Mirza Tahir Ahmad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Caliph of the Messiah
Amir al-Mu'minin
KhalifaIV Surrey.jpg
Khaifatul Masih IV in 2000 in the UK
Reign 10 June 1982 – 19 April 2003
Predecessor Mirza Nasir Ahmad
Successor Mirza Masroor Ahmad
Born (1928-12-18)18 December 1928
Qadian, Punjab, British India
Died 19 April 2003(2003-04-19) (aged 74)
London, England
Burial Islamabad in Tilford, England
Spouse Sayyida Asifa Begum (m. 1957–1992)
Issue 5 children
Full name
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
مرزا طاہر احمد
Father Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Mother Sayyida Maryam Begum

Mirza Tahir Ahmad (Urdu: مرزا طاہر احمد‎‎) (18 December 1928 – 19 April 2003) was Khalifatul Masih IV (Arabic: خليفة المسيح الرابع‎‎, khalīfatul masīh al-rābi) and the head of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. He was elected as the fourth successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad on 10 June 1982, the day after the death of his predecessor, Mirza Nasir Ahmad.

In 1974 he was nominated as a member of the Ahmadiyya delegation which appeared before the Parliament of Pakistan to defend the beliefs of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Following the Ordinance XX that was promulgated by the government of Pakistan in 1984, which prohibited Ahmadi Muslims from any public expression of the Islamic faith, Tahir Ahmad left Pakistan and migrated to London, England, provisionally moving the headquarters of the community to the Fazl Mosque in London.[1] He is noted particularly for his question and answer sessions which he held regularly with people from around the world and for his Qur'anic discourses. Under his leadership, there was an acceleration in the number of Quran translations produced by the Community and during his caliphate, the Community experienced structural and financial growth on an international level, including the launch of the first Muslim satellite television network, Muslim Television Ahmadiyya, in 1994.

Tahir Ahmad also authored many books including, Some Distinctive Features of Islam; Christianity: a Journey From Facts to Fiction; Murder in the name of Allah, and his magnum opus[2] Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth. He initiated various funds for humanitarian causes such as the Maryam Shaadi Fund, used to assist deserving parents in marrying off their daughters, the Sayyidna Bilal Fund, for the welfare and upkeep of the families of martyrs who have been killed in the cause of the community and the Yatama Fund to provide financial assistance to orphans especially in Africa, India and Bangladesh. in 1994, he initiated the international charity organization Humanity First.

Early life[edit]

Mirza Tahir Ahmad was born in Qadian, Punjab on 18 December 1928 to Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad and Sayyida Maryam Begum. He obtained his early schooling in Qadian and joined the Government College, Lahore in 1944, a few months after the death of his mother, Syeda Maryam Begum. After graduating with distinction from Jamia Ahmadiyya (Theological Academy) in Rabwah, he continued his education and obtained his honours degree in Arabic from the University of Punjab, Lahore.

In 1955 he visited England for the first time with his father, who advised him to remain there to improve his knowledge of the English language and become familiar with European social habits. He studied for two and a half years at the School of Oriental and African Studies at London University, but returned to Pakistan in December 1957 without having graduated. During his stay in London Tahir Ahmad visited different parts of the United Kingdom including Ireland, Scotland, Wales and also some parts of Western Europe.

Upon his return in 1957, Tahir Ahmad married Asifa Begum and was appointed the vice president of the newly established Waqf-e-Jadid Foundation, whose main task was to educate community members who lived in rural areas of Pakistan. He also started treating poor people with homeopathy.

During the Pakistani parliamentary investigations regarding the status of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, a delegation of five members, including Tahir Ahmad, was sent to plead the community's case. Shortly after, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was declared non-Muslim by the Pakistani National Assembly, which remains the constitutional and legal position of Pakistan as of 2014.

Caliphate[edit]

The Majlis Intikhab Khilafat (Electoral College), convened at Mubarik Mosque in Rabwah, Pakistan,[3] elected Hadrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad as the fourth successor to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and head of the community on 10 June 1982.[4]

Ordinance XX and migration to London[edit]

Ordinance XX, the anti-Ahmadiyya legislation passed by General Zia ul Haq's government on 26 April 1984, compelled Tahir Ahmad to leave Pakistan immediately. On 26 April he summoned an emergency conference of the Majlis e Shura (Consultative Body) at 10 pm. This session included key members of the Caliph's advisory council and high office bearers of the Community. After the emergency session of the Consultative Body it was suggested that the Community members should not deliver the Adhan. The following day it was suggested that Tahir Ahmad should not deliver the Friday Sermon as that would entail a violation of the Ordinance in some form or another and that perhaps this was the plan in having passed the ordinance on the Thursday before the Jumu'ah. However he did not initially accept this until he found it to be the unanimous advice of the local presidents of the Community who had made their way to the centre the following day. The Jum'uah service was led by Muhammad Bashir Shad in the presence of the Caliph. By then he had decided to migrate from Pakistan temporarily. He privately made efforts for this purpose by setting up a private committee for the operation consisting of Mirza Mubarik Ahmad, Dr. Mirza Munawwar Ahmad, Brigadier Wakee u Zaman Khan, Masood Ahmad of Jhelum (responsible for facilitating the booking of flights), Chaudhrey Hamid Nasrullah Khan (Ameer Jamaat of Lahore) was instructed to arrange for cars and drivers, Chaudhrey Ahmad Mukhtar (Ameer Jamaat of Karachi) was instructed to arrange for the Caliph's short stay in Karachi and departure from the airport. The Caliph departed along with his wife, 2 daughters and 17 others on the morning of 29 April on a KLM flight to London via Amsterdam. He reached London on 30 April, eventually moving the headquarters of the community to London during his years of exile.

Return to India[edit]

In 1991 Mirza Tahir Ahmad returned, as caliph, to Qadian, India, from where the movement originated, in order to attend the 100th Annual annual gathering of the community being held there. This was the first time an Ahmadiyya caliph] had returned to Qadian since the partition of India in 1947, when the community relocated from India to Pakistan.

Muslim Television Ahmadiyya[edit]

As Khalifatul Masih Mirza Tahir Ahmad established the Muslim Television Ahmadiyya (commonly referred to as MTA). This satellite-based channel broadcast its first show on 21 August 1992 from London.[5] It started with a weekly one-hour program, transmitting Ahmad's Friday sermon.

Today, MTA broadcasts 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, is watched by millions of people on five continents,[citation needed] and consists of three channels. Every Friday, broadcasts still include Khalifatul Masih's Friday sermon, simultaneously televised into six languages. Important events of the Community are also televised in most major languages around the world.

International Bai'at[edit]

In 1993 Mirza Tahir Ahmad started an international initiation ceremony to be held every year at the annual gatherings of Ahmadis in which new converts join the community by pledging their allegiance to the Khalifa. The International Bai'at ceremony was broadcast live across the world. He often claimed that this was the historical fulfillment of the Pentecost that was destined to occur at the time of the Second Coming.[6]

Homeopathy[edit]

Mirza Tahir Ahmad was a leading homeopath. After trying a couple of remedies for his own migraine and his wife's long-standing ailment, he came to believe in the efficacy of homeopathic remedies, and treated thousands of patients. He instructed branches to establish free homeopathic dispensaries. He embarked upon a program of homeopathy training through classes televised on MTA International. These lectures were later compiled in a book.

Marriage, children, and family[edit]

Mirza Tahir Ahmad married Asifa Begum in 1957. They had 4 daughters, Shaukat Jehan, Faiza, Yasmin Rehman Mona, Atiatul Mujib Tooba and one daughter who died in infancy. He had no sons but later he took on the upbringing and educational training of a boy, Bashir. Asifa Begum died from pancreatic cancer[7] on 3 April 1992.

Mirza Tahir Ahmad was the grandson the founder of the Ahmadiyya, he was the son of Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad, the second Caliph from his wife Syeda Maryam Begum, and was also the half-brother of Mirza Nasir Ahmad, the third Caliph.

Death[edit]

Mirza Tahir Ahmad died in London on 19 April 2003 from heart failure.[8] The newly elected Caliph Mirza Masroor Ahmad, as the Khalifatul Masih V, led the funeral prayer on 23 April 2003, attended by over 40,000 people from around the world.[9]

Writings, speeches and question-and-answer sessions[edit]

Question and Answer Sessions[edit]

Mirza Tahir Ahmad regularly held question and answer sessions both with Ahmadis and non-Ahmadis from around the world. Since his migration to England, separate sessions were held in Urdu and English and in addition to these, since the launch of the satellite TV channel MTA in 1994, separate sessions were held – through translators – with Arabic, French and Bengali speakers. Towards the end of his life these question and answers were held almost on a daily basis. Sessions in Urdu called Majālis-e-Irfan were usually held on Fridays.

Quranic exegesis[edit]

Tahir Ahmad delivered regular in-depth commentaries on The Holy Quran during the months of Ramadan. The hallmark of these commentaries was his ability to incorporate lengthy discussions of the commentaries made by previous commentators as well as the founder of the Ahmadiyya and the Ahmadiyya Caliphs that came before him. In addition he discussed the lexicography of the Quran and refuted many of the arguments of the Orientalists. His commentaries differed significantly from those offered by many of the classical Quranic commentators, placing emphasis on the logical and rational approach of the Quran. For example, he did not believe it was essential to rely heavily on Asbab al-nuzul (Circumstances of the Revelation) in order to understand the implications of the Quranic verses, presenting strong arguments instead that the Quran offered its own context. Breaking away from the norm, for this purpose, he delivered 7 discourses on Asbab al-nuzul. [1]. Through these much anticipated annual discourses, Tahir Ahmad also presented landmark interpretations of the Quranic narrative, based upon contemporary scientific, archaeological and historical research to support the Quranic narratives of the Prophets' against the Biblical stories such as those of Adam and Eve, the flood of Noah and the story of Moses and the Pharaoh and the nature of miracles in the light of natural and supernatural phenomena. He also argued that the Divine attributes of Allah are inter-related and not presented randomly but with specific relevance to the subject under discussion. The discourses were delivered in English; however, in 1993 Tahir Ahmad decided that he should switch to Urdu as the translators in several languages in which the discourses were being simultaneously translated would find ease in translating from Urdu. The last of these discourses was delivered in 2001. These discourses of the last decade of his life (from when he switched to Urdu) have also now been summarised into English through the Tahir Archive and published online.[2]

Urdu translation of Holy Quran[edit]

One of the monumental achievements of his life was the translation of Holy Quran in Urdu. He used simple language in his translation so that people can understand the real meaning of the Holy Quran. Also supplemented are introductions to different chapters and brief explanations of difficult and important passages of Quran. The publication was based on the 'Translation of the Quran' classes delivered between 1994 and 1999 on MTA.[3]

"Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth"[edit]

Mirza Tahir Ahmad wrote among many others, a book named Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth, which was a further development on a talk he gave in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1987. It covered many topics relating to the present-day world. In this book he argued a rebuttal to the theories of biologist Richard Dawkins.[10] He also argued that Socrates was a prophet of the ancient Greeks,[11] and that several other prominent figures from history were at the level of prophethood due to their accomplishments and their influence over other figures far into history, both on a moral and materialistic progressive compass. The book covers a vast array of subjects, from religion, to science to secular traits in the present age. It seeks to substantiate, through various arguments, how God has been ever present in the world of Man.

The Tahir Archive[edit]

The Tahir Archive was set up on 22 September 2011 to collect a comprehensive and accessible collection of Tahir Ahmad's video recordings.[4] Categorised into the following playlists on the YouTube channel:

  • عَدْلِ, احْسَانِ اور إِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ [Absolute Justice, Kindness & Kinship: 3 Creative Principles].
  • Ahmadiyya Islam, (41 videos).
  • Darsul Quran [Quranic Discourses]: 1984 – 2002, (221 videos).
  • Homeopathy Classes, (220 videos).
  • Ijtemas of Auxiliary Organisations, (2 videos).
  • Jalsa Salanas [Annual Conferences], (112 videos).
  • Kalam e Tahir: Poems + Appendix: Unpublished Poems, (22 videos).
  • Khalij Ka Buhran or Nizam e Jahan e Nau [The Gulf Crisis & the New World Order].
  • Khutbat e Tahir [Sermons], (500+ videos).
  • Lectures, Interviews, Events & Documentaries, (60 videos).
  • Liqa Ma al-Arab, (388 videos).
  • Majalis e Irfan, (68 videos).
  • Meetings with Bengali Friends, (79 videos).
  • Meetings with British Ladies, (18 videos).
  • Meetings with English Friends, (91 videos).
  • Meetings with German Ladies, (17 videos).
  • National Conventions, (52 videos).
  • Question & Answer Sessions: 1984 – 2002, (260 videos).
  • Recontre avec les Francophones, (103 videos).
  • Tarjumatul Quran [Translation of the Quran], (210 videos).
  • Tehreek e Waqf e Nau [Sermons on Waqf e Nau].
  • Urdu Class, (3 videos).
  • Urdu Mulaqat, (137 videos).
  • Zahaqul Batil [A Review of the Pakistani Government's 'White Paper - Qadiyaniyyat: A Grave Threat to Islam].
  • Zauq e Ibadat or Adab e Dua.

It has also published (and in some cases re-edited and re-published) correct editions of his published and unpublished writings. In addition to the ongoing archive [5], the following works have also been published under the aegis of The Tahir Archive:

  • Complete List of the Books of Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad - Khalifatul Masih IV.[6]
  • Address Delivered Upon Arrival in the UK, (30 April 1984).[7]
  • Helpers in the Cause of Allah: The First Friday Sermon following exile to the UK, (4 May 1984).[8]
  • Mubahila [9] [An Open Invitation to a Mubahila].[10]
  • ‘A Life in the Day of: Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad’, The Sunday Times, 6 August 1989).[11]
  • Interview with The Sunday Times, (1989).[12]
  • Kalam e Tahir: Appendix – Unpublished Poems, (2014).[13]
  • 'The Lover's Heart Dares Dream' by Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, (Southword, January 2013).ml
  • ‘Come Embrace My Tides' by Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, (23 May 2007).
  • The Holy Quran: Translation & Commentary on Sura’ al-Burooj.[14]
  • Chiragh Jaltey Hen: The Unpublished Poetry of Obaidullah Aleem.[15]
  • Natural Disasters or Divine Punishment.
  • Tadris e Namaz.[16]

Books[edit]

  • Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth – Examines the relationships between science, philosophy and religion[12]
  • Sawaney Fazl - E - Omer - Official Biography of Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad, the second Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community[13]
  • An Elementary Study of Islam[14]
  • Gulf Crisis and The New World Order[15]
  • Christianity - A Journey from Facts to Fiction – Examines and discusses a variety of current Christian beliefs through logic and reason[16]
  • Murder in the Name of Allah[17]
  • Zahaqal Baatil ([18][19][20]
  • Reality of punishment of apostasy in Islam (Urdu)[21]
  • Khatame-Nabbuwat (Urdu pdf)
  • Homeopathy[22]
  • Some Distinctive Features of Islam[23]
  • Islam's Response to Contemporary Issues[24]
  • Kalam-e-Tahir (Poetry Book)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Khilafat, the Successorship of Prophethood – The Guided Khilafat – Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyya
  2. ^ David Buckley. Where the Waters Meet: Convergence and Complementarity in Therapy and Theology. Karnac Books. p. 75. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  3. ^ The Life of Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IV (ra). 
  4. ^ "Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad". Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  5. ^ "A Brief History of Ahmadiyya Movement In Islam: Muslim Television Ahmadiyya". Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  6. ^ First International Baiat, Jalsa Salana 1 August 1993 First International Baiat, Jalsa Salana 1 August 1993 on YouTube.
  7. ^ Ahmad, Mirza Tahir. Friday Sermon, April 3, 1992.  External link in |title= (help)
  8. ^ "Obituaries: Deaths Last Week". Chicago Tribune. 11 May 2003. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  9. ^ "Obituary of Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad". Asian Outlook. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  10. ^ "The 'Blind Watchmaker' Who Is Also Deaf and Dumb". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  11. ^ "Socrates: Philosopher or Prophet?". University College, London. 
  12. ^ "Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge and Truth". Al Islam. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  13. ^ "Swaneh Fazle Umar - Life History of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-din Mahmud Ahmad Khalifatul Masih II - Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at Urdu Pages". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  14. ^ "An Elementary Study of Islam". Al Islam. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  15. ^ "Book: The Gulf Crisis & The New World Order". Al Islam. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  16. ^ "Christianity: A Journey from Facts to Fiction". Al Islam. 1928-12-18. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  17. ^ "Murder in the Name of Allah". Al Islam. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  18. ^ Arabic Archived 4 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ "سلسلة الخطب ردا على منشور حكومي". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  20. ^ "A Review of the Pakistani Government's 'White Paper': Qadiyaniyyat - A Grave Threat to Islam". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  21. ^ "Islam main irtidad ki saza ki haqeeqat - Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at Urdu Pages". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  22. ^ "Homoeopathy - Like cures like" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  23. ^ "Some Distinctive Features Of Islam". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  24. ^ "Islam's Response to Contemporary Issues". 

External links[edit]