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|Native to||Honduras, Nicaragua|
|Region||North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, neighbouring areas|
Miskito (Mískitu in the Miskito language) is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, and in eastern Honduras.
With 150,000 speakers, Miskito is the most widely spoken of a family of languages of Nicaragua and Honduras that has come to be known as Misumalpan. This name is formed from parts of the names of the family's subgroups: Miskito, Sumo, Matagalpan. Although some aspects of the internal family tree with family are uncertain, it is clear Miskito is apart from Sumo and Matagalpan, which seem to share a common lower node, and that in the past Miskito was heavily influenced by other Misumalpan languages. Sumo is thought to have been dominant in the area before the period of Miskito ascendancy. Today the relationship has been reversed: many former Sumo speakers have shifted to Miskito, which has in turn heavily influenced the Sumo dialects. Several of these (Tawahka, Panamahka and Tuahka) constitute the Mayangna sub-branch of Sumo, while the Ulwa language is in another sub-branch. The Matagalpan branch of Misumalpan contains two languages that are now extinct: Matagalpa and Cacaopera. The latter was formerly spoken in parts of eastern El Salvador.
In addition to many elements borrowed from other Misumalpan languages, Miskito has a large number of loanwords from English via creole. Even though Spanish is the official language of Nicaragua and Honduras, its influence on Miskito is much more recent and hence more superficial. There are also many other languages that may have had influence on Miskito. Some different influences have been Sumi dialects as there has been a lot of connections with vocabulary and grammar. There have also been connections to other languages such as Arawak, Rama, Carib, and also some Western African languages.
Many of the Miskito are of mixed race with either African-Native American ancestry or a mix of African-Native American and British ancestry. The Miskito people had strong relationship with the British and they signed the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. Eventually, the British began to lose interest in the region, and Britain allowed Nicaragua to have uncontested claim over the Mosquito Coast. A treaty was signed in which a Miskito reserve, a self-governing entity that enjoyed semi-sovereign rights, was given to the Miskito people, but Honduras eventually took over the area.
In the 20th century the Miskito language started to dwindle. Honduras, being a former Spanish colony, officially used the Spanish language, and this stifled the proliferation of the Miskito language in the 20th century. In schools, children were forbidden from speaking Miskito for most of the 20th century and could only speak Spanish; young generations had less of an opportunity to practice the language.
In the 1990s, many groups lobbied against the rule and promoted bilingual schools to preserve the Miskito language. Twenty such bilingual schools exist.
Orthography and phonology
G. R. Heath wrote on Miskito grammar in American Anthropologist in 1913 and describes its orthography and phonology as follows:
The consonants g, j, s, w, y represent the sounds heard in the English words get, jet, set, wet, and yet; and the combination ch stands for the sound heard in the word chest. C by itself will not be used. The other letters have the same power as in English, except that the aspirate h is always to be pronounced, even at the end of a syllable.
Long vowels will be distinguished by the grave accent (`).
The stress accent in Miskuto is almost invariably on the first syllable. Any variations from this rule will be marked by the acute accent, as in Spanish (´).
When the grave and acute accents occur on the same vowel, they combine to form the circumflex (ˆ).
Nasalized vowels are sometimes met with: they resemble the ordinary vowels followed by a sound corresponding to the French n in mon. But as this nasal sound seems to be pronounced not after, but simultaneously with, the vowels, it seems better to mark the vowels with the tilde (˜), to indicate that the vowels themselves are nasalized. Such nasalized vowels are always long, thus: ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ, ũ.
The combination ng is a single sound: the double sound in the English word "longer" will be represented by ngg.
There is still much controversy about Miskito orthography and it cannot be considered settled, even with printed Miskito grammars, Bible translations, and other texts.
0 - Apu
1 - Kumi
2 - Wal
3 - Yumhpa
4 - WalhWalh
5 - Matsip
6 - Matlal Kahbi
7 - Matlal Kahbi pura kumi
8 - Matlal Kahbi pura Wal
9 - Matlal Kahbi pura yumhpa
10 - Matawalsip
11 - Matawalsip pura kumi
12 - Matawalsi pura wal
Months of the year
January - Siakwa Kati
February - Kuswa Kati
March - Kakamuk Kati
April - Lih Wainhka Kati
May - Lih Mairin Kati
June - Li Kati
July - Pastara Kati
August - Sikla Kati
September - Wis Kati
October - Waupasa Kati
November - Yahbra Kati
December - Trisu Kati
- Miskito at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Miskito". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Heath, G. R. (3 January 1913). "Notes on Miskuto Grammar and on Other Indian Languages of Eastern Nicaragua". American Anthropologist. 15 (1): 48–62. doi:10.1525/aa.1913.15.1.02a00060.
Richter, Elke (1986). "Observaciones acerca del desarrollo lexical miskito en Nicaragua". Revista de filología románica. 1986 (4): 341–346.
Gamboa, Haglan Santiago. "Easy Miskito 2 - Let's Count!" YouTube. YouTube, 17 July 2015. Web. 29 Apr. 2016.
|Miskito language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Miskitu Language Collection of Natalia Bermúdez and Wanda Luz Waldan Peter - archive of audio and video recordings and text transcriptions of historical narratives from native speakers from AILLA.
- Recording of a song in Miskito with an interview in English - from the Collection of Miskito, Quechua and Tseltal of June Nash at AILLA.
- Miskito - English - Spanish Dictionary
- Notes in Miskito Grammar
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Miskito|