who oppose us. Victory achieved without sacrifice is hollow. Sacrifice is the life-blood of divine dispensation. When Moses saw the fire, God said to him Verily I am your Lord indicating that if he wanted to reach God, he would have to pass through it. Hence you too will have to pass through fire and other such dangers on the path to success.
The 'New Scheme'
In 1934 Mahmood Ahmad claimed to have been divinely inspired to launch a twofold scheme for the establishment of foreign missions and the moral upbringing of Ahmadis. This initiative called upon members to volunteer themselves for missionary work, and to donate money towards a special fund for propagation in foreign countries during the course of which 46 foreign missions were established.
The Tehrik-e-Jedid and Waqf-e-Jedid or the 'new scheme' and the 'new dedication' respectively, initially seen as a spiritual battle against the oppressors of the Ahmadis, placed before them a number of demands and restriction such as leading simple lives, restrictions against eating, clothing etc.; a temporary ban on all forms of luxury and entertainment. It called upon the members of the Community to dedicate their time and money for the sake of their faith. In time the scheme produced a vast amount of literature in defence of Islam in general and the Ahmadiyya beliefs in particular. The funds were also spent on the training and dispatching of Ahmadiyya missionaries outside the Indian sub-continent and their sustenance. As part of this Mahmood Ahmad appointed 5 men to survey the Punjab in order to find out the best way of disseminating the Ahmadiyya teachings. For the first time an organised method of training members of the community for becoming missionaries was established. Addressing the Ahrari opposition Mahmood said:
In order to expand the propagation of Islam I have urged the youth to come forward and dedicate their lives for the service of religion. Hundreds of young people have already responded to my call. These graduates are given only 15 rupees a month as an allowance. This is a small allowance that barely caters for their basic needs. Yet living on that paltry sum they travel to other countries and propagate the message of Islam. I invited the members of the Community to come forward and make financial contributions, at the same time I said that the time had not yet come for greater sacrifices. I appealed for only 27,000 rupees whereas the community promised 108,000 rupees out of which more than 82,000 rupees have already been received.
— Friday sermon, 27 September 1935
As well as administering proselytisation the scheme also carried the responsibility of a more internal aspect and called upon members of the Community to dedicate their lives for the teaching and moral upbringing of Ahmadis themselves in rural places within India. Later, permanent offices of this scheme were established. The scheme was to grow into international proportions during the leadership of later Caliphs of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
As the community expanded rapidly it was divided into different age groups:
Khuddam-ul Ahmadiyya for the youth aged fifteen to forty, Atfalul Ahmadiyya for boys aged seven to fifteen, Lajna Amaa’ illah for ladies above the age of fifteen, Nasiratul Ahmadiyya for girls aged seven to fifteen years, Ansarullah for men above the age of forty.
The Hijri/Shamsi calendar
The Gregorian Calendar is based on the solar movements and starts with the birth of Jesus, while the Hijri (Islamic) calendar is based on lunar movements and starts with the migration of Muhammad form Mecca to Medina, which occurred in 622.
In 1940 under the directives and supervision of Mahmood Ahmad, after much research and calculations, a new calendar was worked out, the Hijri/Shamsi (solar/Hegira) calendar. Although this calendar is based on solar calculations, however it starts form the migration of Muhammad instead of the birth of Jesus. According to this method 2008 CE corresponds to 1387 Hijri/Shamsi, i.e. 1,387 years have passed since the migration of Muhammmad from Mecca to Medina. The number and time frame of each month of this calendar is the same as the Christian calendar (the lunar month being shorter by some days than the solar one). Each month of the Solar/Hegira calendar is based on an important event of early Islamic History:
- Sulh (peace): January
- Tabligh (preaching): February
- Aman (protection): March
- Shahadat (martyrdom): April
- Hijrat (Migration): May
- Ehsan (benevolence): June
- Wafa (loyalty): July
- Zahoor (appearance): August
- Ikha (brotherhood): September
- Tabook (battle of Tabouk): October
- Nabuwat (prophethood) November
- Fatah (victory): December
The Promised Son
In a series of public gatherings across India in 1944, he made the claim that he was the ‘Promised Son’ foretold by his father Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. He explained in a number of meetings held in various places in India that this claim was based on revelations and dreams. He clarified that he wasn't the only Promised Son, and other 'Promised Sons' would appear in accordance with prophecies, some even after centuries. He also prophesied that he would, as it were, return in the form of another Promised Son for the reform of the world at a time when shirrk (polytheism) would have become widespread.
He also managed the translation and publication of the Qur´an into various languages. His ten-volume “Tafseer-e-Kabeer” is an incomplete commentary on the Qur´an. His scholarship of religious and secular subjects was well known among the literary circles. He delivered a series of famous lectures on a variety of topics in educational institutions which were attended by the intellectuals and leaders of that time.
Migration to Pakistan
|This section requires expansion. (March 2009)|
In 1947 following the independence of Pakistan in 1947. He carefully oversaw the emigration of members of the community from Qadian to Pakistan. He kept 313 men known as Dervishes in Qadian to guard the sites holy to Ahmadis, including two of his sons. Initially the Community settled at Lahore and it wasn't until 1948 that the Community found a tract of arid land and built the town of Rabwah under the leadership of the Khalifa. Rabwah swiftly developed into the Community's new headquarters. In Pakistan, Mahmood Ahmad delivered a series of lectures on the future of Pakistan in terms of:
- Agriculture and industry
- Livestock and mineral assets
- Economic growth
- Development of land air and naval forces.
The 1953 riots
In 1953 there were agitations against the Ahmadis in which street protests were held, political rallies were carried out and inflammatory articles were published. These agitations led to 2,000 Ahmadiyya deaths. Consequently, martial law was established and the federal cabinet was dismissed by the Governor General.
Mirza Mahmood Ahmad announced:
- “God Almighty has established the Ahmadiyya Jamaat. If these people win then we admit we were on the wrong path, but if we are on the right path, then they will assuredly fail.” (Al-Fazl, 15 February 1953).
Assassination attempt and death
In 10 March 1954, a man was able to stand in the first row behind Mahmood Ahmad during Asr prayer. Immediately after the prayer had ended, the man lunged and attacked him by stabbing him twice with a dagger in the neck and stomach. He sustained severe injuries but survived. After recovering partially, he traveled to Europe for further medical and surgical treatment due to constant discomfort and unease. Briefly staying in Lebanon, Mahmood Ahmad travelled to Switzerland via Athens and Rome. He continued travelling and received some medical treatment in Zurich, Hamburg and London. After consulting with his doctors, it was concluded by that the tip of the knife had broken and embedded itself in the jugular vein and that no attempt should be made to remove it.
During his travels, Mahmood Ahmad had also inspected the various missions of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Europe and visited Venice and Austria. In London, Mahmood Ahmad held a conference of all missionaries stationed in Europe and visited various other European countries.
Over the years, Mahmood Ahmad's health continued a prolonged process of slow but progressive decline. On 8 November 1965 at 2:20 a.m., in Rabwah. Pakistan. Upon election Mirza Nasir Ahmad as Khalifatul Masih III, his successor led the funeral prayer. The service was held on 9 November 1965 at 4:30 p.m. (UTC+5), attended by over 50,000 people. He was buried in Bahishti Maqbara in Rabwah next to his mother, Nusrat Jahan Begum.
Works and speeches
The following is a list of some of the major works of Mirza Mahmood Ahmad.
- Tafseer-e-Kabeer (The Extensive Commentary)
- Introduction to the study of the Holy Qur'an
- Invitation to Ahmadiyyat
- Gift to the Kings
- The New World Order of Islam
- Islam ka Iqdisadi Nizam (The Economic System of Islam)
- Muhammad in the Bible
- Haqeeqat al-Nabuwwat (The Truth about Prophethood)
- Ser-e-Roohani (The spiritual Journey)
- Ahmadiyyat, the True Islam
- The Real Revolution
- Fazael-e-Qur'an (Excellences of the Qur'an)
- Muhammad the Liberator of Women
- Hindustan ke Siyasi Masael ka hal (Solution to the political problems of India)
- Hasti-ye Bari Ta'ala (The Existence of God)
- Malaykatullah (The Angels of God)
- Did Jesus Redeem Mankind?
- The Mirror of Truth, The Truth about the Split
- Way of the Seekers
- Remembrance of Allah
- Life of Muhammad
- Hadhrat Ahmad
- Kalam-e-Mahmood (collection of Poetry of Mahmood)
Family, marriages and children
Mirza Mahmood Ahmad was the eldest son of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, from his second wife Nusrat Jahan Begum. He had three brothers and two sisters in addition to two half-brothers from his father's first wife, Hurmat Bibi.
Mahmood Ahmad married seven times, never having more than four wives at a time in accordance with Islamic teachings:
- Mahmooda Begum (the real name was Rashida, it was later changed to Mahmooda, she was also known as Umm Nasir), daughter of Khalifa Rashid-ud-Din, (? - 31 July 1958). Engaged 2 October 1902 in Roorki - India, married on 11 October 1903.
- Amatul Hay, daughter of Hakeem Maulvi Noor-ud-Din, (1 August 1901 - 10 December 1924). Engaged and married on 31 May 1914.
- Sarah Begum, (? - 13 May 1933). Engaged and married on 12 April 1925.
- Aziza Begum, (? - 16 December 1963). Married on 1 February 1926.
- Maryam Begum (AKA Umm Tahir) daughter of Syed Abdus Sattar Shah, (1905 - 5 March 1944). Engaged on 7 February 1921, married on 21 February 1921.
- Maryam Siddiqa (AKA Chhotti Apa), (17 October 1918 - 3 November 1999). Married on 30 September 1935.
- Bushra Begum, (AKA Mehr Apa) (7 April 1919 - 22 May 1997). Married on 24 July 1944.
He had 24 children, 13 sons and 11 daughters, from seven wives
From Mehmooda Begum called Umm Nasir (mother of nasir)
Three children died in infancy, among them was Mirza Naseer Ahmad, a son born in 1906
- Mirza Nasir Ahmad.
- Naasira Begum.
- Mirza Mubarak Ahmad.
- Mirza (Dr.) Munawwar Ahmad.
- Mirza Hafeez Ahmad.
- Mirza Azhar Ahmad.
- Mirza Anwaar Ahmad.
- Mirza Rafiq Ahmad.
- Amtul Aziz Begum.
From Amatul Hayye
- Amatul Qayyum.
- Amatul Rashid.
- Mirza Khalil Ahmad.
From Maryam called Umm Tahir (mother of tahir)
One son named Mirza Tahir Ahmad died in infancy the others are
- Amatul Hakeem.
- Amatul Basit.
- Mirza Tahir Ahmad.
- Amatul Jameel.
From Aziza Begum called Umm Wassim (mother of wassim)
- Mirza Wasim Ahmad.
- Mirza Naeem Ahmad.
From Maryam Siddiqa called Choti Aapa (Younger Sister) and Umm Matin (mother of Matin)
- Amatul Matin.
From Sarah Begum
- Mirza Rafi Ahmad.
- Amatul Naseer Begum.
- Mirza Haneef Ahmad.
- "The Fadl-i-'Umar Foundation". Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Hazrat Musleh Mau'ood, Khalifatul Masih II, in the Eyes of Non-Ahmadies". Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- Swaneh Fazle Umar
- A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: His Upbringing
- Al-Mau'ud, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol.17 p.570
- Khan, Muhammad Zafrullah (Spring 1995). "Re-Institution of Khilafat". Al-Nahl. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: Propagation of Islam
- Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 965-264-014-X.
- Pan-Islam in British Indian Politics, by M. Naeem Qureshi
- Swan-e-Fazl-e-Umar, Vol.2, p.298-302
- A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: Upbringing of Members
- A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: Advisory Council, Department of Justice
- Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the true Islam (PDF). Islam International Publications. pp. 318–324. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Muslim reactions to the shuddhi campaign in early twentieth century North India, The Milli Gazette
- A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: Malkana Movement
- Pan-Islam in British Indian Politics, by M. Naeem Qureshi
- A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: Advice for Muslims in India
- Near East & India. London, 11 September 1924.
- Hazrat Musleh Mau'ood, Khalifatul Masih II, in the Eyes of Non-Ahmadies
- 'Gate of Lud' Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nishapuri. Sahih Muslim. Of the Turmoil & Portents of the Last Hour. No 7015
- A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: First Journey to London
- Shahid, Dost Mohammad. Tarikh e Ahmadiyyat vol iv. 454, 455.
- Sawan-e-Fazl-e-Umar, vol.3, p.260
- Sawan-e-Fazl-e-Umar, Vol.3, p.258-259
- Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations
- Al-Fadhl, 13 December 1934, p.11
- Friday sermon, 25 September 1935, Al-Fadhl 6 October 1935, p.5
- A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: Hijri – Shamsi Calendar
- Library of Congress Country Studies: Pakistan - Jamaat-i-Islami
- The Life of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mirza Baschir ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad.|
- Fazl-e-Umar foundation website
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- Audio Addresses of Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II