Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda

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Cover of the 1872 translation of the works of Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda

Mirza Muhammad Rafi 'Sauda' (1713–1781) (Urdu: مرزا محمد رفیع سودا ) was an Urdu poet in Delhi, India. He is known for his Ghazals and Urdu Qasidas.[1]


He was born in 1713 [2] in Shahjahanabad (i.e. Old Delhi), where he was also brought up.[3][4] At the age of 60 or 66, he moved to Farrukhabad (with Nawab Bangash),[2] and lived there from 1757 to about 1770.[3][5] In A.H. 1185 [1771–72] he moved to court of Nawab of Awadh (then in Faizabad) and remained there till his death.[3] When Lucknow became state capital, he came there with Nawab Shujauddaula.[4]

He died in A.H. 1195 [1780–81] in Lucknow.[3][2][6]

Ustads and shagirds[edit]

Sulaimān Qulī Ḳhān 'Vidād' and Shāh Ḥātim were his Ustads (teachers of Urdu poetry).[2][7] King Shah Alam was Shagird (student of Urdu poetry) of Sauda.[2] He was also Ustad of Shujauddaulla. Nawab Āṣif ud-Daulah gave him title of Malkushshu'ara and annual pension of Rs 6,000.[2]


Initially he composed in Persian, but switched to Urdu on the advice of his ustad, Ḳhān-e Ārzū.[2] His work was translated in 1872 by Major Henry Court, Captain, Bengal Cavalry.[8] Kulliyat of Sauda was compiled by Ḥakīm Sayyid Aṣlaḥ. ud-Dīn Ḳhān wrote the introduction.[2] List of Sauda's work from his Kulliyat are:[9]

  • Masnavi dar hajv-e hakim ghaus
  • Masnavi dar hajv-e amir-a daulatmand bakhil
  • Masnavi dar ta'rif-e shikar
  • Masnavi dar hajv-e pil rajah nripat singh
  • Masnavi dar hajv-e sidi faulad khan kotval-e shahjahanabad
  • Masnavi dar hajv-e fidvi mutavatan-e panjab kih darasal baqal bachchah bud
  • Masnavi dar hajv-e chipak mirza faizu
  • Qissah-e darvesh kih iradah-e ziyarat-e ka'bah kardah bud
  • Mukhammas-e shahr ashob
  • Qasidah dar madh-e navab vazir imad ul-mulk

Some ashaar of Sauda[edit]















  1. ^ "A Shahr-ashob of Sauda, translated by Mark Pegors" (PDF). Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Aab-e hayaat (1880) on Sauda". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Chapter 2 of Three Mughal Poets: Mir Sauda, Mir Hasan*, by Ralph Russell and Khurshidul Islam (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968)" (PDF). Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Frances Pritchett. "Introduction of Selections from the Kulliyat of Sauda, by Major Henry Court, 1872". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  5. ^ To be more precise, some time between A.H. 1183 (A.D. 1769–1770) and A.H. 1185 (A.D. 1771–1772). Cf. Shaikh Cand, pp. 55–56
  6. ^ An Urdu chronogram by Faḳhr ud-Dīn; Persian chronograms by Muṣḥafī and Mīr Qamar ud-Dīn 'Minnat'.
  7. ^ "Azad, Muhammad Husain Ab-i hayat: yani mashahir shura-yi Urdu ke savanih umri aur zaban-i mazkur ki ahd ba ahd ki taraqqiyon aur islahon ka bayan. Lahor: Naval Kishor 1907". Dsal.uchicago.edu. 8 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  8. ^ Frances Pritchett. "Selections from the Kulliyat of Sauda, by Major Henry Court, 1872". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Frances Pritchett. "Introduction by FWP, Selections from the Kulliyat of Sauda, by Major Henry Court, 1872". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 59°41′15″N 6°26′14″E / 59.68750°N 6.43722°E / 59.68750; 6.43722