Mirza Mohammad Reza Kalhor

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Mirza Reza Kalhor (1245–1310 AH, 1829–1892 CE) was a 19th-century Iranian calligrapher of Kurdish origin, known for his mastery of the Nastaʿlīq script technique.[1]

A member of the Kalhor tribe of Kermanshah, he initially followed the typical tribal path, learning horsemanship and sharpshooting. He gained an interest in calligraphy as a child, and left the tribe for further training.[1] During his career, he introduced several innovations to Nastaʿlīq calligraphy, changing both the aesthetics and mechanics of the technique.[1]

Kalhor modified and adapted Nastaʿlīq to be easily used with printing machines and newspaper lithography, which in turn helped wide dissemination of his transcripts.[1][2] He also devised methods for teaching Nastaʿlīq and specified clear proportional rules for it, which many could follow.[1]

He died of cholera in Tehran at age 65, having sired nine children and taught many calligraphy students, several of whom went on to become notable in their own right.[1] He was buried in Ḥasanābād cemetery.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "KALHOR, Mirzā Mohammad-Reżā". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  2. ^ Bahman Eslami (25 November 2013). "Harir – Reducing Noise in Arabic Script". Retrieved 25 November 2015.