Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mirza Muhammad Haider Dughlat
میرزا محمد حیدر دولت بیگ
Dughlat Prince
Mirza
Beg
Mughal Subahdar (Governor) of Kashmir
Reignc. 1540 – 1551
PredecessorPosition established
SuccessorPosition abolished
SultanIsmail Shah
Nazuk Shah
Bornc. 1499/1500
Tashkent, Moghulistan
Diedc. 1551
(aged 50–52)
Srinagar, Maraj, Kashmir Sultanate (Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India)
Burial1551
Names
Mirza Muhammad Haider Dughlat Ibn Muhammad Hussain Mirza Kurkan

(Persian: میرزا محمد حیدر دغلت بن محمد حسین میرزا کرکان)
HouseChagatai
DynastyDughlat
(through paternal lineage)
Borjigin
(through maternal lineage)
FatherMuhammad Hussain Mirza Kurkan
MotherKhub Nigar Khanim
ReligionSunni Islam
OccupationMilitary General
Politician
Military career
Allegiance Yarkent Khanate (Borjigin dynasty) in (1530s)
Mughal Empire (Mughal dynasty) (1540–1551)
Service/branchChagatai Army
Mughal Army
RankMilitary General
Battles/warsCampaign on Kashmir (1533)
Invasion of Tibet (after 1533)
Battle of Kannauj (1540)
Campaign on Kashmir (1540)

Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat Beg (Persian: میرزا محمد حیدر دولت بیگ c. 1499/1500 – 1551) was a Chagatai Turco-Mongol military general, governor of Kashmir, and a historian. He was a Mughal Dughlat prince who wrote in both Chaghatai and Persian languages.[1] Haidar and Babur were cousins on their mother's side, through the line of Genghis Khan. Unlike Babur, Haidar considered himself more of an ethnic Mongol of Moghulistan.[2]

Background[edit]

Mirza Haidar Dughlat in the Tarikh-i Rashidi constantly alludes to a distinct tribe or community of Moghuls in Mughalistan, however reduced in numbers, who had preserved Mongol customs, and from the incindental references to Mongolian phrases and terms, likely retained elements of the original Mongolian language, despite the growth of Islam and the growing use of the Turki language, the latter which Haider naturally spoke.[3] According to the Tarikh-i Rashidi, Haider Dughlat considered his "Moghul Ulus" to be a separate people from the settled Turks of Transoxiania, from the fifteenth century and the first half of the sixteenth century.[4] According to Vasily Bartold, there are “some indications that the language of the Moghuls was Mongolian until the 16th century".[5] For the sedentary Mongols in Transoxiana, the nomadic Mongols to their east in Xinjiang and Kashgar represented a bastion of true Mongol culture, hence the name "Moghulistan".[6]

Campaigns[edit]

Silver sasnu issued in 1533 in Kashmir by Haidar Dughlat, in the name of Said Khan. The obverse legend reads al-sultan al-a'zam mir sa'id khan.
Silver sasnu issued during 1546–50 in Kashmir by Haidar Dughlat, in the name of the Mughal emperor Humayun. The obverse legend reads al-sultan al-a'zam Muhammad humayun ghazi. The reverse reads dharb-i kashmir

However, he did not stay long in Kashmir, leaving after making a treaty with the local sultan and striking coins in the name of Said Khan. He had also attacked Tibet through Ladakh but failed to conquer Lhasa.[7]

He returned in 1540, fighting for the Mughal Emperor Humayun.[8] Arriving in Kashmir, Haidar installed as sultan the head of the Sayyid faction, Nazuk. In 1546, after Humayun recovered Kabul, Haidar removed Nazuk Shah and struck coins in the name of the Mughal emperor.[9]

His mother was Khub Nigar Khanim, third daughter of Yunus Khan by Isan Daulat Begum, and a younger sister of Kutluk Nigar Khanim, mother of Babur. Mirza Muhammad Haidar governed Kashmir from 1540 to 1551,[10] when he was killed in battle.

References[edit]

  1. ^ René Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia (1970 translation), p. 497.
  2. ^ N. Ellas. textsThe Tarikh-i-rashidi; a history of the Moghuls of central Asia; an English version. p. 2.
  3. ^ N. Ellas. The Tarikh-i-rashidi; a history of the Moghuls of central Asia; an English version. p. 82.
  4. ^ Murad Butt. The Tarikh-i-rashidi. Karakoram Books.
  5. ^ Бартольд В. В. (1968). Сочинения. Том V. Работы по истории и филологии тюркских и монгольских народов. Москва: Наука. pp. 169–170.
  6. ^ Timothy May (2016). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 49. ISBN 9781610693400.
  7. ^ Bell, Charles (1992). Tibet Past and Present. omer Banarsidass Publ. p. 33. ISBN 81-208-1048-1.
  8. ^ Shahzad Bashir, Messianic Hopes and Mystical Visions: The Nurbakhshiya Between Medieval And Modern Islam (2003), p. 236.
  9. ^ Stan Goron and J.P. Goenka: The Coins of the Indian Sultanates, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2001, pp. 463–464.
  10. ^ List of Rulers: South Asia | Thematic Essay | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Notes[edit]

  • Mansura Haidar (translator) (2002), Mirza Haidar Dughlat as Depicted in Persian Sources

External links[edit]