Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat

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Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat Beg (born 1499 or 1500, died 1551) was a Chagatai Turco-Mongol military general, ruler of Kashmir, and a historical writer. He was a Turkic speaking Dughlat prince who wrote in the Persian[1] and Chagatai languages. Haidar and Babur were cousins on their mother's side.

Silver sasnu issued in 1533 in Kashmir by Haidar Dughlat, in the name of Said Khan. The obverse legend reads al-sultan al-a'zam mir sa'id ghan.
Silver sasnu issued during 1546–50 in Kashmir by Haidar Dughlat, in the name of the Mughal emperor Humayun. The obverse legend reads al-sultan al-a'zam Muhammad humayun ghazi.


He first campaigned in Kashmir in 1533, on behalf of Sultan Said Khan, of Kashgar.[2][unreliable source?] However, he did not stay long in Kashmir, leaving after making a treaty with the local sultan and striking coins in the name of Said Khan. He had also attacked Tibet through Ladakh but failed to conquer Lhasa.[3]

He returned in 1540, fighting for the Mughal Emperor Humayun,[4] first son of Babur, this time for a military takeover at the invitation of one of the two rival factions that continually vied for power in Kashmir. This was shortly after Humayun's 1540 defeat at the Battle of Kanauj, where Dughlat was also on the losing side.[citation needed] Arriving in Kashmir, Haidar installed as sultan the head of the Sayyid faction, Nazuk. In 1546, after Humayun recovered Kabul, Haidar removed Nazuk Shah and struck coins in the name of the Mughal emperor.[5] He died in 1550 after being killed in battle with the Kashmiris. He lies buried in the Gorstan e Shahi in Srinagar.


His historical work Tarikh-i-Rashidi (تاریخ رشیدی) ( History of Rashid ) is a personal memoir combined with a Central Asian history written in Persian. Mirza Muhammad Haidar dedicated this extensive work, written in Kashmir in two volumes, to the contemporary ruler of Kashgaria, viz., Abdurashid Khan, son of Sultan Said Khan. It was translated into English in 1895 by Ney Elias and Edward Denison Ross. Among other events, the Tarikh-i-Rashidi describes the founding of the Kazakh Khanate in 1465 and Muhammad Haidar Dughlat's personal encounter with one of the early Kazakh rulers, namely Kasym Khan.


He belonged to the family of hereditary rulers of Kashgaria – dughlat Amirs. His father was Muhammad Hussain Mirza Kurkan (he was married to Khub Nigar Khanim, daughter of Yunus Khan), son of Muhammad Haidar Mirza Kurkan (he was married to Daulat Nigar Khanim, daughter of Esen Buqa Khan), son of Amir Sayyid Ali Kurkan (he was married to Uzun Sultan Khanim, sister of Vais Khan), son of Amir Sayyid Ahmad, son of Amir Khudaidad, who is said to have raised to khanship six of the Moghul Khans as well as making a pilgrimage to Makkah (Khizr Khoja (1389–1399), Shama-i-Jahan (1399–1408), Muhammad (1408–1416), Nakhsh-i- Jahan (1416–1418), Shir Muhammad (1418–1425), Vais (1418–1428)), son of Amir Pulaji, who raised to the khanship a young, 18- years old, Tughluq Timur Khan ( first Moghul Khan ), in 1347, having brought him from Ili to Aksu and declared him to have been the grandson of Duwa Khan. Amir Pulaji was a descendant of Dughlat Tarkhan Babdaghan, who was granted the country Mangalai Suyah (Faced to Sun) or Kashgaria by Chagatai Khan, second son of Chengiz Khan, in 1219 or 1220.

His mother was Khub Nigar Khanim, third daughter of Yunus Khan by Isan Daulat Begum, and a younger sister of Kutluk Nigar Khanim, mother of Babur. Mirza Muhammad Haidar governed Kashmir from 1540 to 1551,[6] when he was killed in battle.

Muhammad Haidar Mirza (I) Dughlat was his grandfather.


In 2007, Kazakhfilm Studio released the documentary Muhammad Haidar Dughlat («Мұхаммед Хайдар Дулати»), directed by Kalila Umarov.


  1. ^ René Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia (1970 translation), p. 497.
  2. ^ Sanderson Beck (2006), "Mughal Empire 1526–1707", India & Southeast Asia to 1800, World Peace Communications, ISBN 978-0-9762210-9-8
  3. ^ Bell, Charles (1992). Tibet Past and Present. omer Banarsidass Publ. p. 33. ISBN 81-208-1048-1.
  4. ^ Shahzad Bashir, Messianic Hopes and Mystical Visions: The Nurbakhshiya Between Medieval And Modern Islam (2003), p. 236.
  5. ^ Stan Goron and J.P. Goenka: The Coins of the Indian Sultanates, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2001, pp. 463–464.
  6. ^ List of Rulers: South Asia | Thematic Essay | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art


  • Mansura Haidar (translator) (2002), Mirza Haidar Dughlat as Depicted in Persian Sources

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