||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (June 2015)|
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Biological half-life||75 hours|
|CAS Registry Number|
|PDB ligand ID||MIX (, )|
|Molecular mass||444.481 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Mitoxantrone is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, mostly metastatic breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It was also shown to improve the survival rate of children suffering from first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
The combination of mitoxantrone and prednisone is approved as a second-line treatment for metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Until recently this combination has been the first line of treatment; however, a combination of docetaxel and prednisone has been shown to improve survival rates and lengthen the disease-free period.
Mitoxantrone is also used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS), most notably the subset of the disease, known as secondary-progressive MS. As no cure for multiple sclerosis exists yet, it must be understood mitoxantrone will not cure the disease, but rather is effective in slowing the progression of secondary-progressive MS and extending the time between relapses in both relapsing-remitting MS and progressive-relapsing MS.
Mitoxantrone, as other drugs in its class, may cause several adverse reactions of varying severity, such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, heart damage, and immunosuppression, which may also have a delayed onset. Cardiomyopathy is a particularly concerning effect as it is irreversible; thus regular monitoring with echocardiograms or MUGA scans is recommended for people taking mitoxantrone.
Because of the risk of cardiomyopathy, mitoxantrone carries a limit on the cumulative lifetime dose (based on body surface area) in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Mechanism of action
- Pixantrone, a mitoxantrone analogue under development
- Naphtoquinoxalinediones, potential antitumorals, obtained from diamino-1,2 anthraquinones using a regioselective synthesis.
- ametantrone (ball point ink dye).
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