Miswak

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"Swak" redirects here. For the acronym SWAK, see Sealed with a kiss (disambiguation). For the UK skeptical podcast, see Skeptics with a K.
Traditional miswak sticks. Softened bristles on either end can be used to clean the teeth.

The miswak (miswaak, siwak, sewak, Arabic: سواك or مسواك) is a teeth cleaning twig made from the Salvadora persica tree (known as arak in Arabic). A traditional and natural alternative to the modern toothbrush, it has a long, well-documented history and is reputed for its medicinal benefits.[1] It is reputed to have been used over 7000 years ago.[2] The miswak's properties have been described thus: "Apart from their antibacterial activity which may help control the formation and activity of dental plaque, they can be used effectively as a natural toothbrush for teeth cleaning. Such sticks are effective, inexpensive, common, available, and contain many medical properties".[3] It also features prominently in Islamic hygienical jurisprudence.

The miswak is predominant in Muslim-inhabited areas. It is commonly used in the Arabian peninsula, the Horn of Africa, North Africa, parts of the Sahel, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. In Malaysia, miswak is known as Kayu Sugi (Malay for 'chewing stick').

Science[edit]

Studies[edit]

A 2003 scientific study comparing the use of miswak with ordinary toothbrushes concluded that the results clearly were in favor of the users who had been using the miswak, provided they had been given proper instruction in how to brush using it.[4] However, the study's sample size was only fifteen people, calling into question its statistical significance. Another study, dealing with the immediate anti-cariogenic effect of the miswak as compared to the toothbrush was done in 2004 with a sample size of 40 individuals. The effects of miswak were found to be more pronounced and beneficial.[5] There's also been another comparative study, that concluded "compared to tooth brushing, use of the miswak resulted in significant reductions in plaque (p < 0.001) and gingival (p < 0.01) indices".[6] The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of the miswak in 1986 and in 2000 an international consensus report on oral hygiene concluded that further research was needed to document the effect of the miswak.[7] Some of this further research has been done on a population of 203, and concluded, in turn, "that the periodontal status of miswak users in this Sudanese population is better than that of toothbrush users".[8] Yet another comparative study says conducted on a sampling of 480 Saudi Arabian adults found that "the level of need for periodontal care in the sample chosen is low when compared with the findings of similar studies undertaken in other countries. The frequent use of the 'Miswak' was associated with a lower need for treatment".[9]

Dr. Rami Mohammed Diabi,[10] who spent more than 17 years researching the effects of miswak on health, and especially its anti-addiction effects on smokers (curative and preventive sides), has opened a field of science and research with his last publication: "Miswak Medicine Theory" or Sewak Puncture medicine[11] which led him to what is called Beyond Sewak: World of Science and Research.[12] Miswak also is contributing in the fight against desertification,[13] thereby affecting our environment and global climate.

Miswak extract vs. oral disinfectants[edit]

Studies indicate that Salvadora persica extract exhibits low antimicrobial activity compared to other oral disinfectants and anti-plaque agents like Triclosan and Chlorhexidine Gluconate.[14][15]

[15]

Religious prescriptions[edit]

A pack of miswak sticks.

The use of the miswak is frequently advocated in the hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Muhammad). Situations where the miswak is recommended to be used include, before religious practice, before entering one's house, before and after going on a journey, on Fridays,[16] before sleeping and after waking up, when experiencing hunger or thirst and before entering any good gathering.

In addition to strengthening the gums, preventing tooth decay and eliminating toothaches, the miswak is said to halt further decay that has already set in. Furthermore, it is reputed to create a fragrance in the mouth, eliminate bad breath, improve sensitivity of taste-buds and promote cleaner teeth.

Ahadith concerning the miswak[edit]

It is often mentioned that the Islamic Prophet Muhammad recommended the miswak's use. He is quoted in various hadith extolling its virtues:[17][18]

Maintenance[edit]

A miswak stick.

A miswak should be one hand span in length when selected. If it becomes dry, it should be soaked in rose water to soften the end bristles. The end should be cut afresh to ensure hygiene and should never be stored near a toilet or sink. The brush may be created by cutting Salvadora persica's branches instead of its roots; keeping in mind that the tree's roots can retain humidity more so than its branches. This favors more long-term usage.

There is also a toothpaste made from miswak extract that can be purchased in the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America. Use of toothpastes featuring benefits of miswak is, however, not a true alternate practice of using miswak in its original shape and in the masnoon way.[citation needed] Some companies, such as Al Khair and Al Falah, have also taken the initiative to process and preserve miswak. This has the effect of increasing the twig's shelf life to a period of over six months.[citation needed]

Carrying[edit]

Plastic toothbrush cases are available for toothbrushes at most drug stores, and can be used for carrying a sewak.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d IslamKotob, Muslims and Science, (Islamic Books), p.30.
  2. ^ Ra'ed I. Al Sadhan, Khalid Almas (1999). "Miswak (chewing Stick): A Cultural And Scientific Heritage.". Saudi Dental Journal 11 (2): 80–88. 
  3. ^ Al lafi T, Ababneh H (1995). "The effect of the extract of the miswak (chewing sticks) used in Jordan and the Middle East on oral bacteria.". International Dental Journal 45 (3): 218–222. PMID 7558361. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/7558361
  4. ^ Al-Otaibi M, Al-Harthy M, Soder B, Gustafsson A, Angmar-Mansson B. (2003). "Comparative effect of chewing sticks and toothbrushing on plaque removal and gingival health.". Oral Health Prev Dent 1 (4): 301–7. PMID 15643758. 
  5. ^ Almas K, Al-Zeid Z (2004). "The immediate antimicrobial effect of a toothbrush and miswak on cariogenic bacteria: a clinical study.". The journal of contemporary dental practice 5 (1): 105–114. PMID 14973564. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/14973564
  6. ^ al-Otaibi M. (2004). "The miswak (chewing stick) and oral health. Studies on oral hygiene practices of urban Saudi Arabians.". Swedish dental journal. Supplement (167): 2–75. ISSN 0348-6672. PMID 15224592. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/15224592
  7. ^ Undersøkelse av en aktuell eldgammel munnrengjøringsmetode in Norwegian
  8. ^ http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/000163500429398
  9. ^ al-Khateeb TL, O'Mullane DM, Whelton H, Sulaiman MI. (2003). "Periodontal treatment needs among Saudi Arabian adults and their relationship to the use of the Miswak.". Community dental health 8 (4): 323–328. ISSN 0265-539X. PMID 1790476. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1790476
  10. ^ Untitled requires log in
  11. ^ Miswak Medicine Theory
  12. ^ Beyond Sewak Worlds Researches Page
  13. ^ See effects of Salvadora Persica "Miswak tree" on stopping deserts and fixing the soil - Thrust Areas of Research
  14. ^ Almas, K. (August 2002). "The effect of Salvadora persica extract (miswak) and chlorhexidine gluconate on human dentin: a SEM study.". J Contemp Dent Pract. 3 (3): 27–35. PMID 12239575. 
  15. ^ a b Almas, K; Skaug, N; Ahmad, I. (February 2005). "An in vitro antimicrobial comparison of miswak extract with commercially available non-alcohol mouthrinses.". Int J Dent Hyg. 3 (1): 18–24. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2004.00111.x. PMID 16451373. 
  16. ^ http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/hier.asp?Doc=0&n=1417
  17. ^ "Miswak" at sunnah.com.
  18. ^ "Siwak" at searchtruth.com.
  19. ^ The Miswaak Page: Guidelines and Information

Further reading[edit]

  • Islamic Research on Miswak (Dr. Al Sahli)
  • Khan, Tehmeena, Toothbrush (Miswak), in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014.

External links[edit]