|Predecessor||September 25, 1920Atlantic City, New Jersey, United States (The Fall Frolic)in|
|Founded||September 8, 1921Atlantic City, New Jersey, United Statesin|
|Headquarters||Atlantic City, United States|
|Sam Haskell (Executive Chairman and CEO)
Lynn Hackerman Weidner (Chairman)
Miss America is a beauty pageant that is held annually and is open to women from the United States between the ages of 17 and 24. Originating in 1921, the contest is now judged on competitors' talent performances and interviews in addition to their physical appearance. It is run by the Miss America Organization, a not-for-profit corporation based in Linwood, New Jersey, which has developed the "Miss America Scholarship Program", which awards educational scholarships to successful competitors. The stated purpose of the contest is that it "provides young women with a vehicle to further their personal and professional goals and instills a spirit of community service through a variety of unique nationwide community-based programs". Miss America travels about 20,000 miles a month, changing her location every 24 to 48 hours, touring the nation and promoting her particular platform of interest.
The current title-holder, Miss America 2015, is Miss New York 2014, Kira Kazantsev. She is the third consecutive Miss America winner from the state of New York, and was crowned on September 14, 2014, by her predecessor Nina Davuluri (Miss America 2014).
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Recent titleholders
- 4 Competing
- 5 Hosts
- 6 Scholarship misrepresentation
- 7 See also
- 8 Further reading and viewing
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The origins of the Miss America Pageant lie in a 1920 event entitled The Fall Frolic. Held on September 25 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the event was designed to bring business to the Boardwalk: "three hundred and fifty gaily decorated rolling wicker chairs were pushed along the parade route. Three hundred and fifty men pushed the chairs. However, the main attractions were the young 'maidens' who sat in the rolling chairs, headed by a Miss Ernestine Cremona, who was dressed in a flowing white robe and represented "Peace." 
The event was so successful that The Businessmen's League planned to repeat it the following year as a beauty pageant or a "bather's revue"  (to capitalize on the popularity of newspaper-based beauty contests that used photo submissions). Thus, "newspapers as far west as Pittsburgh and as far south as Washington, D.C., were asked to sponsor local beauty contests. The winners would participate in the Atlantic City contest. If the local newspaper would pay for the winner's wardrobe, the Atlantic City Businessmen's League would pay for the contestant's travel to compete in the Inter-City Beauty Contest." Herb Test, a "newspaperman" coined the term for the winner as, "Miss America." On September 8, 1921, 100,000 people gathered at the Boardwalk to watch the contestants from Washington, D.C., Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, Ocean City, Camden, Newark, New York, and Philadelphia. The 16-year-old winner from Washington D.C., Margaret Gorman was crowned the "Golden Mermaid" and won $100.
The pageant continued consistently over the next eight decades except for the years 1929–1933, when it was temporarily shut down due to financial problems associated with the Great Depression and suggestions that it promoted "loose morals." With its revival in 1933, 15-year-old Marian Bergeron won, prompting future contestants to be between the ages of 18 to 26. In 1935, Lenora Slaughter was hired to "re-invent" the pageant and served for 32 years as its Director. By 1938, a talent section was added to the competition, and contestants were required to have a chaperone. In 1940, the title officially became "The Miss America Pageant" and the pageant was held in Atlantic City's Convention Hall. In 1944, compensation for "Miss America" switched from "furs and movie contracts" to college scholarships.
During the 1930s, under the directorship of Lenora Slaughter, the pageant became segregated as rule number seven stated: "contestants must be of good health and of the white race." Rule seven was abolished in 1950. While there were Native American, Latina, and Asian-American contestants, there were no African-American contestants until the Miss America 1971 pageant when Cheryl Browne, Miss Iowa 1970, competed (although African-Americans appeared in musical numbers as far back as 1923, when they were cast as slaves). Nina Davuluri, (Miss America 2014), is the first Indian-American to win the pageant, and the second Miss Syracuse to win after Miss New York 1983, Vanessa Lynn Williams. Williams (Miss America 1984) was the first African American Miss America. Both Davuluri and Williams won when the pageant was held in Atlantic City and both faced discrimination in response to their respective wins. In addition, Congresswoman Grace Meng compared Davuluri to Miss New York 1945, Bess Myerson (to date the only Jewish-American winner and Miss America 1945) who also faced discrimination during her time as Miss America.
Margaret Gorman, Miss District of Columbia, was declared "The Most Beautiful Bathing Girl in America" in 1921 at the age of 16 and was recognized as the first "Miss America" when she returned to compete the next year. The contest that year was won by Mary Katherine Campbell (Miss Ohio) and again in 1923. She returned to compete a third time in 1924 but placed as first runner-up that year. Beginning in 1940, Bob Russell served as the first official host of the Pageant. In 1941, Mifauny Shunatona, Miss Oklahoma, became the first Native American contestant.
In 1945, Bess Myerson became the first Jewish-American and the first Miss New York  (competing as Miss New York City, a competition organized by a local radio station) to win the Miss America Pageant as Miss America 1945. As the only Jewish contestant, Myerson was encouraged by the pageant directors to change her name to "Bess Meredith" or "Beth Merrick" but she refused. After winning the title (and as a Jewish Miss America), Myerson received few endorsements and later recalled that "I couldn't even stay in certain hotels […] there would be signs that read no coloreds, no Jews, no dogs. I felt so rejected. Here I was chosen to represent American womanhood and then America treated me like this." She thus cut short her Miss America tour and instead traveled with the Anti-Defamation League. In this capacity, she spoke against discrimination in a talk entitled, "You Can't Be Beautiful and Hate."
In 1948, Irma Nydia Vasquez, the first Miss Puerto Rico, became the first Latina contestant. In addition, in 1948 Yun Tau Chee, the first Miss Hawaii, was also the first Asian-American contestant. Miss America 1949 Jacque Mercer was married and divorced during her reign; after this, a rule was enacted requiring Miss America contestants to sign a certification that they have never been married or pregnant. Starting in 1950, although the pageant continued to be in September, the Miss America title changed to "post-dated", thus that year's pageant winner became Miss American 1951, and there was no Miss America 1950. The pageant was first televised nationally in 1954, hosted by Bob Russell. Future television star Lee Meriwether was crowned Miss America 1955. It would also be the last time Russell served as host. He recommended, and was replaced by, Bert Parks, who served as the host for the second televised pageant in 1955 and stayed as host until 1979. Television viewership peaked during the early 1960s, when it was the highest-rated program on American television.
With the rise of second-wave feminism and the civil rights movement during the 1960s, the Miss America Pageant became the subject of a series of protests that attacked it as sexist, racist and part of U.S. militarism. The first occurred during the Miss America 1969 pageant held on September 7, 1968 (won by Miss Illinois 1968, Judith Ford), when about 200 members of the group New York Radical Women demonstrated as part of the Miss America protest. In addition, a pamphlet distributed at the protest by Robin Morgan, No More Miss America!, became a source for feminist scholarship. The protest was co-sponsored by Florynce Kennedy’s Media Workshop, an activist group she founded in 1966 to protest the media’s representation of African Americans, along with the feminist Jeanette Rankin Brigade and the ACLU. Morgan later stated that the Miss America pageant "was chosen as a target for a number of reasons: it has always been a lily-white, racist contest; the winner tours Vietnam , entertaining the troops as a 'Murder Mascot; the whole gimmick is one commercial shillgame to sell the sponsor’s products. Where else could one find such a perfect combination of American values—racism, militarism, sexism—all packaged in one ‘ideal symbol,’a woman.”The protesters compared the pageant to a county fair where livestock are judged. They thus crowned a sheep as Miss America and symbolically destroying a number of feminine products, including false eyelashes, high-heeled shoes, curlers, hairspray, makeup, girdles, corsets and bras. Burning the contents of a trash can was suggested, but a permit was unobtainable; news media seized on the similarity between draft resisters burning draft cards and women burning their bras. In fact there was no bra burning, nor did anyone remove her bra. The Women's Liberation Front later demonstrated at the Miss America 1971 pageant.
Miss Iowa 1970, Cheryl Browne, became the first African American contestant in the competition's history during the Miss America 1971 pageant (September 12, 1970). Browne drew attention from reporters and from security personnel in Atlantic City who maintained a visible presence during pageant rehearsals. Browne was not a finalist, however, losing to future media personality, Miss Texas 1970, Phyllis George. In August 1971, Browne traveled to Vietnam with George, Miss Nevada 1970, Vicky Jo Todd, Miss New Jersey 1970, Hela Yungst, Miss Arizona 1970, Karen Shields, Miss Arkansas 1970, Donna Connelly, and Miss Texas 1970 (George's replacement), Belinda Myrick. They participated in a 22-day United Service Organizations tour for American troops that began in Saigon. Browne later commented that she thought "it was one of the last Miss America groups to go to Vietnam."
Miss Arkansas 1980, Lencola Sullivan, finished the Miss America 1981 pageant (September 6, 1980) as fourth runner-up, making her the first African American contestant to place in the top five. A few years later Vanessa L. Williams, Miss New York 1983, won the title of Miss America 1984 on September 17, 1983, making her the first African American woman to wear the crown. Williams was forced to resign seven weeks prior to the end of her time as Miss America, however, after the publication of nude photos in Penthouse. First runner-up Miss New Jersey 1983 Suzette Charles replaced her, serving as Miss America 1984 for the final weeks of Williams' reign.
In 1985, Miss Utah 1984 Sharlene Wells Hawkes became the first foreign-born, bilingual Miss America, as she was born in Asunción, Paraguay. Miss Alabama 1994, Heather Whitestone, won the 1995 pageant becoming the first deaf Miss America (she lost most of her hearing at the age of 18 months). At the Miss America 1999 pageant held on September 19, 1998, Nicole Johnson (Miss Virginia 1998) became the first Miss America with diabetes and the first contestant to publicize an insulin pump. Around the same time, Miss America officials announced they had lifted the ban on contestants who were divorced or had had an abortion. This rule change, however, was rescinded and Miss America CEO Robert L. Beck, who had suggested it, was fired.
Angela Perez Baraquio, Miss Hawaii 2000, was crowned Miss America 2001, thereby becoming the first Asian-American, the first Filipino-American, as well as the first teacher ever to win the pageant. A few years later, the Miss America 2005 pageant held on September 18, 2004, would be the last one televised live on ABC (which dropped the pageant after this broadcast, as it "drew a record-low 9.8 million viewers") and the last one held in Atlantic City for many years. Miss Alabama 2004 Deidre Downs reigned as Miss America four months longer than usual as the Miss America 2006 pageant was moved to a January broadcast at the Las Vegas Strip's Theatre for the Performing Arts (Planet Hollywood Resort and Casino). It was also broadcast live on MTV Networks' Country Music Television. The pageant would later move to TLC (the former Learning Channel).
The Miss America 2011 pageant held on January 15, 2011, showcased Miss New York 2010 Claire Buffie (the first Miss America contestant to advocate a gay-rights platform)  and Miss Delaware 2010 Kayla Martell (the first bald contestant). ABC also resumed broadcasting the pageant with the 2011 competition.
The Miss America 2013 pageant, held on January 12, 2013, was the last one to take place in Las Vegas. Miss New York 2012, Mallory Hagan, won the competition but only served for nine months as the pageant moved back to its former broadcast slot in September 2014. Miss Montana 2012, Alexis Wineman ("America's Choice" winner) was the pageant's first autistic contestant.
With the Miss America 2014 pageant, held on September 15, 2013, the competition returned to Boardwalk Hall, Atlantic City, New Jersey for the first time in nine years. Miss New York (Nina Davuluri) won the title of Miss America for the second year in a row. Davuluri was also the first Indian-American and second Asian-American to win the crown. Shortly after her win, however, Davuluri became the target of xenophobic and racist comments in social media relating the proximity of the event date to the 9/11 anniversary and to anti-Indian sentiment. News agencies cited tweets that misidentified her as Muslim or Arab, associated her with groups such as Al-Qaeda, and questioned why she was chosen over Miss Kansas 2013, Theresa Vail (a soldier who won the "America's Choice" award and was the first contestant to display tattoos during the swimsuit competition). Davuluri said that she was prepared for this backlash because "as Miss New York, I was called a terrorist and very similar remarks" and Vail denounced the social media backlash, offering her support to Davuluri. In addition, Nicole Kelly (Miss Iowa 2013) was the first contestant born without her left forearm and a torn ACL and MCL forced Miss Florida 2013, Myrrhanda Jones, to perform her baton routine with a decorated leg brace.
Miss New York (Kira Kazantsev) won the title for the third year in a row at the Miss America 2015 pageant, held on September 14, 2014. New York thus became the first state to produce a winner for three consecutive years. In February 2015, Sharon Pearce announced that she was stepping down from her role as President of the Miss America Organization. The current CEO, Sam Haskell, was named Executive Chairman and will retain the title of CEO. He will also assume all of Pearce's responsibilities. At the same time, Miss New Jersey 1971, Lynn Hackerman Weidner, was named the new Chairman and Nina Davuluri (Miss America 2014) was appointed as one of the new trustees to the Miss America Foundation Board.
|Year||Miss America||State Represented|
|Miss America 2016||TBA||TBA|
|Miss America 2015||Kira Kazantsev||New York|
|Miss America 2014||Nina Davuluri||New York|
|Miss America 2013||Mallory Hagan||New York|
On June 14, 2014, Amanda Longacre was crowned Miss Delaware 2014, and prepared to compete in Miss America 2015. However, on June 27, 2014 she was stripped of the title and the crown was given to the runner-up, Brittany Lewis. According to news outlets, "officials said Longacre was ineligible under Miss America rules because she will turn 25 in October, and Miss America rules require that contestants in the current year must still be 24 on Dec. 31." Longacre filed a $3 million lawsuit that asks for her to be reinstated as Miss Delaware and be allowed to compete in the Miss America pageant. She also asks to be reimbursed for financial losses related to this decision. Media outlets further reported that, "officials with the national Miss America organization confirmed to ABC News … that they plan to fight Longacre's lawsuit but will still give her the full $9,000 in scholarship money they pledged to her after she was disqualified … Miss America officials last month blamed the error on state pageant officials who, they said, "missed the age discrepancy in Longacre’s submitted paperwork." 
According to the official Miss America website, contestants are judged in the following fashion:
- Lifestyle and Fitness in Swimsuit – 15%
- Evening Wear – 20%
- Talent – 35%
- Private Interview – 25%
- On-Stage Question – 5%".
- Composite Score – 30% (Top 16)
- Lifestyle and Fitness in Swimsuit – 20% (Top 16)
- Evening Wear – 20% (Top 10)
- Talent – 30% (Top 8)
- On-Stage Question (Top 8)
- Final Ballot – Each judge ranks the Top 5 contestants in the order he/she believes they should each finish. The outcome of the pageant is based solely on the point totals resulting from the final ballot."
- Brooke Burke Charvet: 2011–2012
- Mario Lopez: 2007, 2009–2010
- Mark Steines: 2008
- James Denton: 2006
- Tom Bergeron: 2003
- Wayne Brady: 2002
- Tony Danza: 2001
- Donny and Marie Osmond: 1999–2000
- Boomer Esiason and Meredith Vieira: 1998
- Eva LaRue and John Callahan: 1997
- Regis Philbin: 1996
- Regis Philbin and Kathie Lee Gifford: 1991–1995
- Phyllis George: 1989–1990
- Gary Collins: 1982–1990
- Ron Ely: 1980–1981
- Bert Parks: 1955–1980 
- Bob Russell: 1940–1954 
In September 2014, comedian John Oliver ran a segment on his show, Last Week Tonight, in which he criticized the Miss America Organization, stating that the organization does not actually give out $45 million in scholarships. Oliver contends that the actual claim that it 'makes available' "45 million dollars annually" for college scholarships is a figure that is arrived at using carefully calculated math and funds that are never used and have never been distributed. Using the organization's tax returns and other documents, he argued that the organization greatly inflates its number, that it donates far less than it claims to (less than half a million dollars in 2013), and that the $45 million figure the organization uses has little to do with how much they give out.
Oliver found no record of scholarships being actually granted in amounts even approximately matching the claims made by the foundation. The organization's response to the segment failed to clarify the position and simply stated the number of scholarships made available to women around the country and did not in any way refute the claims that the $45 million number was inaccurate or misleading as Oliver had contended; the organization's response highlighted their efforts to offer scholarships for participants without further clarification.
- List of Miss America winners by state
- Miss America award winners
- Miss America's Outstanding Teen
- Miss America protest
Further reading and viewing
Books and archives
- Banet-Weiser, Sarah. The Most Beautiful Girl in the World:Beauty Pageants and National Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
- Riverol, A.R. Live from Atlantic City: A History of the Miss America Pageant. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1992.
- Shindle, Kate (Miss America 1998). Being Miss America: Behind the Rhinestone Curtain. University of Texas Press, 2014.
- Finding Aid to Beauty Pageant Collection at Browne Popular Culture Library, University Libraries, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio
- Photographs taken at the MISS AMERICA U.S.O. SHOW to Vietnam in 1971 – Miss America 1971 Phyllis George, Miss Nevada 1970, Vicky Jo Todd, Miss New Jersey 1970, Hela Yungst, Miss Arizona 1970, Karen Shields, Miss Arkansas 1970, Donna Connelly, Miss Iowa 1970, Cheryl Browne, and Miss Texas 1970 (George's replacement after she became Miss America), Belinda Myrick.
- It Happened Here in New Jersey -Contains photographs of the first Miss America Margaret Gorman and early pageants; 1968 demonstrations by the National Women's Liberation Movement; and Miss Iowa Cheryl Browne and Miss Maryland Sharon Ann Cannon at the preliminaries prior to the Miss America 1971 pageant.
- Bess Myerson: Miss America 1945, Bess Myerson Dies At The Age Of 90 – CBS News, January 5, 2015.
- Vanessa L. Williams (Miss America 1984): Vanessa Williams Reflects on Becoming the First Black Miss America – OWN, July 2014.
- Vanessa L. Williams (Miss America 1984): How Vanessa Williams Endured Her Miss America Scandal – OWN, July 2014.
- Nina Davuluri (Miss America 2014): Groundbreaking Miss America Winner Miss New York Takes Home Pageant Crown – ABC News, September 16, 2013.
- Become a Contestant
- "Corporate Info Overview". Miss America. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- Watson, Ellwood; Martin, Darcy (2000). "The Miss America Pageant: Pluralism, Femininity, and Cinderella All in One". Journal of Popular Culture (Wiley) 1 (34): 105–126.
- "People & Events: The First Miss America Beauty Pageant, 1921". PBS.
- "Miss America Timeline: 1901–1950". PBS.
- "Miss America, People & Events: Breaking the Color Line at the Pageant". PBS.
- Daniel, G. Reginald (2006). Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States: Converging Paths?. Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 978-0-271-04554-2. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Musel, Robert (1970-08-26). "Television in Review". The Bryan Times p. 16 (United Press International).
- Davis, Shirley (2000-10-19). "History follows former Miss Iowa First black pageant winner recalls her crowning moment". Quad-City Times.
- "Black New Yorker chosen Miss Iowa". The Register-Guard. 1970-07-05.
- "It Happened Here in New Jersey: Miss America" (PDF). Kean University and the New Jersey Historical Commission. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "Miss America, People & Events: Transcript". PBS.
- List of Miss Iowa Winners
- Shirley Jennifer Lim (2007). A Feeling of Belonging: Asian-American Women's Popular Culture, 1930–1960. NYU Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0-8147-5193-8.
- Sarah Banet-Weiser (September 30, 1999). The Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity. University of California Press. pp. 153–166. ISBN 0-520-21791-8.
- "Vanessa Williams Reflects on Becoming the First Black Miss America". OWN. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- Stern, Marlow (September 21, 2013). "Vanessa Williams, the First Black Miss America, On Nina Davuluri and Racism". The Daily Beast.
- "Vanessa on Valentine’s Day:The most successful Miss America in the entertainment world, Vanessa Williams brings her love of the stage to Caesars on Feb. 14.". Atlantic City Weekly. 2014-02-12.
- Jha, Lalit K (September 17, 2013). "Nina Davuluri's win similar to Bess Myerson's: US lawmaker". Daily News and Analysis.
- "PBS American Experience: Miss America Transcript". PBS American Experience. 2002.
- Nemy, Enid (January 5, 2015). "Bess Myerson, New Yorker of Beauty, Wit, Service and Scandal, Dies at 90". New York Times.
- Woo, Elaine (January 5, 2015). "Bess Myerson, Miss America who rose in politics and fell in scandal, dies at 90". Los Angeles Times.
- Hollander, Sophia (January 5, 2015). "Bess Myerson, Miss America who rose in politics and fell in scandal, dies at 90". Wall Street Journal.
- Green, Michelle (June 29, 1987). "Downfall of An American Idol". People Magazine.
- Mary Katherine Campbell
- Bob Russell, Entertainer, Is Dead at 90
- "American Experience | Miss America | People & Events". Pbs.org. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Woo, Elaine (September 4, 1987). "Yun Tau Chee, 73; Miss Hawaii of 1948, First Asian in Miss America Pageant – Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "Bess Myerson Biography (Miss America 1945)". Miss America Organization.
- Morrisroe, Patricia (March 30, 1987). "Bess and the Mess: Myerson's Slide Into Scandal (pp. 34–35)" (PDF). New York (magazine).
- Cheryl Browne was the first African-American contestant as Miss Iowa in 1970
- "Miss America Pageant News". Pageantcenter.com. January 30, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Pageant tightens grip on its ideals
- People & Events: Bert Parks (1914–1992)
- Bill Gorman (January 30, 2010). "Miss America Crowned; What Ever Happened to Beauty Pageants?". TV by the numbers. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Carole R. McCann and Seung-Kyung Kim (July 22, 2009). "Feminist theory reader: Local and Global Perspectives". New York: Routledge. pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-415-99477-2.
- From Robyn Morgan to Atlantic City Mayor Richard Jackson, 28 August 1968: seeking a permit for a peaceful protest. In Morgan papers, Duke University; see http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/wlmpc/
- Robin Morgan, “The Oldest Front: On Freedom for Women,” Liberation, an Independent Monthly, Vol. 13, No. 5, October 1968, pg. 34
- Greenfieldboyce, Nell (September 5, 2008). "Pageant Protest Sparked Bra-Burning Myth". NPR.
- Dow, Bonnie J. (Spring 2003). "Feminism, Miss America, and Media Mythology". Rhetoric & Public Affairs 6 (1): 127–149. doi:10.1353/rap.2003.0028.
- Duffett, Judith (October 1968). WLM vs. Miss America. Voice of the Women's Liberation Movement.
- Associated Press (1971-08-11). "People in News". Kentucky New Era p. 23.
- Cauley, Paul (1971). "Photographs by Paul Cauley, 1971 Door Gunner, A Co 101st Avn (Text by Belinda Myrick-Barnett)". Paul Cauley.
- "Miss America firsts: Nina Davuluri, Vanessa Williams and more". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "How Vanessa Williams Endured Her Miss America Scandal". OWN. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- Chira, Susan. She has also lived in Brookville, Long Island
"TO FIRST BLACK MISS AMERICA, VICTORY IS A MEANS TO AN END", The New York Times, September 19, 1983. Accessed December 4, 2007. "Her home is in Mays Landing, 15 miles west of Atlantic City, the site of the contest."
- "Miss America : 1985". Miss America. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
- "First Deaf Miss America – New York Times". Nytimes.com. September 19, 1994. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "Miss America firsts: Nina Davuluri, Vanessa Williams and more". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "A Crown, Scepter & Insulin Pump The New Miss America, Nicole Johnson, Has Drawn Attention To The Device, Which Frees Diabetics From The Strict Scheduling Of Conventional Insulin Regimens. - Philly.com". Articles.philly.com. October 5, 1998. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Kaplan-Mayer, Gabrielle (2003). Insulin Pump Therapy Demystified: An Essential Guide for Everyone Pumping. Marlowe & Co. ISBN 0-7867-3068-4. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Brodeur, Nicole (September 19, 1999). "Here She Is, Miss America: Pageant Faces Reality And Recoils". The Seattle Times.
- Miss America Finds A Ceo Down By The Boardwalk After 1999's Furor Over Rules Changes, The Former Claridge Official Says He Will Rebuild Bridges To State Pageants
- Miss America 2001
- de Moraes, Lisa (October 21, 2004). "No More Miss America Pageantry for ABC". Washington Post.
- Kimberly Nordyke (March 30, 2007). "CMT Drops Miss America Pageant". Reuters. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Peterson, Iver (April 9, 2005). "'Fear Factor' Era Poses a Challenge For Miss America". The New York Times (NYTimes.com). Retrieved December 15, 2011. (registration required (. ))
- Richard Huff (August 13, 2007). "TLC's the latest to pick Miss America". New York Daily News (nydailynews.com). Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- "Miss Kansas Bares Tattoos and 6 Other Memorable Miss America Moments | TIME.com". Newsfeed.time.com. September 14, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Leach, Robin (January 14, 2011). "2011 Miss America photos: Four contestants stand out among field – Las Vegas Sun News". Lasvegassun.com. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "Miss Delaware, Bald and Bold". CBS News. June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- "Miss America firsts: Nina Davuluri, Vanessa Williams and more". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Robin Leach (January 17, 2011). "2011 Miss America Pageant: Ratings increase 47% for ABC telecast". Las Vegas Sun (lasvegassun.com). Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Miss America Mallory Hagan in D.C.: Making most of short tenure
- "Miss America to air from Atlantic City on Sept. 15". www.usnews.com. 2013-03-20. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- "Alexis Wineman, Miss Montana, First Miss America Contestant Diagnosed With Autism". ABC News. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Cavaliere, Victoria (September 16, 2013). "Miss New York is first Indian-American to win Miss America". Reuters. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Mascarenhas, Roland (October 4, 2013). "Opinion: Why Nina Davuluri matters". The Vancouver Sun.
- Hafiz, Yasmine (September 16, 2013). "Nina Davuluri's Miss America 2014 Win Prompts Twitter Backlash Against Indians, Muslims". Huffington Post.
- Abad-Santos, Alex (September 16, 2013). "The First Indian-American Miss America Has Racists Very, Very Confused". The Atlantic.
- Wischhover, Cheryl (September 26, 2013). "Is Bollywood the New Zumba?". ELLE.
- Broderick, Ryan (September 16, 2013). "A Lot Of People Are Very Upset That An Indian-American Woman Won The Miss America Pageant". BuzzFeed.
- Judkis, Maura (September 22, 2013). "Miss America fights post-pageant racism with a beauty queen’s poise". Wall Street Journal.
- Greenhouse, Emily (September 20, 2013). "COMBATTING TWITTER HATE WITH TWITTER HATE". The New Yorker.
- Editorial (September 19, 2013). "Pigment of our imagination". Chennai, India: The Hindu.
- Stuart, Tessa (September 16, 2013). "Fox Host Todd Starnes Outraged That Indian-American Nina Davuluri Won Miss America". The Village Voice.
- Tattooed Kan. Guard sergeant is Miss America contestant
- Miss Kansas Bares Her Tattoos
- Khemlani, Anjalee (November 16, 2013). "Miss America promotes cultural dialogue amid racist stereotypes". The Press of Atlantic City.
- Keeler in the Morning (October 2, 2013). "[AUDIO] Miss America on Keeler in the Morning". WIBX950 AM. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Antoun, Naira (2013-09-19). "Miss Outdoor Girl: Miss America". Theresa Vail's Blog: Miss Outdoor Girl. Retrieved 2015-07-27.
- Vail, Theresa (September 19, 2013). "Miss America". Theresa Vail's Blog: Miss Outdoor Girl.
- Gould, Joe (September 30, 2013). "Miss Kansas: 'Raise hell' about sexual harassment". Army Times.
- Brady, Dani (September 29, 2013). "The story behind the crown: an interview with Miss Kansas 2013". University Daily Kansan.
- Miss America contestant born without forearm: 'I'm just like you'
- "Miss Florida, Despite Knee Injury, Wins Miss America Talent Competition". ABC News. September 13, 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- Ashleigh Schmitz. "Miss America 2015: 5 Things to Know About Kira Kazantsev". Parade.condenast.com. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- Friedman, Molly (September 15, 2014). "The secrets behind New York's stunning three Miss America wins in a row". New York Daily News.
- "The Miss America Organization Announces New Leadership Team: Sam Haskell Elevated to Executive Chairman". Miss America Organization. February 27, 2015.
- "Two Elected to Miss America Foundation Board of Trustees". Miss America Organization. February 27, 2015.
- "Dethroned Miss Delaware Amanda Longacre Files $3 Million Lawsuit". ABC News. 2014-07-17.
- Brown, Robin (2014-07-17). "Ousted beauty queen sues Miss Del. pageant". The News Journal.
- Burns, Francis (2014-07-17). "Miss Delaware ousted for being too old sues pageant". United Press International.
- National Judging Process
- Bobbin, Jay (2011-01-06). "There she is again: Brooke Burke, Chris Harrison welcome Miss America back to ABC". Zap2it. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- "Chris Harrison, Lara Spencer to Host Miss America 2014". ABC News. May 20, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
- Kuperinsky, Amy (August 14, 2014). "Miss America 2015: Judges include N.J.'s Gary Vaynerchuk". The Star-Ledger.
- Lopez to host Miss America pageant again
- Mario Lopez to Host Miss America 2010
- Miss America: FAQ
- Dockterman, Eliana (September 22, 2014). "Watch John Oliver Debunk the Miss America Pageant’s Scholarship Claim". Time Magazine.
- Remnick, Alex (September 22, 2014). "Miss America Organization responds to John Oliver's segment on pageant". NJ.com.
- Oprah's Master Class, Season 4
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